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Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2012 

The Mississippi Valley 
Historical Review 

Board of Editors 





Managing Editor 



Charles G. Dawes Julius Rosenwald 

Frank 0. Lowden Otto L. Schmidt 

Cyrus H. McCormick Anna Silver 

Henry J. Pati^n University of Chicago 

University of Illinois 

Minnesota Historical Society 

Illinois State Historical Libr.\ry 

State Historical Society of Wisconsin 




The names of contributors are printed in small capitals. (R) indicates that the 
contribution is a review. 

* ' Abraham Lincoln and constitutional 
government," by B. A. Ulrich, re- 
viewed, 507-509. 

Activities, in the old northwest, Histori- 
cal, by A. C. Cole, 64-88. 

Activities in Canada, 1916-1917, Histori- 
cal, by L. J. Burpee, 209-226. 

Activities in the trans-Mississippi north- 
west, 1916-1917, Historical, by D. E. 
Clark, 342-361. 

Adams, John Q., "Birth of Mormon- 
ism," reviewed, 107-108. 

''Addresses on government and citizen- 
ship," by Elihu Root, reviewed, 241. 

Alexander, De Alva S., ' ' History and 
procedure of the house of representa- 
tives," reviewed, 102-103. 

Alton Biot (doc), 491-494. 

Alvord, Clarence W., (R) Bolton's 
''Spanish exploration in the south- 
west, 1542-1706," 392-393; (R) Kel- 
logg 's "Early narratives of the north- 
west, 1634-1699," 392-393; "The Mis- 
sissippi valley in British politics," re- 
viewed, 131-133. 

"American colonies, Travels in the 
(1690-1783)," by N. D. Mereness, re- 
viewed, 383-384. 

' ' American government, " by F. A. Ma- 
gruder, reviewed, 542. 

"American historians. Middle group 
of," by J. S. Bassett, reviewed, 378. 

American historical periodicals (doc), 
by A. H. Shearer, 484-491. 

' ' American history in Swiss and Austrian 
archives, Guide to the materials for," 
by A. B. Faust, reviewed, 106-107. 

"Ainerican Indians north of Mexico," 
by W. H. Miner, reviewed, 506-507. 

"American life, Sixty years of," by E. 
P. Wheeler, reviewed, 254-255. 

"American opinion, Japanese conquest 
of," by Montaville Flowers, reviewed, 

"Americans of past and present days, 
With," by J. J. Jusserand, reviewed, 

Anderson, D. R. (R) Pearson's "The 
readjuster movement in Virginia," 

"Anglo-American treaties. Breaches of," 
by John Bigelow, reviewed, 238-239. 

' ' Annual report of the American histor- 
ical association for the year 1914, ' ' re- 
viewed, 516-517. 

"An old frontier of France," by F. H. 
Severance, reviewed, 519-520. 

"Archives, Guide to the materials for 
American history in Swiss and Aus- 
trian," by A. B. Faust, reviewed, 106- 

Arnold, Thomas Jackson, ' ' Early life 
and letters of General Thomas J. 
Jackson," reviewed, 511-513. 

"Asbury, Francis, the prophet of the 
long road," by E. S. Tipple, review- 
ed, 114-116. 

Attempted seizure of th& Zaffarine is- 
lands (doc), by H. N. Sherwood, 371- 

AuRNER, C. Ray, (R) Nevin's "Illi- 
nois," 398-401. 

"Australian, History of the, ballot sys- 
tem in the United States," by E. C. 
Evans, review:ed, 504-505. 

"Austrian archives, Guide to the mate- 
rials for American history in Swiss 
and," by A. B. Faust, reviewed, 106- 

' ' Autobiography of George Dewey, ' ' re- 
viewed, 118-120. 

"Ballot, History of the Australian, sys- 
tem in the United States," by E. C. 
Evans, reviewed, 504-505. 

Bassett, John S., "Middle group of 
American historians," reviewed, 378; 
"The plain story of American his- 
tory," reviewed, 406-407. 

Baxter, Charles N., "Confederate liter- 
ature," reviewed, 386-387. 

"Beginner's history," by W. H. Mace, 
reviewed, 542-543. 

Beginnings of British West Florida, by 




C. E. Carter. ;U4-;U1 ; in 17153 the 
British oooiipy the Floridas, 314-315; 
plans for ofovernment, 31G-31S ; divi- 
sdou of East and West Florida 
planned, 318-3L10; character of the 
colonial government, 320-322; legal 
status of West Florida, previous to 
edict of Octolx^r 7. 322-323; questions 
of populating and financing the col- 
ony proposed. 324-326 ; military au- 
thorities ruled the province before the 
establishment of civil government, 326- 
32S; the civil administration, 328-330; 
controversy between the civil and mil- 
itary autliorities, 330-335; plans for 
Indian conciliation, 335-338; civil gov- 
ernment machinery completed, 339-341. 

* ' Beginnings of the German element in 
York county, Pennsylvania, " by A. E. 
Wentz. reviewed, 523-524. 

* ' Beginnings of Michigan, Economic and 
social. ' ' by G. N. Fuller, revievred, 

"Beginnings of Yale," by Edwin Oviatt, 
reviewed, 122-123. 

** Benjamin Franklin, printer," by J. 
C. Oswald, reviewed, 248-249. 

Beveridge, Albert J., ''Life of John 
Marshall," reviewed, 116-118. 

Bigelow, John, ' ' Breaches of Anglo- 
American treaties," reviewed, 238-239. 

Birket, James, "Some cursory remarks," 
reviewed, 125-126. 

"Birth of Mormonism," by J. Q 
Adams, reviewed, 107-108. 

Blackwood, Emma J., ' ' To Mexico with 
Scott," re\newed, 539-540. 

Blegen, Theodore C, (R) Fuller's 
"Economic and social beginnings of 
Michigan," 393-395; Plan for the 
union of British North America aiid 
th-e United States, 470-483. 

Bolton, Herbert E., "The Pacific ocean 
in history," reviewed, 534-536; 
"Spanish exploration in the south- 
west, 3542-1706," reviewed, 392-393. 

Bond, Bevt.rley W., Jr., (R) Carlton's 
"The now purchase," 127-129. 

BoxHAM, MiLLEDGE L., Jr., (R) Bruce 's 
"Brave deeds of confederate sol- 
diers," .387; (R) Kimball's "A Sol- 
dier-doctor of our army, .James P. 
Kimball," 255-256; (R) Russell's 
"Memoirs of Colonel John S. Mos- 
by," 513. 

"Booker T. Washington, builder of a 
civilization," by E. .J. Scott and L. 
B. Stowe, reviewed, 515-516. 

"lVK>n, Eife and adventures of Colonel 
Daniel." by Daniel Boon, reviewed, 

BfXjTii, Rus.SELL G., (R) Thompson's 

"History of the United States — po- 
litical, industrial, social," 405-406. 

"Brave deeds of confederate soldiers," 
by P. A. Bruce, reviewed, 387. 

"Breaches of Anglo-American treaties," 
by John Bigelow, reviewed, 238-239. 

Breasted, James H., ' ' Ancient, medieval 
and modern history maps," reviewed, 

Briggs, John E., (R) Harlow's "His- 
tory of legislative methods in the pe- 
riod before 1825," 505-506. 

British North America and the United 
States, Plan for the union of, by T. C. 
Blegen, 470-483. 

"British politics. The Mississippi val- 
ley in," by C. W. Alvord, reviewed, 

British West Florida, Beginnings of, by 
C. E. Carter, 314-341. 

Brooks, Robert P., Hoiuell Cohh and 
the crisis of 18S0, 279-298. 

Bruce, Philip A., "Brave deeds of con- 
federate soldiers," reviewed, 387. 

Brush, H. R., (R) Jusserand's "With 
Americans of past and present days," 

Buck, Solon J., "Hlinois in 1818," re- 
viewed, 396-398. 

Burpee, Lawrence J., Historical activi- 
ties in Canada, 1916-1917, 209-226. 

Canada, DouTchohors in, by Elina Thor- 

steinson, 3-48. 
Canada-Guadaloupe controversy, Further 

pamphlets for the (doc), by C. E. 

Fryer, 227-230. 
Canada, Historical activities in, 1916- 

1917, by L. J. Burpee, 209-226. 
"Canada, Stone ornaments used by the 

Indians in the United States and, ' ' by 

W. K. Moorehead, reviewed, 242- 

"Canada, The constitution of, in its 

history and practical working, ' ' by 

W. R. Riddell, reviewed, 536-538. 
"Cape Fear river, 1660-1916, Chronicles 

of the, ' ' by James Sprunt, reviewed, 

''Caribbean interests of the United 

States," by C. L. Jones, reviewed, 

Carlton, Robert, ' ' The new purchase, ' ' 

reviewed, 127-129. 
Carter, Clarence E., Beginnings of 

British West Florida, 314-341. 
"Catalogue of the documents relating 

to the history of the United States at 

Seville," by R. R. Hill, reviewed, 374- 

Chandler, Charles L., "Inter-American 

acquaintances," reviewed, 540-541. 

Vol. IV, No. 4 



Chaiming, Edward, "History of the 
United States," reviewed, 243-247. 

*'Choate, Joseph H.," by T. G. Strong, 
reviewed, 511. 

* ' Chronicles of the Cape Fear river, 1660- 
1916," by James Sprunt, reviewed, 

"Citizenship, Addresses on government 
and, ' ' by Elihu Eoot, reviewed, 241. 

"Civil war decade, Economic history of 
Wisconsin during the," by Frederick 
Merk, reviewed, 401-402. 

"Civil war, Wisconsin losses in," by 
C. E. Estabrook, reviewed, 133-134. 

Clark, Dan E., Historical activities in 
the trans-Mississippi northwest, 1916- 
1917, 342-361; "Samuel Jordan Kirk- 
wood," reviewed, 513-515. 

Cleland, Egbert G., (R) Stephens & 
Bolton's "The Pacific ocean in his- 
tory," 534-536. 

Cohh and the crisis of IS 50, Howell, by 
R. P. Brooks, 279-298. 

Cole, Arthur C., Historical activities in 
the old northwest, 64-68; (R) Hughes, 
' * State socialism after the war, ' ' 105 ; 
President Lincoln and the Illinois rad- 
ical republicans, 417-436; (R) Stan- 
wood's "History of the presidency," 
100-102; (R) Tracy's "Uncollected 
letters of Abraham Lincoln, " 509-511. 

Collapse of the confederacy, by L. H. 
Gipson, 437-458; four psychological 
factors that contributed to the down- 
fall of the south, 437; leadership was 
not of a character to inspire confidence 
of the people, 438-441; the cause of 
the war did not make a profound ap- 
peal to the south 's sense of righteous- 
ness, 441-443; the end to be achieved 
was not clear, definite, and worthy of 
great sacrifice, 443-446; there did not 
exist a whole-souled consecration of the 
people to the cause, 446-458. 

"Colonial question, French, 1789-1791," 
by M. B. Garrett, reviewed, 231-232. 

"Colonies, Travels in the American 
(1690-1783)," by N. D. Mereness, re- 
viewed, 383-384. 

' ' Condition of Kentucky in 1825, Letters 
on the," by E. G. Swem, reviewed, 

Confederacy, Collapse of the, by L. H. 
Gipson, 437-458. 

' ' Confederate literature, ' ' by C. N. Bax- 
ter and J. M. Dearborn reviewed, 386- 

"Confederate soldiers. Brave deeds of," 
by P. A. Bruce, reviewed, 387. 

"Constitution making in Indiana," by 
Charles Kettleborough, reviewed, 260- 

"Constitution of Canada in its history 
and practical working, " by W. R. Rid- 
dell, reviewed, 536-538. 

"Contributions to the historical society 
of Montana," reviewed, 532-534. 

Coolidge, Louis A., "Ulysses S. Grant," 
reviewed, 249-251. 

"Corn among the Indians of the upper 
Missouri," by G. F. Will and G". E. 
Hyde, reviewed, 531-532. 

CoRV^^iN, Edvs^ard F., (R) Beveridge'a 
"Life of John Marshall," 116-118. 

' ' Cotton as a world power, " by J. A. B. 
Sherer, reviewed, 234-236. 

Cox, I, J., (R) Jones' "Caribbean in- 
terests of the United States," 236- 
237; (R) Meyers' "Mexican war 
diary of George B. McClellan," 381- 
382; (R) Priestly 's "Jose de Galvez, 
visitor-general of New Spain (1765- 
1771)," 232-234; (R) Quaife's "Jour- 
nals of Captain Meriwether Lewis and 
Sergeant John Ordway kept on the ex- 
pedition of western exploration, 1803- 
1806, "268-270; (R) Sherman 's " Ohio- 
Michigan boundary," 258; (R) Swem's 
"Letters on the condition of Ken- 
tucky in 1825," 389-390. 

Craig, Austin, "The former Philippines 
thru foreign eyes," reviewed, 376- 

Crane, Verner W., (R) "Travels in the 
American colonies (1690-1783)," 383- 

Cross, Arthur L., (R) Pease's "The 
Leveller movement," 501-503, 

Cunningham, Charles H., (R) Chand- 
ler 's ' ' Inter- American acquaintances, ' ' 

Dearborn, James M., "Confederate lit- 
erature," reviewed, 386-387. 

"Debates between Abraham Lincoln and 
Stephen A. Douglas, Political," re- 
viewed, 110-111. 

Debel, Niels H., "The veto power of the 
governor of Illinois," reviewed, 529- 

"Deeds of confederate soldiers. Brave," 
by P. A. Bruce, reviewed, 387. 

"Democracy in New England, Jeffer- 
sonian, " by W. A. Robinson, reviewed, 

"Democracy, The war of," reviewed, 

"Descriptive catalogue of the documents 
relating to the history of the United 
States in the papeles procedentes de 
Cuba in Seville," by R. R. Hill, re- 
viewed, 374-376. 

' ' Deutsch-Amerikanischen historischen 
Gesellschaft von Illinois, Jahrbucb 



M. V. H. R. 

der. " by .hilius Goobol, reviewed, 265- 
26(5. 527-rvJi). 

••Dewey, Autobiography of George," re- 
viewed. 118-120^ 

Dexter. Franklin B.. "Documentary his- 
tory of Yale university," reviewed, 
12;i-12o; "Extracts from the itiner- 
aries and other miscellanies of Ezra 
Stiles," reviewed, o79-oS0. 

' • Diary Oi. George B. McClellan, Mexican 
war.'" bv W. S. Myers, reviewed, 381- 

DiCKEKSOX, O. M., (R) Woodburn's 
* * Introduction to American history, ' ' 

"Diplomat. 1830-1915, Reminiscences of 
a war-time statesman and," by F. 
W, Seward, reviewed, 255. 

" Document-ary history of Yale univer- 
sity," bv F. B. Dexter, reviewed, 123- 

"Douglas, Political debates between 
Abraham Lincoln and Stephen A.," 
reviewed, 110-111. 

Boul-lwhors in Canada, by Elina Thor- 
steinson, 3-48 ; connection of Quakers 
with, 4-5; belief of, 5-7; leaders of, 
8-9; persecution of, 9-10; community 
of, at Milky Waters, 11-13 ; exiled to 
aid settlement in the Caucasus, 13-14; 
influence of Verigen upon, 15-17, 28; 
Tolstoy's influence on, 15, 19; migra- 
tion of, to Cyprus, 19 ; transportation 
of, to Canada, 19-23; founding of and 
government of settlement, 23-27 ; oc- 
cupation of, 28-29; characterization 
and description of, 29-36; attempt at 
education among, 36-37; effect of 
Bodyan sky's teaching upon, 37-42; at- 
titude of toward civil authorities, 42- 
45; emigration of, to British Colum- 
bia, 45-48. 

DuBois, James T., "Galusha A. Grow, 
father of the homestead law," re- 
viewed, 252-254. 

Dnggan, Stephen P., "Foreign relations 
of the United States," reviewed, 499- 

"Early life and letters of General Thom- 
as J. Jackson," by T. J. Arnold, re- 
viewed, 511-513. 

"Early narratives of the northwest, 
16:i4-1699," by L. P. Kellogg, re- 
viewed, 392-393. 

"Economic and social beginnings of 
Michigan," by G. N. Fuller, reviewed, 

"Economic history of Wisconsin during 
the civil war decade," by Frederick 
Merk, reviewed, 401-402. 

Edwakds, Mautiia L., (R) Herrick and 

Sweet's "History of the North In- 
diana conference of the Methodist 
Episcopal church," reviewed, 261-265. 

Elson, Henry W., "History of the Unit- 
ed States," reviewed, 543-544. 

Emerson, George D., "Perry's victory 
centenary," reviewed, 521-522. 

Estabrook, Charles E., "Wisconsin losses 
in the civil war," reviewed, 133-134. 

' ' Ethnobotony of the Tewa Indians, ' ' 
by W. W. Robbins, J. P. Harrington, 
and B. Freire-Marreco, reviewed, 108- 

"Ethnology (American), Twenty -ninth 
and thirtieth annual report of the bu- 
reau of to the secretary of the Smith- 
sonian institution," reviewed, 109-110. 

Evans, Eldon C, "History of the Aus- 
tralian ballot system in the United 
States," reviewed, 504-505. 

' '■ Exploration in the southwest, 1542- 
1706, Spanish," by H.- E. Bolton, re- 
viewed, 392-393. 

' ' Extracts from the itineraries and oth- 
er miscellanies of Ezra Stiles, " by F. 

B. Dexter, reviewed, 379-380. 

Fairlie, John A., (R) Alexander's 
' ' History and procedure of the house 
of representatives," 102-103. 

Farrand, Max, (R) Dexter 's "Extracts 
from the itineraries and other mis- 
cellanies of Ezra Stiles," 379-380. 

Faust, Albert B., ' ' Guide to the mate- 
rials for American history in Swiss and 
Austrian archives," reviewed, 106-107. 

"Female review (Life of Deborah 
Sampson, the female soldier)," by H. 
Mann, reviewed, 380-381. 

"Financial history of Texas," by E. T. 
Miller, reviewed, 403-405. 

Fish, Carl R., (R) Channing's "His- 
tory of the United States," 243-247; 
(R) Faust's "Guide to the materials 
for American history in Swiss and 
Austrian archives," 106-107; (R) 
Wyeth 's ' ' Republican principles and 
policies," 105-106. 

Fite, Emerson D., "History of the Unit- 
ed States," reviewed, 270-271. 

Fleming, Walter L., (R) Arnold's 
"Early life and letters of General 
Thomas J. Jackson," 511-513; (R) 
Blackwood's "To Mexico with Scott," 
539-540; (R) Seward's "Reminis- 
cences of a war-time statesman and 
diplomat, 1830-1915," 255. 

Florida, Beginnings of British West, by 

C. E. Carter, 3i4-341. 

Flowers, Montaville, "Japanese con- 
quest of American opinion," reviewed, 



''Foreign policy of Woodrow Wilson, 
1913-1917," by E. E. Robinson, and 
V. J. West, reviewed, 497-499. 

"Foreign relations of the United 
States," by H. E. Mussey and S. P. 
Duggan, reviewed, 499-500. 

' ' Former Philippines thru foreign eyes, ' ' 
by Austin Craig, reviewed, 376-378. 

"Founding of a nation," by F. M. 
Gregg, reviewed, 111-112. 

"Francis Asbury, the prophet of the 
long road," by E. S. Tipple, review- 
ed, 114-116. 

"Franklin, printer, Benjamin," by J. 
C. Oswald, reviewed, 248-249. 

Freire-Marreco, Barbara, ' ' Ethnobotony 
of the Tewa Indians," reviewed, 108- 

"French colonial question, 1789-1791," 
by M. B. Garrett, reviewed, 231-232. 

"Frontier advance on the upper Ohio, 
1778-1779, " by L. P. Kellogg, review- 
ed, 257-258. 

"Frontier of France, An old," by F, 
H. Severance, reviewed, 519-520. 

Fryer, C. E., Further pamphlets for the 
Canada-Guadaloupe controversy (doc), 

Fuller, George N., (E) "Contribu- 
tions to the historical society of Mon- 
tana," 532-534; "Economic and social 
beginnings of Michigan," reviewed, 

Further pamphlets for the Canada- 
Guadaloupe controversy (doc), by C. 
E. Fryer, 227-230. 

Gallaher, Euth a., (E) Miner's "Am- 
erican Indians north of Mexico," 506- 

"Galusha A. Grow, father of the home- 
stead law," by J. T. DuBois and 
Gertrude S. Mathews, reviewed, 252- 

Garner, James W., (E) Eobinson and 
West's "Foreign policy of Woodrow 
Wilson, 1913-1917," 497-499. 

Garrett, Mitchell B., "French colonial 
question, 1787-1791," reviewed, 231- 

Geiser, Karl F., (E) Kettleborough 's 
"Constitution making in Indiana," 

"German element, Beginnings of the, in 
York county, Pennsylvania," by A. 
E. Wentz, reviewed, 523-524. 

GiPSON, Lawrence H., Collapse of the 
confederacy, 437-458. 

Goebel, Julius, "Jahrbuch der Deutsch- 
Amerikanischen historischen Gesell- 
schaft von Illinois," reviewed, 265- 
266, 527-529. 

Gold in the northwest, Notes on the dis- 
covery of (doc), by P. C. Phillips and 
H. A. Traxler, 89-97. 

Goodwin, Cardinal, Larger view of the 
Yellowstone expedition, 1819-1820, 299- 

"Government, American," by F. A. Ma- 
gruder, reviewed, 542. 

"Government and citizenship. Addresses 
on," by Elihu Eoot, reviewed, 241. 

' ' Governor of Illinois, The veto power 
of," by N. H. Debel, reviewed, 529- 

' ' Grant, Ulysses S., " by L. A. Coolidge, 
reviewed, 249-251. 

' ' Greeley, Proceedings at the unveiling 
of a memorial to Horace, at Chappa- 
qua, N. Y., February 3, 1914," re- 
viewed, 251-252. 

Gregg, Frank M.-, ' ' Founding of a na- 
tion, ' ' reviewed, 111-112. 

"Grow, Galusha A., father of the 
homestead law," by J. T. DuBois and 
G. S. Mathews, reviewed, 252-254. 

Guadaloupe controversy, Further pamph- 
lets for the Canada- (doe), bv C. E. 
Fryer, 227-230. 

' ' Guide to the materials for American 
history in Swiss and Austrian ar- 
chives, " by A. B. Faust, reviewed, 

Hall, Arnold B., (E) Eiddell's "The 
constitution of Canada in its history 
and practical working," 536-538. 

Hall, Bayard Eush, see Carlton, Eobert. 

Harding, Samuel B., "Ancient, medie- 
val, and modern history maps," re- 
viewed, 135-136. 

Harlow, Ealph V., "History of legisla- 
tive methods in the period before 
1825," reviewed, 505-506. 

Harrington, John P., "Ethnobotony of 
the Tewa Indians," reviewed, 108-109. 

Heckel, Albert K., (E) Wentz' "Be- 
ginnings of the German element in 
York county, Pennsylvania, ' ' 523-524. 

Herrick, H. N., "History of the North 
Indiana conference of the Methodist 
Episcopal church," reviewed, 261-265. 

Hicks, John D., (E) Oswald's "Ben- 
jamin Franklin, printer," 248-249. 

Hill, Eoscoe E., "Descriptive catalogue 
of the documents relating to the his- 
tory of the United States in the pa- 
peles procedentes de Cuba at Seville," 
reviewed, 374-376. 

' ' Historians, Middle group of Ameri- 
can," by J. S. Bassett, reviewed, 378. 

Historical activities in Canada, 1916- 
1917, by L. J. Burpee, 209-226; ac- 
quisition of material, 209-211; bibli- 



M. V. H. K 

o^raphios, o:iiidos, aiul calendars, 211- 
212; publication of source material, 
21o-214; nieetiuijs and published trans- 
actions. 214-218: periodical literature, 
218-219; monoixraphs and general 
txeatises. 21P-22o; marking of his- 
toric sites, 223-224 ; ethnological and 
archaeological work, 224-226. 

EU^torU'aJ activities in tlw old iwrtliwest, 
by A. C. Cole, 64-SS ; organization, 
legislation, and equipment, 64-67 ; ac- 
quisition of material, 67-69; bibliog- 
raphy, 69-70 ; publication of source 
material. 70-74; meetings and pub- 
lished transactions, 74-78; X)eriodical 
literature, 78-81; monographs and gen- 
eral treatises, 81-86; miscellaneous 
publications and activities, 86-88. 

Historical activities m the trans-Missis- 
sippi northwest, 1916-1917, by D. E. 
Clark, 342-361 ; progress and activities 
of historical societies, 342-345 ; publi- 
cations of historical societies, 345-351; 
other historical publications, 351-357; 
acquisition of source materials, 357- 
359 ; celebrations, pageants, and the 
marking of historic sites, 359-361. 

* * Historical association for the year 
1914, Annual report of the Ameri- 
can," reviewed, 516-517. 

Historical periodicals, American (doc), 
by A. H. Shearer, 484-491. 

"Historical society for the years 1914 
and 1915, Transactions of the Illinois 
state," reviewed, 129-130. 

"Historical society, Mississippi, Publi- 
cations of the," by Dunbar Eowland, 
reviewed, 525-527. 

"Historical society of Montana, Con- 
tributions to the," reviewed, 532-534. 

"Historical society of Wisconsin, Pro- 
ceedings of the," by M, M. Quaife, 
reviewed, 530-531. 

"Historischen Gesellsehaft von Illinois, 
Jahrbuch der Deutsch-Amerikan- 
ischen," by Julius Goebel, reviewed, 
265-266, 527-529. 

"History, A beginner's," by W. H. 
Mace, reviewed, 542-543. 

"History and practical working. The 
cx>nstitution of Canada in its," by 
W. R. Ptiddell, reviewed, 536-538. 

"History and procedure of the house of 
representatives," by De Alva S. Alex- 
ander, reviewed, 102-103. 

"History, Introduction to American," 
by J. A. Woodbum, reviewed, 135. 

"HiHt^^ry maps. Ancient, medieval, and 
modern," by Preasted-Huth-Harding, 
reviewerl, 135-136. 

"HJHtory of legislative methods in the 
period before 1825," by R. V. Har- 
low, reviewed, 505-506. 

* ' History of Texas, Financial, " by E. 
T. Miller, reviewed, 403-405. 

' ' History of the Australian ballot sys- 
tem in the United States," by E. C. 
Evans, reviewed, 504-505. 

* ' History of the North Indiana confer- 
ence of the Methodist Episcopal 
church," by H. N. Herrick and W. W. 
Sweet, reviewed, 261-265. 

"History of the presidency," by Ed- 
ward Stanwood, reviewed, 100-102. 

"History of the United States at Se- 
ville, Descriptive catalogue of the doc- 
uments relating to the," by E. E. 
Hill, reviewed, 374-376. 

' ' History of the United States, ' ' by Ed- 
ward Channing, reviewed, 243-247. 

"History of the United States," by E. 

D. Fite, reviewed, 270-271. 
"History of the United States," by H. 

W. Elson, reviewed, 543-544. 

"History of the United States — politi- 
cal, industrial, social," by C. M. 
Thompson, reviewed, 405-406. 

' ' History of Wisconsin during the civil 
war decade. Economic," by Frederick 
Merk, reviewed, 401-402. 

"History, Purpose of," by F. J. E. 
Woodbridge, reviewed, 497. 

"History, Spiritual interpretation of," 
by Shailer Mathews, reviewed, 495-497. 

"History, The Pacific ocean in," by H. 
M. Stephens and H. E. Bolton, review- 
ed, 534-536. 

' ' History, The plain story of American, ' * 
by J. S. Bassett, reviewed, 406-407. 

HocKETT, Homer C, (E) Elson 's "His- 
tory of the United States," 543-544; 
Influence of the west on the rise and 
fall of political parties, 459-469. 

HoDSDON, EuTH E., (E) Mann's "Life 
of Deborah Sampson, the female sol- 
dier," 380-381. 

Hoekstra, Peter, ' ' Thirty-seven years of 
Holland-American relations, 1803- 
1840," reviewed, 500-501. 

* ' Homestead law, Galusha A. Grow, 
father of the," by J. T. DuBois and 
G. S. Mathews, reviewed, 252-254. 

"Household manufactures in the Unit- 
ed States, " by E. M. Tryon, reviewed, 

"House of representatives. History and 
procedure of," by De Alva S. Alex- 
ander, reviewed, 102-103. 

Howell Cohh and the crisis of 1850, by 

E. P. Brooks, 279-298; characteriza- 
tion, 279-280; in 1846 stood for exten- 
sion of Missouri compromise line, 280- 
281 ; Calhoun urged southerners to 
abandon parties and work for their 
own interests, 281-282; Cobb refused 
to unite vrith Calhoun, 282-284; lost 

Vol. IV, No. 4 



prestige in south but gained in north, 
284; elected speaker of house, 1850, 
284; compromise of 1850 in congress, 
285-286; Cobb voted for it, 286; rad- 
icals in south opposed him, 286-290; 
Cobb's attempts to combat secession 
doctrines, 290-294; reelected to house, 
294; Cobb's attempts to prevent split 
In democratic party, 295-297; south- 
ern rights leaders accomplish his down- 
fall from party power, 297-298. 

Hughes, Thomas J., ' ' State socialism 
after the war," reviewed, 105. 

Hulbert, Archer B., ' ^ Eeoords of the 
original proceedings of the Ohio com- 
pany," reviewed, 390-392. 

Huth, Carl F., Jr., ''Ancient, medieval, 
and modern history maps, ' ' reviewed, 

Hyde, George E., and G. F. Will, ''Corn 
among the Indians of the upper Mis- 
souri," reviewed, 531-532. 

"Illinois," by Allan Nevins, reviewed, 

"Illinois in 1818," by S. J. Buck, re- 
viewed, 396-398. 

"Illinois, Land tenure in the United 
States with special reference to, ' ' by 
C. L. Stewart, reviewed, 395-396. 

Illinois radical republicans, President 
Lincoln and the, by A. C. Cole, 417- 

"Illinois state historical society for the 
years 1914 and 1915, Transactions of 
the," reviewed, 129-130. 

"Illinois, The veto power of the gov- 
ernor of," by N. H. Debel, reviewed, 

"Indiana as seen by early travelers," 
by Harlow Lindley, reviewed, 259-260. 

"Indiana, Constitution making in," by 
Charles Kettleborough, reviewed, 260- 

"Indians, American, north of Mexico," 
by W. H. Miner, reviewed, 506-507. 

"Indians in the United States and Can- 
ada, Stone ornaments used by," by 
W. K. Moorehead, reviewed, 242-243. 

"Indians of the upper Missouri, Corn 
among the," by G. F. Will and G. E. 
Hyde, reviewed, 531-532. 

Influence of the west on the rise and 
fall of political parties, by H. C. 
Hockett, 459-469; difference between 
political parties due to variation of 
types incident to the westward move- 
ment of population, 459 ; this influ- 
ence shown in history of federalism 
and republicanism, 460-461; growth of 
population west of Alleghenies, 461- 
463; republicanism natural in frontier 
communities, 463-466; economic neces- 

sity of the west made internal improve- 
ments necessary, 466-469 ; republicans 
failed to meet this need, 469. 

' ' Inter-American acquaintances, ' ' by C. 
L. Chandler, reviewed, 540-541. 

' ' Introduction to Aaiiierican history, ' ' 
by J. A. Woodburn, reviewed, 135. 

' ' Iowa, Statute law-making in, " by B. 
F. Shambaugh, reviewed, 266-268. 

"Jackson, General Thomas J., Early life 
and letters of," by T. J. Arnold, re- 
viewed, 511-513. 

' ' Jahrbuch der Deutsch- Amerikanischen 
historischen Gesellschalt von Illinois," 
by Julius Goebel, reviewed, 265-266, 

James, James A., Spanish influence in 
the west during the American revolu- 
tion, 193-208. 

' ' Japanese conquest of American opin- 
ion, " by Montaville Flowers, reviewed, 

' ' Jeffersonian democracy in New Eng- 
land," by W. A. Robinson, reviewed, 

Jo Daviess county, Illinois, Settlement 
and development of the lead and zinc 
mining region of the driftless area 
with special emphasis upon, by B. H. 
Schockel, 169-192. 

Jones, Chester L., "Caribbean interests 
of the United States," reviewed, 236- 

"Jose de Galvez, visitor-general of New 
Spain (1765-1771)," by H. I. Priestly, 
reviewed, 232-234. 

"Joseph H. Choate," by T. G. Strong, 
reviewed, 511. 

Journal and life of John Sutherland 
(doc), by Ella Lonn, 362-370. 

"Journals of Captain Meriwether Lewis 
and Sergeant John Ordway kept on 
the expedition of western exploration, 
1803-1806," by M. M. Quaife, re- 
viewed, 268-270. 

Jusserand, J. J., "With Americans of 
past and present days, ' ' reviewed, 112- 

Kellogg, Louise P., "Early narra- 
tives of the northwest, 1634-1699," 
reviewed, 392-393 ; ' ' Frontier advance 
on the upper Ohio, 1778-1779," re- 
viewed, 257-258; (R) Hulbert 's "Rec- 
ords of the original proceedings of the 
Ohio company," 390-392. 

"Kentucky in 1825, Letters on the con- 
dition of," by E. G. Swem, reviewed, 

KentucJcy, Sectionalism in, from 1855 
to 1865, by J. R. Robertson, 49-63. 

Kettleborough, Charles, ' ' Constitution 



M. V. H. R. 

making iu Indiana," reviewed, 260- 

Kile, Jessie J., (E) Goebel's ''Jahr- 
buch der Deutscli-Amerikanisehen liis- 
torischen Gesellsehalt von Illinois," 
265-2tUi. 527-529. 

Kimball, Maria B., *^A soldier-doctor of 
our army. James P. Kimball," re- 
viewed, 255-256. 

King. William F., <* Reminiscences, " re- 
viewed, 3S2-3S3. 

"Kirkwood, Samuel Jordan," by D. E. 
Clark, reviewed, 513-515. 

''Lancey, 1776-1778, Orderly book of the 
three battalions of loyalists command- 
ed by Brigadier-General Oliver de, " by 
William Kelby, reviewed, 517-518. 

''Land tenure in the United States with 
special reference to Illinois, " by C. L. 
Stewart, reviewed, 395-396. 

Larger view of the Yellowstone expedi- 
tion, 1819-18S0, by Cardinal Goodwin, 
299-313; activity of British in the 
northwest after the war of 1812, 299- 
301; movement of troops to mouth of 
the St. Peter's river, 301-305; Atkin- 
son and Long start on the Yellowstone 
expedition, 306-308; failure of con- 
gress to make adequate appropriation 
for expedition, 308-309; Captains Ma- 
gee and Kearny explore country west 
of Mississippi near St. Peter's river, 
310 ; explorations of Lewis Cass in 
northern Wisconsin and Minnesota in 
1820, 310-313. 

Larson, Laurence M., (R) ''The war of 
democracy," 374. 

Laski, Harold J., ''Studies in the prob- 
lem of sovereignty," reviewed, 239- 

"Law-making in Iowa, Statute," by B. 
F. Shambaugh, reviewed, 266-268. 

Lead and zinc mining region of the drift- 
less area with special emphasis upon Jo 
Daviess county, Illinois, Settlement and 
development of the, by B. H. Schockel, 

Lee, Judson F., (R) DuBois and Math- 
ews' "Galusha A. Grow, father of the 
homestead law," 252-254. 

"Legislative methods in the period be- 
fore 1825, History of," by R. V. Har- 
low, reviewed, 505-506. 

"Letters on the condition of Kentucky 
in ]825," by E. G. Swem, reviewed, 

"Leveller movernont," by T, C. Pease, 
reviewed, 501-503. 

"Lewis and Sergeant .John Ordway, 
Journals of Captain Meriwether, kept 
on the expedition of western explora- 

tion, 1803-1806, " by M. M. Quaif e, re- 
viewed, 268-270. 

LiBBY, Orin G., (R) Alvord's "The 
Mississippi valley in British politics," 
131-133; (R) Bassett's "Middle 
group of American historians," 378; 
(R) "Political debates between Abra- 
ham Lincoln and Stephen A. Douglas, ' ' 
110-111; (R) Robinson's "Jefferson- 
ian democracy in New England, ' ' 384- 
386; (R) "Twenty-ninth and thir- 
tieth annual report of the bureau of 
American ethnology to the secretary 
of the Smithsonian institution, ' ' 109- 

' ' Life and adventures of Colonel Daniel 
Boon, ' ' by Daniel Boon, reviewed, 126- 

Life and journal of John Sutherland 
(doc), by Ella Lonn, 362-370. 

"Life and times of Booker T. Wash- 
ington, " by B. F. Riley, reviewed, 120- 

"Life of Deborah Sampson, the female 
soldier," by H. Mann, reviewed, 380- 

"Life of John MarshaU," by A. J. 
Beveridge, reviewed, 116-118. 

' ' Lincoln, Abraham, and constitutional 
government, " by B. A. Ulrich, re- 
viewed, 507-509. 

"Lincoln, Abraham and Stephen A. 
Douglas, Political debates between," 
reviewed, 110-111. 

"Lincoln, Abraham, Uncollected letters 
of," by G. A. Tracy, reviewed, 509- 

Lincoln and the Illinois radical republi- 
cans, President, by A. C. Cole, 417-436. 

Lindley, Harlow, "Indiana as seen by 
early travelers," reviewed, 259-260. 

Linton, Ralph, (R) Moorehead's 
' ' Stone ornaments used by Indians in 
the United States and Canada," 242- 
243; (R) Robbins, Harrington, and 
Freire-Marreco 's ' ' Ethnobotony of 
the Tewa Indians," 108-109. 

' ' List of newspapers in the Yale uni- 
versity library," reviewed, 247-248. 

"Literature, Confederate," by C. N. 
Baxter and M. Dearborn, reviewed, 

Lonn, Ella, Life and journal of John 
Sutherland (doc), 362-370. 

' ' Losses in the civil war, Wisconsin, ' ' 
by C. E. Estabrook, reviewed, 133- 

LowRY, Lucille A., (R) McCann's 
"With the national guard on the bor- 
der," 518-519. 

"Loyalists commanded by Brigadier- 
General Oliver de Lancy, 1776-1778, 

Vol. IV, N6. 4 



Orderly book of the three batallions 
of," by William Kelby, reviewed, 517- 

McCann, Captain Irving G., ''With the 
national guard on the border," re- 
viewed, 518-519. 

"McClellan, Mexican war diary of 
George B., " by W. S. Myers, reviewed, 

McMuRRY, Donald L., (R) Estabrook's 
''Wisconsin losses in the civil war," 

Mace, William H., "A beginner's his- 
tory, ' ' reviewed, 542-543. 

Mackoy, Harry B., (R) Dexter 's "Doc- 
umentary history of Yale university, ' ' 

Magee, J. D., (R) Tryon's "Household 
manufactures in the United States," 

Magruder, Frank A., ' ' American gov- 
ernment, " reviewed, 542. 

Mann, H., "The female review (Life of 
Deborah Sampson, the female soldier), 
reviewed, 380-381. 

' ' Manufactures, Household, in the Unit- 
ed States," by R. M, Tryon, reviewed, 

' ' Maps, Ancient, medieval, and modern 
history, ' ' by Breasted-Huth-Harding, 
reviewed, 135-136. 

"Marshall, Life of John," by A. J. 
Beveridge, reviewed, 116-118. 

Marshall, Thomas M., (R) Adams' 
"Birth of Mormonism," 107-108. 

Mathews, Gertrude S., "Galusha A. 
Grow, father of the homestead law," 
reviewed, 252-254. 

Mathews, John M., "Principles of 
American state administration," re- 
viewed, 103-105; (R) Root's "Ad- 
dress on government and citizenship," 

Mathews, Shailer, "Spiritual interpreta- 
tion of history," reviewed, 495-497. 

"Memoirs of Colonel John S. Mosby, " 
by C. W. Russell, reviewed, 513. 

Mereness, N". D., (R) "Some cursory 
remarks," 125-126; (R) Sprunt's 
"Chronicles of the Cape Fear river, 
1660-1916," 388-389; Travels in the 
American colonies (1690-1783), re- 
viewed, 383-384. 

Merk, Frederick, "Economic history of 
Wisconsin during the civil war de- 
cade," reviewed, 401-402. 

"Methodist Episcopal church. History of 
the North Indiana conference of the, ' ' 
by H. N. Herrick and W. W. Sweet, 
reviewed, 261-265. 

"Mexican war diary of George B. Mc- 

Clellan," by W. S. Myers, reviewed, 

"Mexico with Scott, To," by E. J. 
Blackwood, reviewed, 539-540. 

"Michigan boundary, Ohio-," by C. E. 
Sherman, reviewed, 258. 

' ' Michigan, Economic and social begin- 
nings of," by G. N. Fuller, reviewed, 

' ' Middle group of American historians, ' ' 
by J. S. Bassett, reviewed, 378. 

Miller, Edmund T., ' ' Financial history 
of Texas," reviewed, 403-405. 

Miner, W. H., "American Indians north 
of Mexico," reviewed, 506-507. 

"Mine taxation in the United States," 
by L. E. Young, reviewed, 503-504. 

"Minnesota, Story of," by E. D. Par- 
sons, reviewed, 402-403. 

"Mississippi historical society. Publica- 
tions of the, ' ' by Dunbar Rowland, 
reviewed, 525-527. 

"Mississippi valley in British politics," 
by C. W. Alvord, reviewed, 131-133. 

"Missouri, Corn among the Indians of 
the upper," by G. F. Will and G. F. 
Hyde, reviewed, 531-532. 

"Modernizing the Monroe doctrine," by 
C. H. Sherrill, reviewed, 98-100. 

"Montana, Contributions to the histor- 
ical society of," reviewed, 532-534. 

Moorehead, Warren K., ' ' Stone orna- 
ments used by Indians in the United 
States and Canada," reviewed, 242- 

"Mormonism, Birth of," by J. Q. 
Adams, reviewed, 107-108. 

"Mosby, Colonel John S., Memoirs of," 
by C. W. Russell, reviewed, 513. 

MuNRO, William B., (R) Mathews 
"Principles of American state admin- 
istration," 103-105. 

Mussey, Henry R., ' ' Foreign relations of 
the United States, ' ' reviewed, 499-500. 

Myers, William S., "Mexican war diary 
of George B. McClellan, " reviewed, 

"Narratives of the northwest, 1634- 
1699, Early," by L. P. Kellogg, re- 
viewed, 392-393. 

"National guard on the border, With 
the," by Captain L G. McCann, 518- 

"Nation, Founding of a," by F. H. 
Gregg, reviewed, 111-112, 

Nevins, Allan, "Illinois," reviewed, 398- 

' ' New England, Jeffersonian democracy 
in, " by W. A. Robinson, reviewed, 384- 

"New Spain, Jose de Galvez, visitor gen- 




eral of vl~t^5-l""l\ " by H. I. Priest- 
ly, reviewed. '23l!-234. 

' * Newspapers in tlie Yale university li- 
brary. List of.'-' reviewed, 2-47-248. 

• ' North Indiana conference of the Meth- 
odist Episcopal cluirch. History of 
the." by H. N. Herrick and W. W. 
Sweet, reviewed. 2(il-265, 

"Northwest. 1634-1699. Early narratives 
of tlie. ' ' bv L. P. Kelloga:, reviewed, 

Xorfhwest, Historical activities in the 
old, by A. C. Cole. 64-88. 

yorthwest. Historical activities in the 
trans-Mississippi, 1916-1917, by D. E. 
Clark. 342-361. 

Notes on tlie discovery of (jold^ in the 
nortlncest (doc), by P. C. Phillips and 
H. A. Traxler, 89-97. 

Ogg, Frederic A., (E) Bigelow's 
* ' Breaches of Anglo-American treat- 
ies." 238-239. 

' ' Ohio company. Records of the original 
proceedings of the, " by A. B. Hul- 
bert. reviewed, 390-392. 

"Ohio-Michigan boundary," by C. E. 
Sherman, reviewed, 258. 

Ohio, 1778-1779, Frontier advance on the 
upper," by L. P. Kellogg, reviewed, 

Oliver. John W., (E) "Annual report 
of the American historical association 
for the year 1914," 516-517. 

' ' Orderly book of the three battalions 
of lovalists commanded by Brigadier- 
General Oliver de Lancey, 1776-1778," 
by William Kelby, reviewed, 517-518. 

' ' Ordway, Journals of Captain Meri- 
wether Lewis and Sergeant John, kept 
on the expedition of western explora- 
tion, 1803-1806," by M. M. Quaife, re- 
viewed, 268-270. 

' ' Ornaments used by Indians in the 
United States and Canada, Stone," by 
W. K. Moorehead, reviewed, 242-243. 

Oswald, John Clyde, "Benjamin Frank- 
lin, printer," reviewed, 248-249. 

Oviatt, Edwin, "Beginnings of Yale," 
reviewed, 122-123. 

"Pacific ocean in history," by H. M. 

Stephens and II. E. Bolton, reviewed, 

Page, Edward C, (R) Bassett's "The 

plain story of American history," 

Pamphlrftfi ff/r the Canada- Chiadaloupe 

contrr/);f;rsy, Further (doc), by C. E. 

Fryer, 227-230. 
Park, S. A., (J{) Shambaugh's "Statute 

law-making in Iowa," 266-268. 

Parsons, E. Dudley, ' ' Story of Minne- 
sota," reviewed, 402-403. 

Parties, Influence of the west on the rise 
and fall of political, by H. C. Hockett, 

Paxson, Frederic L., (R) "Autobiog- 
raphy of George Dewey, ' ' 118-120 ; 
(R) Clark's "Samuel Jordan Kirk- 
wood," 513-515; (R) Coolidge's 
"Ulysses S. Grant," 249-251; Bise of 
Sport, 143-168; (R) Strong's "Joseph 
H. Choate," 511; (R) Wheeler's 
* ' Sixty years of American life, ' ' 254- 

Pearson, Charles C, (R) Oviatt 's 
' ' Beginnings of Yale, ' ' 122-123 ; "The 
readjuster movement in Virginia," re- 
viewed, 522-523. 

Pease, Theodore C, ' ' The Leveller move- 
ment, ' ' reviewed, 501-503. 

' ' Pennsylvania, Beginnings of the Ger- 
man element in York county, by A. R. 
Wentz, reviewed, 523-524. 

Periodicals, American historical (doc), 
by A. H. Shearer, 484-491. 

* ' Perry 's victory centenary, " by G. D. 
Emerson, reviewed, 521-522. 

"Philippines thru foreign eyes. The 
former, ' ' by Austin Craig, reviewed, 

Phillips, Paul C, (R) Kellogg 's 
* ' Frontier advance on the upper Ohio, 
1778-1779," 257-258; Notes on the 
discovery of gold in the northwest 
(doc), 89-97. 

' * Plain story of American history, ' ' by 
J. S. Bassett, reviewed, 406-407. 

Plan for the union of British North 
America and the United States, by T. 
C. Blegen, 470-483; J. W. Taylor has 
a plan for union of United States and 
Canada presented to congress, 470-472 ; 
Taylor reports to congress on the com- 
mercial relations between Canada and 
United States, 473 ; terms of union 
enumerated, 474-475; reasons for abro- 
gation of Elgin-Marcy treaty, 475-479; 
reasons for desire of United States for 
annexation, 479-482 ; American offi- 
cials abandon the idea, 483. 

"Policies, Republican principles and," 
by Newton Wyeth, reviewed, 105- 

"Political debates between Abraham 
Lincoln and Stephen A. Douglas, ' ' re- 
viewed, 110-111. 

Pollock, I. L., (R) Mace's "A begin- 
ner's history," 542-543; (R) Magru- 
der's "American government," 542. 

PooLEY, William V., (R) Sherrill's 
' ' Modernizing the Monroe doctrine, ' ' 

Vol. IV, No. 4 



^'Presidency, History of the," by Ed- 
ward Stanwood, reviewed, 100-3 02. 

President Lincoln and the Illinois radical 
republicans, by A. C. Cole, 417-436; 
rise of radicalism in Illinois, 417-419; 
Lincoln has little sympathy with the 
radicals, 419-420; they attack him, 
421-424; Lincoln tries to hold border 
states in the union, 424-425; many 
conservatives become radicals, 425- 
426; Lincoln partly propitiates the 
radicals, 426-428; discontent with Lin- 
coln's cabinet, military appointments, 
and foreign policy, 428-430; in 1863 
Lincoln not a favorite for the republi- 
can nomination, 431; German vote 
against him, 432; radicals nominate 
Fremont, 433; dark prospects for Lin- 
coln's election after his nomination, 
433-434; military and naval successes 
together with radical's support gives 
him the presidency, 434-435; radicals 
criticize his mildness until his death, 

Priestly, Herbert I., ''Jose de Galvez, 
visitor-general of New Spain (1765- 
1771)," reviewed, 232-234. 

"Principles and policies, Eepublican," 
by Newton Wyeth, reviewed, 105-106. 

"Principles of American state admin- 
istration," by J. M. Mathews, review- 
ed, 103-105. 

"Printer, Benjamin Franklin," by J. 
C. Oswald, reviewed, 248-249. 

"Procedure of the house of representa- 
tives. History and," by De Alva S. 
Alexander, reviewed, 102-103. 

' ' Proceedings at the unveiling of a me- 
morial to Horace Greeley at Chappa- 
qua, N. Y., February 3, 1914," re- 
viewed, 251-252. 

"Proceedings of the historical society of 
Wisconsin," by M. M. Quaife, review- 
ed, 530-531. 

"Proceedings of the Ohio company, Eec- 
ords of the original, ' ' by A. B. Hul- 
bert, reviewed, 390-392. 

"Publications of the Mississippi histor- 
ical society, ' ' by Dunbar Rowland, 
reviewed, 525-527. 

"Purchase, The new," by Eobert Carl- 
ton, reviewed, 127-129. 

"Purpose of history," by F. J. E. 
Woodbridge, reviewed, 497. 

Quaife, Milo M., (E) Buck's "Illinois 
in 1818," 396-398; "Journals of Cap- 
tain Meriwether Lewis and Sergeant 
John Ordway kept on the expedition 
of western exploration, 1803-1806," 
reviewed, 268-270; (E) Lindley's "In- 
diana as seen by early travelers, ' ' 259- 

260 ; Proceedings of the Wisconsin his- 
torical society, reviewed, 530-531; (R) 
Severance's "An old frontier of 
France," 519-520. 

Radical republicans, President Lincoln 
and the Illinois, by A. C. Cole, 417- 

Eamsdell, Charles W., (E) Sherer's 
"Cotton as a world power," 234-236. 

Eay, p. Orman, (E) "History of the 
Australian ballot system in the United 
States," 504-505. 

"Eeadjuster movement in Virginia," by 
C. C. Pearson, reviewed, 522-523. 

"Eecords of the original proceedings of 
the Ohio company," by A. B. Hul- 
bert, reviewed, 390-392. 

"Eelations, Foreign, of the United 
States," by H. E. Mussey and S. P. 
Duggan, reviewed, 499-500. 

"Eelations, Thirty-seven years of Hol- 
land-American, 1803-1840," by Peter 
Hoekstra, reviewed, 500-501. 

Eelf, Frances H., (E) Parsons' "Story 
of Minnesota," 402-403. 

" Eeminiscences, " by W. F. King, re- 
viewed, 382-383. 

"Eeminiscences of a war-time statesman 
and diplomat, 1830-1915," by F. W. 
Seward, reviewed, 255. 

' ' Eepublican principles and policies, ' ' by 
Newton Wyeth, reviewed, 105-106. 

Republicans, President Lincoln and the 
Illinois radica\ by A. C. Cole, 417-436. 

Revolution, Spanish Influence in the west 
during the American, by J. A. James, 

Eiddell, William E., "The constitution 
of Canada in its history and practical 
working," reviewed, 536-538. 

Eiley, B. F., "Life and times of Booker 
T. Washington," reviewed, 120-122. 

Riot, Alton (doc), 491-494. 

Rise of sport, by F. L. Paxson, 143-168; 
lack of recreation in first half of 19th. 
century, 143-144; beginnings of vari- 
ous types of play, 145-146 ; rise of in- 
terest in: horse racing, 146-147; yacht 
racing, 147-148; walking contests, 148- 
149; prize fighting, 149-151; baseball, 
151-153 ; cricket, 153 ; gymnasiums and 
athletic clubs, 153-156; roller skating, 
156-157; croquet, 157-158; bicycling, 
158-159; lawn tennis, 160; all forms 
of nature life and desire for its preser- 
vation, 160-161; country clubs, 161- 
162; golf, 162-163; automobiles, 164; 
all forms of recreation as college 
sports, archery, camping, horse, dog, 
cat, and poultry shows, 165-166 ; open 
frontier kept men young, 167; closing 



M. V. H. E. 

of frontier caused men to search for a 
substitute, l(i7; good results from the 
general practice of recreation, 167-168. 

Bobbins. Wilfred W.. " Ethnobotony of 
tJie Tewa Indians,'' reviewed, 108-109. 

RoBEKTSox. James A., (R) Ci-aig's 
* ' The former Philippines thru for- 
eign eyes,'' 376-378. 

EoBERTSox, James R., Sectionalism in 
Kcntucl-i/ from 1855 to 1865, 49-63. 

Robinson, Edgi^i" E., ''Foreign policy of 
Woodrow Vilson, 1913-1917," re- 
viewed, 497-499. 

Robinson. "William A., " Jeffersonian 
democracv in New England," review- 
ed, 384-386. 

Root, Eliliu, "Addresses on government 
and citizenship," reviewed, 241. 

Rowland, Dunbar, "Publications of the 
Mississippi historical society," 525- 

Russell, Cliarles Wells, "Memoirs of 
Colonel John S. Mosby," reviewed, 

"Sampson, Deborah, the female soldier, 
Life of," by H. Mann, reviewed, 380- 

' ' Samuel Jordan Kirkwood, " by D. E. 
Clark, reviewed, 513-515. 

Sanford, Albert H., (R) Merk's "Eco- 
nomic history of Wisconsin during the 
civil war decade," 401-402. 

ScHOCKEL, B. H., Settlement and de- 
velopment of the lead and sine mining 
region of the driftless area with special 
emphasis upon Jo Daviess county, Il- 
linois, 169-192. 

Scott, Emmett J., and L. B. Stowe, 
"Booker T. Washington, builder of a 
civilization," reviewed, 515-516. 

Scott, Frank W., (R) "List of news- 
papers in the Yale university library," 
247-248; (R) "Proceedings at the un- 
veiling of a memorial to Horace Gree- 
ley at Chappaqua, N. Y., February 3, 
1914," 251-252. 

"Scott, To Mexico with," by E. J. 
Blackwood, reviewed, 539-540. 

Sectionalism in KentucJcy from 1855 to 
1865, by J. R. Robertson, 49-63; geo- 
logical divisions of Kentucky, 49-50; 
X)arty alignment in 1852, 50-51; 
strength of American party in 1855, 
51-53; success of democratic party, 
in 1856, 53-55; democratic success in 
1859, 55-56; division within the dem- 
ocratic party in 1860, 57-58; issues 
created by Lincoln's election, 58-59; 
effects of war issues on party align- 
ment, 59-61; strengthening of demo- 
cratic majority, 61; alignment of par- 
ties in 1865, 62-63. 

Settlement and development of the lead 
and zinc mining region of the driftless 
area with special emphasis upon Jo 
Daviess county, Illinois, by B. H. 
Schockel, 169-192 ; brief outline of life 
in Jo Daviess county from earliest 
times to the present, 169-172; descrip- 
tion of the topography, soil, climatic 
environment, drainage, and natural re- 
sources, 173-174; methods of Indian 
lead mining, 174-176; Indian economic 
activities, 176-177; French-Canadian 
mining operations, 177-178; American 
mining methods, 178-181; miners' en- 
vironment, 181-183 ; agriculture and 
manufactures more prominent, 183- 
185; influence of environment on peo- 
ple, 1840-1850, 185-187; agriculture 
now most important industry, 187-188 ; 
physiography, topography, soil, and 
accessibility to market potent eco- 
nomic factors, 188-190; social and po- 
litical aspects, 190-192. 

Severance, Frank H., "An old frontier 
of France," reviewed, 519-520. 

Seward, Frederick W., "Reminiscences 
of a war-time statesman and diplomat, 
1830-1915," reviewed, 255. 

Shambaugh, Benjamin F., "Statute 
law-making in Iowa," reviewed, 266- 

Shearer, Augustus H., American histori- 
cal periodicals (doc), 484-491. 

Sherer, James A. B., ' ' Cotton as a world 
power," reviewed, 234-236. 

Sherman, C. E., " Ohio -Michigan bound- 
ary, ' ' reviewed, 258. 

Sherrill, Charles H., "Modernizing the 
Monroe doctrine," reviewed, 98-100. 

Sherv^tood, H. N., Attempted seizure of 
the Zaffarine islands (doc), 371-373. 

Shilling, D. C, (R) Fite's "History of 
the United States," 270-271; (R) Mil- 
ler's "Financial history of Texas," 

Shippee, Lester B., (R) Debel's "The 
veto power of the governor of Illi- 
nois," 529-530. 

Siebert, Wilbur H., (R) Kelby's "Or- 
derly book of the three batallions of 
loyalists commanded by Brigadier-Gen- 
eral Oliver de Lancy, 1776-1778," 517- 

Sioussat, St. George L., (R) Baxter 
and Dearborn's "Confederate litera- 
ture," 386-387; (R) Gregg's "Found- 
ing of a nation," 111-112; (R) "Life 
and adventures of Colonel Daniel 
Boon," 126-127; (R) Mathews' "Spir- 
itual interpretation of history," 495- 
497; (R) Stewart's "Land tenure in 
the United States with special refer- 
ence to Illinois," 395-396. 

Vol. IV, No. 4 



''Sixty years of American life," by E. 
P. Wheeler, reviewed, 254-255. 

' ' Smithsonian institution, Twenty-ninth 
and thirtieth annual report of the 
bureau of American ethnology to 
the secretary of the," reviewed, 109- 

''Social beginnings of Michigan, Eco- 
nomic and," by G. N. Fuller, review- 
ed, 393-395. 

"Socialism after the war. State," by 
Thomas J. Hughes, reviewed, 105. 

"Soldier, Life of Deborah Sampson, the 
female," by H. Mann, reviewed, 380- 

"Soldier-doctor of our army, James P. 
Kimball," by M. B. Kimball, review- 
ed, 255-256. 

"Soldiers, Brave deeds of confederate," 
by P. A. Bruce, reviewed, 387. 

' ' Some cursory remarks, ' ' reviewed, 125- 

"Southwest, 1542-1706, Spanish explor- 
ation in the," by H. E. Bolton, re- 
viewed, 392-393. 

"Sovereignty, Studies in the problem 
of," by H. J. Laski, reviewed, 239- 

"Spanish exploration in the southwest, 
1542-1706," by H. E. Bolton, review- 
ed, 392-393. 

Spanish influence in the west during the 
American revolution, by J. A. James, 
193-208; importance of New Orleans 
to the Mississippi valley trade, 193- 
194; British and Spanish contest for 
commercial control of Louisiana, 194- 
195; Americans appeal to Spaniards 
for assistance, 195; Oliver Pollock se- 
cures gunpowder from New Orleans, 
195-196; Spanish aid Americans in the 
west, 196-198; strained relations be- 
tween Spanish and British, 198-200 ; 
Spanish assist American cause against 
England, 200-206; Pollock and the 
Spanish governor aid George Eogers 
Clark, 206-207. 

' ' Spiritual interpretation of history, ' ' by 
S. Mathews, reviewed, 495-497. 

Sport, Eise of, by F. L. Paxson, 143-168. 

Sprunt, James, ' ' Chronicles of the Cape 
Fear river, 1660-1916," reviewed, 388- 

Stanwood, Edward, ' ' History of the pres- 
idency, " reviewed, 100-102. 

"State administration. Principles of 
American," by J. M. Mathews, re- 
viewed, 103-105. 

"Statesman and diplomat, 1830-1915, 
Eeminiscences of a war-time," by F. 
W. Seward, reviewed, 255. 

"State socialism after the war," by 
Thomas J. Hughes, reviewed, 105. 

' ' Statute law-making in Iowa, " by B. 
F. Shambaugh, reviewed, 266-268. 

Stephens, H. Morse, ' ' The Pacific ocean 
in history, ' ' reviewed, 534-536. 

Stewart, Qiarles L., ' ' Land tenure in 
the United States with special refer- 
ence to Illinois," reviewed, 395-396. 

' ' Stiles, Extracts from the itineraries 
and other miscellanies of Ezra," by F. 

B. Dexter, reviewed, 379-380. 
Stoek, Harry H., (E) Young's "Mine 

taxation in the United States, ' ' 503- 

' ' Stone ornaments used by Indians in the 
United States and Canada, " by W. K. 
Moorehead, reviewed, 242-243. 

' ' Story of American history, The plain, ' ' 
by J. S. Basse tt, reviewed, 406-407. 

"Story of Minnesota," by E. D. Par- 
sons, reviewed, 402-403. 

Stowe, Lyman B., and E. J. Scott, 
"Booker T. Washington, builder of a 
civilization," reviewed, 515-516. 

Strong, Theron G., "Joseph H. Choate," 
reviewed, 511. 

' ' Studies in the problem of sovereignty, ' ' 
by H. J. Laski, reviewed, 239-241. 

Surrey, N. M. Milker, (E) Garrett's 
"French colonial question, 1789-1791," 

Sutherland, Life and journal of John 
(doc), by Ella Lonn, 362-370. 

Smteet, William W., "History of the 
North Indiana conference of the Meth- 
odist Episcopal church," reviewed, 
261-265; (E) King's "Eeminiscenc- 
es," 382-383; (E) Tipple's "Francis 
Asbury, the prophet of the long road, ' ' 

Swem, Earl G., "Letters on the condi- 
tion of Kentucky in 1825, " reviewed, 

"Swiss and Austrian archives, Guide to 
the materials for American history in, ' ' 
by A. B. Faust, reviewed, 106-107. 

' ' Taxation, Mine, in the United States, ' ' 
by L. E. Young, reviewed, 503-504. 

' ' Tenure in the United States with spe- 
cial reference to Illinois, Land," by 

C. L. Stewart, reviewed, 395-396, 
"Tewa Indians, Ethnobotony of the," 

by W. W. Eobbins, J. P. Harrington, 
and B. Freire-Marreco, reviewed, 108- 

"Texas, Financial history of," by E. 
T. Miller, reviewed, 403-405. 

"The new purchase," by Eobert Carl- 
ton, reviewed, 127-129. 

"Thirtieth annual report of the bureau 
of American ethnology to the secre- 
tary of the Smithsonian institution," 
reviewed, 109-110. 



M. V. H. K. 

"Thivtv-sovon vears of IIollaiul-Ameri- 
caii Volations" 1S03-1S40." by Peter 
Hoekstra. reviewed, 500-501. 

Thompson. Charles M.. "History of the 
United States — political, industrial, 
social,'' reviewed, 405-406. 

Thoksteinsox. Elixa, Doul-hohors in 
Canada, 3-48. 

Tipple. Ezrca S.. "Francis Asbury, the 
prophet of the long road," reviewed, 

"To Mexico with Scott," by E. J. 
Blackwood, reviewed, 539-540. 

Tracy, Gilbert A., "Uncollected Letters 
of* Abraham Lincoln," reviewed, 509- 

"Transactions of the Illinois state his- 
torical society for the years 1914 and 
1915," reviewed, 129-130. 

"Travelers, Indiana as seen by early," 
by Harlow Lindley, reviewed, 259-260. 

"Travels in the American colonies (1690- 
1783)," bv N. D. Mereness, reviewed, 

Traxler, H. a.. Notes on the discovery 
of gold in the northwest (doc), 89-97. 

Treat, Patson J., (E) Flowers' "Jap- 
anese conquest of American opinion, 

"Treaties, Breaches of Anglo-Ameri- 
can," by John Bigelow, reviewed, 238- 

Trimble, William, (R) Will and Hyde's 
' ' Corn among the Indians of the upper 
Missouri," 531-532. 

Tryon, Rolla M., "Household manufac- 
tures in the United States," reviewed, 

* ' Twenty -ninth annual report of the bu- 
reau of American ethnology to the sec- 
cretary of the Smithsonian institu- 
tion," reviewed, 109-110. 

Ulrich, Bartow A., "Abraham Lincoln 
and constitutional government," re- 
viewed, 507-509. 

"Ulysses S. Grant," by L. A. Coolidge, 
reviewed, 249-251. 

"Uncollected letters of Abraham Lin- 
coln," by G. A. Tracy, reviewed, 509- 

Union of British North America and the 
United States, Plan for the," by T. 
C. Blegen, 470-483. 

"United States and Canada, Stone orn- 
aments used by Indians in the," by 
W. K. Moorehead, reviewed, 242-243. 

"United States, Caribbean interests of 
the," by C. L. Jones, reviewed, 236- 

"United States, Foreign relations of," 

by H. R. Mussey and S. P. Duggan, 

reviewed, 499-500. 
' ' United States, History of the, ' ' by 

Edward Clianning, reviewed, 243-247. 
"United States, History of the," by H. 

W. Elson, reviewed, 543-544. 
"United States, History of," by E. D. 

Fite, reviewed, 270-271. 
' ' United States, Household manufactures 

in the, " by R. M. Tryon, reviewed, 

"United States, Mine taxation in the," 

by L. E. Young, reviewed, 503-504. 
United States, Plan for the union of 

British North American and the by 

T. C. Blegen, 470-483. 
' ' United States — political, industrial, 

social. History of the," by C. M,. 

Thompson, reviewed, 405-406. 

Van der Zee, Jacob, (R) Hoekstra's 
( ( Thirty-seven years of Holland-Amer- 
ican relations, 1803-1840," 500-501. 

Veto power of the governor of Illinois, ' ' 
by N. H. Debel, reviewed, 529-530. 

"Virginia, The readjuster movement in," 
by C. C. Pearson, reviewed, 522-523. 

"Visitor-General of New Spain, Jos6 
de Galvez (1765-1771)," by H. I. 
Priestly, reviewed, 232-234. 

"War of democracy," reviewed, 374. 

"Washington, Booker T., builder of a 
civilization," by E. J. Scott and L. 
B. Stowe, reviewed, 515-516. 

' ' Washington, Life and times of Booker 
T., by B. F. Riley, reviewed, 120-122. 

Weaks^ Mabel C, (R) Emerson's "Per- 
ry's victory centenary," 521-522. 

Wentz, Abdel R., ' ' Beginnings of the 
German element in York county, Penn- 
sylvania, " reviewed, 523-524. 

West during the American revolution, 
Spanish influence in the, by J. A. 
James, 193-208. 

West, Elizabeth H., (R) Hill's "De- 
scriptive catalogue of the documents 
relating to the history of the United 
States at Seville," 374-376. 

West on the rise and fall of political 
parties, Influence of the, by H. C. 
Hockett, 459-469. 

West, Victor J., ' ' Foreign policy of 
Woodrow Wilsc 
viewed, 497-499. 

Wheeler, Everett P., ' ' Sixty years of 
American life," reviewed, 254-255. 

Will, George F., ' ' Corn among the In- 
dians of the upper Missouri, ' ' re- 
viewed, 531-532. 

"Wilson, Woodrow, Foreign policy of, 

Vol. IV, No. 4 



1913-1917," by E. E. Robinson and 
V. J. West, reviewed, 497-499. 

Winston, James E., (E) '' Publica- 
tions of the Mississippi historical so- 
ciety," 525-527. 

''Wisconsin during the civil vs^ar decade. 
Economic history of, ' ' by Frederick 
Merk, reviewed, 401-402. 

' ' Wisconsin losses in the civil war, ' ' by 
C. E. Estabrook, reviewed, 133-134. 

' ' Wisconsin, Proceedings of the histori- 
cal society of," by M. M. Quaife, re- 
viewed, 530-531. 

' ' With Americans of past and present 
days," by J. J. Jusserand, reviewed, 

''With the national guard on the bor- 
der," by Captain I. G. McCann, re- 
viewed, 518-519. 

Woodbridge, Frederick J. E., "Purpose 
of history," reviewed, 497. 

Woodburn, James A., "Introduction to 
American history," reviewed, 135. 

Woodburn, James A., (R) Riley's 
' ' Life and times of Booker T. Wash- 
ington," 120-122; (R) "Transactions 
of the Illinois state historical society 
for 1914 and 1915," 129-130. 

Woodson, Carter G., (R) Scott and 
Stowe's "Booker T. Washington, 
builder of a civilization," 515-516. 

"World power. Cotton as," by J. A. B. 
Sherer, reviewed, 234-236. 

Wright, Quincy, (R) Laski's "Studies 
in the problem of sovereignty," 239- 
241; (R) Mussey and Duggan's 
' ' Foreign relations of the United 
States," 499-500. 

Wyeth, Newton, "Republican princi- 
ples and policies," reviewed, 105-106. 

' ' Yale, Beginnings of, ' ' by Edwin Ovi- 
att, reviewed, 122-123. 

' ' Yale university. Documentary history 
of," by F. B. Dexter, reviewed, 123- 

"Yale university library, List of news- 
papers in the," reviewed, 247-248. 

Yellowstone expedition, 1819-1820, Larg- 
er view of the, by Cardinal Goodwin, 

Young, Lewis E., "Mine Taxation in 
the United States," reviewed, 503-504. 

Zaffarine islands. Attempted seizure of 
the (doc), by H. N. Sherwood, 371- 

Zinc mining region of the driftless area 
with special emphasis upon Jo Daviess 
county, Illinois, Settlement and de- 
velopment of the lead and, by B. H. 
Schockel, 169-192. 



Published quarterly at Cedar Rapids, Iowa. This notice required by the Act of 
Congress, August 24, 1912. 

Editor, Clarence W. Alvord, Urbana, Illinois. 

Managing Editor, Clarence W. Alvord, Urbana, IH-inois. 

Business Manager, Clara A. Paine, Lincoln, Nebraska and Cedar Rapids, Iowa. 

Publisher, The Mississippi Valley Historical Association, Lincoln, Nebraska. 

Owner, The Mississippi Valley Historical Association, Lincoln, Nebraska. 

There are no bonds, mortgages or other security holders. 

CLARA A. PAINE, Business Manager 
Sworn and subscribed to before me this 2nd day of February, 1918, by Clara A. 
Paine, Business Manager. 

Notary Public, Lancaster County, Nebraska 


Board of Editors 



Managing Editor 



June, 1917, to March, 1918 

Published quarterly hy the Mississippi Valley Historical Association 


Ntjx\lber 1. June, 1917 
The Doukuobors ix Can.vda. Elina Thorsteinson ... 3 
Sectioxalism IX Kentucky from 1855 to 1865. James R. Rob- 
ertson .......... 49 

Historical activities in the old northwest. Artiiiir C. Cole 64 

XoTEs on the discovery of gold in the northwest ... 89 



Number 2. September, 1917 
The rise of sport. Frederic L. Paxsoii . . . . . 143 
Settlement and development of the lead and zinc mining 
region with special emphasis upon Jo Daviess county, 

Illinols. B. H. Schockel 169 

Spanish influence in the west during the American revolu- 
tion. James A. James ....... 193 

Historical activities in Canada, 1916-1917. Lawrence J. Bur- 
pee 209 

Further pamphlets for the Canada-Guadaloupe controversy 227 



Number 3. December, 1917 
Howell Cobb and tjje crisis op 1850. R. P. Brooks . . . 279 


C'anlJMal Goodwin 299 

The beginnings of 1^)Ritish West Florida. Clarence E. Carter 314 


1916-1917. Dan E. Clark 342 

Life and .joi:rxal of John Sutherland; Journal of John 
Sutherland; The attempted seizure of the Zaffarine 


iv Contents of Volume IV M. v. ii.R. 



Number 4. March, 1918 
President Lincoln and the Illinois radical republicans. 

Arthur C. Cole 417 

The collapse op the coNFEDEiRACY. Lawrence H. Gipson . 437 


PARTIES. Homer C. Hockett 459 


United States, 1866. Theodore C. Blegen . . . 470 

American historical periodicals; Th^e Alton riot . . . 484 


NEWS AND COMMENTS . . . . . . . 545 



Vol. IV, No. 1 June, 1917 


One of tlie many perplexing immigration problems which the 
Canadian government has had to face in recent years is that 
connected with the presence of the Doukhobor sect. This sect, 
calling itself the ^* Christian Community of Universal Brother- 
hood/^ found refuge from Kussian persecution within the Do- 
minion of Canada during the year 1899. The records concern- 
ing the rise of the Doukhobors are scanty and uncertain, and 
very little that is definite is known of them as a sect before the 
second half of the eighteenth century.^ In seeking to trace the 
origin of the currents of opinion and the doctrines which have 
entered into their faith, it is evident that this movement is more 
or less closely connected with various phases of the opposition 
to the church since early Christian times.^ Among the move- 

1 The name Doukhobor is a religious nickname and was used at least as far back 
as 1785. It comes from the Eussian words Bouk (spirit), and horets (champions), 
hence it means champions of the spirit or spiritual things. In pronouncing it tlie 
"k" is scarcely heard at all and the accent is on the last syllable. There are other 
forms of the name but this is the simple and short form now usually employed. 
One form of the plural of the name is Doukhobortsi but Doukhobors is equally 

2 They have no written records of their own and have always been unwilling to 
have outsiders inquire into the secrets of their faith. Accustomed to connect such 
questioning with trials, fines, banishment, and other forms of persecution, they have 
learned through long years of such experience to conceal their true beliefs. Accord- 
ing to their own tradition they originated with three brothers, Cossacks of the Don, 
who through the teaching of the spirit and a searching of the scriptures were led 
away from the ceremonies of the orthodox but corrupt Greek church of Russia. As 
has been the ease with other sects, the views of the Doukhobors have varied from 
time to time, but in spite of their fluid creed the main trend of their thought is 
easily discernible. Their strong tendency to reject all external authorities is notice- 
able. They carefully conceal their superstitious customa 

4 Elhia Tkorstcinson m.v.h.r. 

inonts wliioli may be considered as contributing to the formation 
of this sect may be included the Judaizers, Paulicians, Anabap- 
tists, Manicheaiis, gnostics, Eussian rationalists like Baskin, 
Kosoy, Tveritinof, the Raskolniks, and the early Quakers. There 
is also a remarkable likeness between the doctrines of the Douk- 
hobors and those of the Lollards as taught by Wycliffe. The 
assertion that the sect was founded by a Quaker who visited 
Eussia in the eighteenth century is considered very doubtful. 
About the middle of the eighteenth century, however, there 
lived in the Ukraine, in what is now the province of Kharhof, 
a foreigner who had no fixed place of residence and whose 
identity is unknown, though he was thought to be a Prussian 
noncommissioned officer, and a Quaker. This interesting char- 
acter is thus described: '^A man of high character who was 
devoted to the service of his fellows. He taught that govern- 
ments are unnecessary, all men are equal, the hierarchy and the 
priesthood are a human invention, the Church and its cere- 
monies are superfluous, monasticism is a perversion of human 
nature, the conspiracy of the proprietors is a disgrace to man- 
kind, and the Tzar and Archbishops are just like other peo- 
ple."^ He found many followers and around him the nucleus 
of the Doukhobor sect formed itself, his relation to them being 
that of adviser and instructor. 

The only personal connection that the Quakers had with 
the Doukhobors before the recent persecution came from a visit 
of certain English Quakers during the last century. There is 
an undoubted resemblance between the opinions of the Douk- 
hobors and those taught by the early Quakers. Indeed their 
doctrine may be described as a very interesting aberration of 
the somewhat superior doctrine of the Quakers. Among the 
points in which Quaker influence must have strengthened Douk- 
hoborism are: their attention to the inward voice, their rejec- 
tion of church ceremonies, their disapproval of oaths and of 
war, and their independent attitude to authority exemplified by 
their refusal to uncover their heads even before magistrates or 
kings." ''By early Quaker and Doukhobor alike, Christ was 

3 Aylmer Maudo, A peoulmr people: the Doukhobors (London, 1905), 111. 
* The Df>uk}io>>orH are said in many cases to have refused to remove their hats 
when V>cforo officials, mag^istrates, and governors. IMd., 101, 102. 

Vol. IV, No. 1 xhe Doukhobors in Canada 5 

identified with the inward voice,' and with the capacity to see a 
moral issue clearly and feel sure of what is right. " ^ To them 
the life and death of Christ was of less importance than the 
' ' Christ within. ' ' The early Quakers gave a second place to the 
bible while the Doukhobors, for the most part illiterate, attached 
scarcely any importance to it except those portions which had 
passed into the chants or psalms, learned by heart and recited 
at their meetings. To this unwritten collection of psalms, pre- 
served in their memories, they apply the expression *'the living 
book.'' To-day the Quakers and Doukhobors seem farther 
apart. ^ ^ Among most modern Quakers the Bible, the Atonement, 
and the Scheme of Redemption, occupy a prominent place, while 
the Doukhobors attach but slight importance to the Bible as a 
book, and, for the most part have never heard of the ^Scheme 
of Redemption,' which they would consider immoral were it 
narrated to them."^ There is also a great contrast between 
the quiet Quaker meetings and the ** sunrise service" of the 
Doukhobors. Another most striking difference exists between 
these two peace-loving sects in the matter of education and gov- 
ernmental support. The Quakers have always been foremost 
in educational development and have ever been law-abiding 
citizens, faithful to the governments under which they have 
lived. To the Quakers a defective civil government seems bet- 
ter than none at all ; while to the Doukhobors, civil government 
seems to be of itself an evil. Nevertheless, the Doukhobors ad- 
here to a Quaker type of religion which allows man to use his 
powers of thought and conscience to their utmost, and freedom 
to express the truths he discerns unhindered by what his prede- 
cessors may have said. 

Probably the best account of the beliefs of the Doukhobors is 
the one by Orest Novitsky, which, although written from the 
point of view of an orthodox Russian, is a fair statement of the 
Doukhobor beliefs and is accepted as such by the Doukhobors 
themselves.^ According to Novitsky, they believe in one God. 
They do not deny the Trinity but their statements about it are 

5 Maude, A peculiar people, 102. 

6 Hid., 103. 

7 Novitsky made a careful study of the Doukhobors and their ereed. His account, 
which was written as his thesis for a doctor 's degree, was published in Kief in 1832. 

6 Elina Tlior steins on m.v.h.r. 

to the effect that God may be approaclied from three sides. 
They accept the external sacraments only in a spiritual sense, 
hence reject infant baptism; they reject as useless all church 
rites and ceremonies and condemn church officers. Marriage 
they say should be accomplished without ceremonies. An ex- 
ternal knowledge of Christ is not essential for salvation for 
^'the inward word'^ reveals him in the depths of the soul. Those 
enlightened by the spirit of God will after death rise again; 
what ^^ill become of the other people is not known. They re- 
gard it as sinful to go to war, to carry arms, or to take oaths. 
They reject all decrees of churches and councils. Icons and 
saints should not be worshiped; and government, if needed at 
all, is necessary only for the wicked. 

Peter Verigin, present leader of the sect, has expressed his 
version of the Doukhobor faith as follows: "The chief article 
in the Doukhobor 's profession of faith is the service and wor- 
ship of God in spirit and in truth. They do not believe in the 
mere theory of goodness, but in the fact that conduct alone 
brings to man salvation. For this it is not only sufficient to 
understand the ways of God, but to follow them. The concep- 
tion they have of Christ is based on the teaching of the Gospel, 
they acknowledge His coming in the flesh. His teaching and 
suffering in the spiritual sense, and affirm that all contained in 
the Gospel should be accomplished in ourselves. Thus Christ 
must in us be begotten, born, grow up, teach, suffer, die and 
rise again. Concerning baptism they say it takes place when a 
man repents with a pure and willing heart and turns to God, 
and not to the world. The foundation of the Doukhobor com- 
munism is not based on the economic but spiritual factors, for 
which the individual psychology is taken as the fundamental is- 
sue of everything. The individual is everything, institution is 
nothing. But the individual has to be in as perfect communism 
with his spiritual self as possible. Only by keeping the equilib- 
rium between himself and the universe man obtains the highest 
happiness and freedom. We are our own lawmakers; our in- 
dividual laws must be in perfect harmony with the laws of na- 
ture and universe and not contradict them. The fundamental 
idea of our principles and laws is the gospel of human love, 
which originates in the conscience of an individual and leads up 

Vol. IV, No. 1 The Doukhobors in Canada 7 

to the conception of whole humanity and God. According to 
this all living creatures are equal brethren for one and the same 
life-essence manifests itself in every living being. This is the 
chief argument why we refuse to eat any meat. We extend this 
idea of equality also to government, and for this reason deny its 
superior authority especially when it operates against the con- 
science of individuals. However, in all that does not infringe 
what we regard as the will of God, we willingly comply with the 
law of a government. ' ' ^ 

As Maude remarks in this connection, we continually find in 
the Doukhobor statements of belief two different notes. ^^The 
one is calm, moderate, persuasive, couched almost in the or- 
thodox phraseology of the Eastern Church, but importing a phil- 
osophic truth into the conventional phrases, and at dangerous 
points taking refuge in mysticism. The other is clear, resolute, 
radical ; there is no mysticism or secrecy about it ; but it is often 
harsh, contemptuous, and inimical, not merely to all authority 
in Church and State but towards all who do not agree at once 
and absolutely. It answers to the harshest note sounded by 
the first generation of Quakers, in their scorn of 'steeple-houses' 
and 'hireling priests.' These two notes correspond, no doubt, 
to the views of the milder and more spiritual Doukhobors on the 
one hand, and the more rigid and logical Doukhobors on the 
other. "^ We find many inconsistencies in their sayings and 
they are not above twisting facts to suit their theories. They 
state they have no bible among them and no need of external 
revelation, yet when questioned about their faith reply with 
words from the holy scriptures. According to Tcherthoff ''the 
Doukhobors perhaps furnish the nearest approach to the prac- 
tice of Christ 's teachings that is to be met with in modern life. ' ' 
It is a significant fact that Doukhoborism has been a peasant 
faith. It has never had any success among the upper classes, 
and no priest has ever been converted. They have at the most 
only an intuitive conception of the great aims for which modern 
culture strives. 

8 Independent, 75 : 24, 25. A more complete account of the tenets of the Douk- 
hobor faith may be found in Maude, A peculiar people, in which Novitsky's classi- 
fication is reproduced in almost his own words. 

9lhid., 105. 

8 Elina Thorsteinson m.v.h. e. 

A suitable leader is essential to the starting of a sect, and to 
its continuance if it meets with persecution. The Doukhobor 
sect was no exception, and capable leaders early appeared among 
its adherents. Under the influence of Sylvan Kolesnikof, who 
was active as a religious teacher among the Doukhobors of the 
government or province of Ekaterinnoslof from 1750 to 1775, 
the doctrines of the sect seem to have been at their best. 
Thoughtful, tactful, prudent, remarkably well informed, his in- 
fluence was very great and his leadership successful, for he did 
not come into conflict with the authorities. He taught his fol- 
lowers that the externalities of religion are unimportant and 
that they might conform to the ceremonial religion of whatever 
country they found themselves in. One of his sayings was, 
*^Let us bow to the God in one another for we are the image of 
God upon earth. ' ' This is probably the explanation of the bow- 
ing customs of the Doukhobors. Another man, not himself a 
Doukhobor, whose service was of great value to the sect was the 
wandering philosopher Skovoroda. Though he was too well 
educated and intelligent to belong to the Doukhobors, he greatly 
influenced their history. He is said to have formulated some of 
their views in his time.^^ To the next leader of importance, 
Ilarion Pobirohin, belongs the honor of having first made an at- 
tempt to draw the sect into a compact community, and of hav- 
ing first assumed divine authority. Pobirohin was a well-to-do 
wood dealer of the village of Goreloe in Tambof , and was chiefly 
active about 1775 to 1785. Eloquent and of attractive character, 
he became a leader of the Doukhobors of his district, collecting 
them together in one place and introducing communism among 
them. Not satisfied with recognizing himself to be a son of God 
like the rest of the brethren, he claimed to be Christ. Similar 
claims have repeatedly been made by later Doukhobor leaders. 

10 This extremely interesting character lived from 1722 to 1794; he was born in 
the Kief district. Although his parents were common Cossacks, he received a good 
education. To avoid priesthood he pretended to lose his wits. He visited various 
countries and on returning to Eussia soon adopted the life of a wanderer. He lived 
very j^lainly, carrying a Hebrew bible and a flute on his travels, devoting his life to 
migratory instruction and discussion. Among his accomplishments he counted that 
of l>eing a musical composer, and the Molokans, who in some respects resemble the 
Doukhobors, still use some of hia verses and tunes. The wandering habit of life 
which he practiced is still quite common in Russia. 

Vol. IV, No. 1 ^-^Q Doukhobors in Canada 9 

Pobiroliin chose twelve apostles, and appointed twelve '' death- 
bearing angels" to punish all who relapsed after once becoming 
Doukhobors. He taught that ^Hruth is not in books but in the 
spirit, not in the Bible but in the 'Living Book','' and he claimed 
that his church was infallible. The Doukhobors seem to have ac- 
cepted the theocratic despotism he established without a mur- 
mur. Increasing in self-assurance and dictatorialness, Pobiro- 
hin finally came into conflict with the civil authorities, was tried 
and banished to Siberia with his children and some of his 
apostles. The most remarkable of all the Doukhobor leaders 
was Savely Kapoiistin, born in 1743, who succeeded Pobirohin 
and founded the dynasty which has borne the name of Kalmikof .^^ 
According to some accounts, he was a son of Pobirohin and was 
taken as an army recruit to punish him for being a Doukhobor. 
After leaving the army he became a leader of the Tambof Douk- 
hobors about 1790. He possessed remarkable ability and his in- 
fluence over them was very great. In 1805, many of the Tambof 
Doukhobors joined the Milky Waters colony and Kapoiistin 
was invited to become the leader of this settlement. Under his 
domination the Doukhobors lost the freedom of thought that had 
been characteristic of the sect, and became a clan, yielding blind 
obedience to hereditary leaders. 

Because of their peculiar religious views and their open 
preaching that rulers were not needed, the Doukhobors were 
looked upon as enemies of both church and state; and they suf- 
fered early persecution and banishment in spite of the policy 
of toleration followed by both Catherine II and her successor 
Paul. Toward the close of the eighteenth century they were 
scattered about over southern Eussia, southward and westward 
from the Volga, with adherents in various parts of the empire.^^ 
Small groups were also living in banishment in Finland, Arch- 
angel, and Siberia. During the reigns of Catherine II and Paul, 
the Doukhobors were severely though intermittently persecuted. 

11 Kapoustin, to avoid military service for his son, arranged to have him made 
officially illegitimate, and had him pass by the name of his mother's people, the 

12 The tenets of the sect were variously expressed by the different groups of 
Doukhobors, but they were all united in rejecting church authority and church rites, 
and in disapproving of civil authorities, wars, and oaths. 

10 El'nia Thorsfeinson m.v.h.e. 

Alexander I, who reigned from 1801 to 1825, seems to have rec- 
ognized the futility of the persecutions of the preceding thirty 
years as a remedy for religious error. On learning of the fool- 
ishly harsh treatment that the sect was receiving at the hands 
of various local authorities, he allowed many Doukhobors from 
various parts of Eussia to migrate to Milky Waters, a fertile 
district named after the river Molotchna that flows through it 
into the sea of Azof. The object of the government in allowing 
the Doukhobors to form a settlement of their own w^as to hinder 
them from proselyting. The success of the settlement of thirty 
families, transported to this district north of the Crimea in 
1801, led to requests from other Doukhobors of various govern- 
ments or provinces to be allowed to join them. At first, these 
peiinissions were readily given, the governments sometimes 
even paying the cost of the migration beside making a liberal 
grant of fertile land and allowing freedom from taxation for a 
period of ^ve years. A general permission, however, was not 
extended to all Doukhobors. Each government was inclined to 
treat them differently, and no Doukhobors who were serfs of 
private proprietors could migrate. After 1812, they met with 
increasing difficulty in getting leave to migrate, at first on ac- 
count of the Napoleonic invasion and later because it was not 
thought wise to permit an increase of sectarian settlement. 
Finally, just before the death of Alexander I in 1825, further 
migrations to the Milky Waters colony were prohibited. In 
spite of the beneficent intentions and humane decrees of Alex- 
ander I, the persecution of the Doukhobors by local authorities 
continued on one pretext or another. We have many instances 
of knouting, brutal treatment, and banishment; several persons 
w^ere even flogged to death. Harsh measures were passed against 
them; their right to hold property was limited in order that 
they might not increase in numbers ; and in 1819 they were pro- 
hibited from holding public office and a heavy tax was imposed 
on the whole community for their release from such service. 
They were restricted in other ways and promised many priv- 
ileges if they would return to the orthodox church. Severe 
measures seemed only to strengthen the Doukhobors; their 
Milky Waters settlement gradually increased and by 1816 there 
were nine villages to be found there, numbering 3,000 inhabi- 

The Doukhobors in Canada 11 

tants, while a much larger number remained scattered over 

The migration to the Milky Waters settlement marked a turn- 
ing point in the history of this group of Doukhobors. The sect 
now became an industrial and economic community and ceased 
to be propagandist. The community was organized without any 
difi&culty and prospered from the first, and for many years it 
gave little trouble to the authorities. The members quickly 
adopted agricultural improvements from Mennonites settled 
near their colony. Agriculture, cattle breeding, carving, car- 
pentry, and masonry were encouraged, but trading and com- 
merce were discouraged by the leader, Kapoustin, for he feared 
the influence of outsiders. The common members of the sect 
were also discouraged from learning to read and write. Kapous- 
tin ruled like a prophet and used every means to retain the al- 
legiance of his people. Thirty elders and twelve apostles, ap- 
pointed by himself, aided him in governing them. They carried 
on intercourse with the Russian government and paid the taxes 
for the whole colony so that it appeared to the Doukhobors that 
Kapoustin 's rule was recognized by the authorities. Kapous- 
tin introduced the communal system, but it was abandoned after 
some years and for a time the members could hold private prop- 
erty. This leader expounded the tenets of the Doukhobors in a 
manner to turn them to his own profit. He attached special 
importance to the doctrine of transmigration of souls, which 
was already known among the sect. He taught that Christ is 
born again in every believer, and that the soul of Jesus from 
generation to generation continually animates new bodies. Thus 
born again he was called pope; false popes arose but the true 
Jesus retained a small band of believers. These believers, it is 
held, are the Doukhobors, among whom Jesus is believed con- 
stantly to dwell, his soul animating one of them. *^The result 
of Kapoustin 's influence was to convert what had been an ultra- 
democratic, anti-Governmental sect, into a society in which he 
was an autocrat controlling not only the persons and property, 
but even the very thoughts of his subjects. '' ^* They were trained 
to conceal their real beliefs from outsiders and to be careful not 

13 The Doukhobors of this settlement were the ancestors of those now in Canada. 

14 Maude, A peculiar people, 132. 

12 EU7ia Thorsteinson m.v.h.e. 

to involve their leader iii any difficulty by admitting that he dic- 
tated their actions. ^'Any course decided upon by the Doukho- 
bors is, even to-day, usually justified to outsiders by the use of 
texts from the Bible, not because such texts are authoritative to 
the Doukhobors, but because they are a safe way of expressing 
their decisions. '' ^^ 

Kapoiistin preferred that the Doukhobors should not apply 
to the Russian courts of justice, hence urged that all their dis- 
putes should be settled among themselves. The ** orphans' 
home,'^ founded ostensibly to secure the welfare of aged widows 
and orphans, added greatly to the leader's power. This in- 
stitution was in reality a disguise for the seat of government; 
it formed a treasury to meet emergencies and centralized the 
power of the sect. For the maintenance of this institution, a 
large estate was placed practically at the uncontrolled disposal 
of the leader, who for official purposes, in relation to the Rus- 
sian government, figured as the manager of the orphans' home. 
The members of the sect were sober, well-to-do people, punctual 
tax payers, and submissive to the government. They considered 
themselves a ^^holy people, the King's annointed, a people re- 
newed, and without sin." Exceedingly suspicious of outsiders, 
then as now, their clannishness went so far that they used all 
possible means to conceal the misdeeds of their coreligionists. 
They thoroughly believed in the divinity of the leader and the 
evil this belief occasioned explains much that is remarkable in 
their history. The community flourished and its prosperity at- 
tracted converts, whose petitions to join the Milky Waters col- 
ony caused the Doukhobors trouble. They were charged with 
proselyting and on the accusation of some of the worthless rene- 
gade Doukhobors several of the brethren were arrested and kept 
in prison. ^^ 

When Kapoiistin died, the office of Christ passed to his son, 

15 Maude, A peculiar people. 

i« A characteristic story is told of the Doukhobors in this connection. Their 
leader, Kapoustin, was arrested on a charge of making converts to his heresy. He 
met with harsh treatment but was released on bail. Soon after, the Doukhobors 
declared ho had died November 7, 1817, and had been buried the next day. They 
clung to their story in sfnte of the fact that the corpse was disinterred and found to 
be that of another man. Kapoustin lived in hiding for some years after this. Ihid., 

Vol. IV, No. 1 j/^g Doukhobors in Canada 13 

Vasily Kalmikof (1792-1832) ; and his son and heir was Ilarion 
Kalmikof (1816-1841). Neither of these leaders possessed abil- 
ity and- they fell into evil practices and became drunkards. The 
council of thirty elders and the twelve apostles ruled in Vasily 
Kalmikof 's name; a period of maladministration began. A 
mere suspicion of treachery was punished by torture and death 
by the council of elders, which had constituted itself an inquisi- 
tional tribunal. A governmental investigation of their outrages 
followed in 1834-1839, and revealed a frightful state of things. 
Among the proved cases of terrorism might be mentioned the 
fact that some unfortunate victims were found to have been 
mutilated and even buried alive. The result was that the Em- 
peror Nicholas I ordered all members of the sect to be transport- 
ed to Tiflis in the Caucasus, except those who would return to 
the orthodox church. Surrounded by wild hill tribes in the 
Caucasus, it was thought that the nonresistant Doukhobor sect 
would soon abandon their principles or be exterminated by their 
wild neighbors. Several leading Doukhobors have since ac- 
knowledged that this expulsion was due to their own misdoings. 
In all, more than four thousand exiles went from the Milky 
Waters to the Caucasus between 1841 and 1843. Though this 
removal involved many hardships, only twenty-seven Doukho- 
bors were found willing to return to the orthodox church. La- 
ter, however, this number was considerably increased when they 
came to realize what a hard life they would have to lead in the 
Caucasus. Their leader, Ilarion Kalmikof, died soon after the 
migration, and they were ruled for a time by an elder named 
Lyovouska, who soon got into trouble with the Eussian authori- 
ties and was banished to Siberia. He was followed by Peter 
Kalmikof, one of Ilarion 's sons, who led them successfully until 
1864, when he died, still a young man. On his death, his wife 
Loukeriya became the leader of the Doukhobors and proved ex- 
ceptionally successful. Instead of dying out as the Eussian 
government had hoped, the new community flourished in spite 
of the severe climate and other difficulties encountered. This 
prosperity was largely due to their industry, their practice of 
communism, and the spirit of cooperation and mutual aid among 
them. Located six thousand feet above sea level, even barley 
grew with difficulty, but they practiced agriculture successfully 

14 Elina Tliorsteinson m.v.h.r. 

in spite of the altitude and poor soil. They were also wagoners 
and cattle breeders, and became a well-to-do peasantry. They 
spread out and formed settlements in the provinces of Tifiis, 
Kars, and Elizavetpol between the Caucasus mountains and the 
Persian frontier.^^ Fifty years after settling there, they num- 
bered nearly 12,000 in the Tiflis government, about 5,000 in the 
Kars government, and in the Elizavetpol government about 
4,000, making a total of 21,000 Doukhobors in the Caucasus. 
They offered no objections to conscription and were in good 
repute with the authorities and with their neighbors the Mo- 
hammedans, who surrounded them. A new ** orphans' home," 
also called ^^the Fatherland," which was established in this 
period, accumulated a large capital, the exact amount of which 
is not known as the leaders never rendered accounts to the peo- 

After Loukeriya died, in 1886, trouble arose among the Douk- 
hobors not only over the succession but also over the disposal 
of considerable property of which she had had charge. Ac- 
cording to an official report of 1895 by the governor of Tiflis, 
a claimant to power immediately appeared in the person of 
Peter Verigin, from the village of Slavyanki in the government 
of Ehzavetpol. He had for many years been in attendance on 
the leader, whose nephew he was through his mother, and he 
claimed also to be the son of Peter Kalmikof. He met with 
strong opposition from the head men of the village of Goreloe, 
the seat of government where the head of the sect lived, and the 
seat of ' ' the Fatherland " or ^ * orphans ' home. ' ' Though the out- 
look of the Doukhobors had been much broadened and they had 
ceased to believe in many of the "old superstitions, yet on the 
confirmation of his relationship to the former leader, Peter 
Kalmikof, the people of his village and others accepted him.^* 

17 The Russian authorities induced the Doukhobors by special privileges to take 
part in the colonization of these districts, added to the Russian empire after the 
war with Turkey in 1877-1878. ''During that war the Doukhobors rendered valua- 
ble service to the transport department of the army." Maude, A peculiar people, 

i^Aft^.T his mother announced in solemn gathering that Verigin was the son of 
Peter Kalmikof, she and her husband fell at his feet with the rest of the village 
people. Tlioy then took the oath of allegiance and signed attestations of allegiance. 
Thus Verigin estalilished his connection with the holy reigning dynasty, his title being 
acknowledged on the strength of his birth. IMd., 153. 

Vol. IV, No. 1 j'he Doukhobors in Canada 15 

Consequently, about seven tenths of all the Doukhobor popula- 
tion swore allegiance to Verigin. The opposition or ^^ small 
party/* which looked upon the unprincipled Verigin as some- 
thing of a scamp, thereupon appealed to the Russian law courts 
for the first time in fifty years, asking that they be awarded the 
custody of the ^^ orphans' home" property. Loukeriya's broth- 
er, a member of the ^ ' small party, ' * claimed the management of 
the estate in question and won his case, although the other side 
charged him with bribery. As a disturber of the peace, Verigin 
with his brothers and principal followers were banished without 
trial to Siberia, by administrative order. Verigin 's banishment, 
which was to last ^ye years, from 1887 to 1892, was later extend- 
ed so that altogether he spent fifteen years in exile. At first he 
was confined in the government of Archangel and later in other 
places like Obdorsk at the mouth of the Obi. The Doukhobors, 
however, took almost incredible pains to keep up intercourse 
with the exiled leader, whose influence was as great as ever. 
The Eussian authorities removed him to more inaccessible places 
but the indefatigable persistency of the messengers overcame all 
obstacles. Thus they were able to receive his instructions in 
spite of all the government could do to prevent it. These in- 
structions, in some instances, roused great excitement among his 
followers as they contained new principles which he advised 
them to adopt for their spiritual welfare. 

During his exile, Verigin came into contact with exiles from 
other sects; he also met friends of Tolstoy and became familiar 
with books by this author. His ideas were much altered as a 
consequence and many of the injunctions he sent to his follow- 
ers at this time were greatly influenced and colored by Tolstoyan 
ideas. Verigin, however, has always been unwilling to ac- 
knowledge that his views have been modified by those of Tolstoy. 
In 1896, the very year that Verigin asserted that he had not read 
Tolstoy's works, he composed a letter to his followers made up 
principally of passages borrowed verbatim from. Tolstoy's 
Kingdom of God is within you. That epistle, now a part of the 
sacred lore of the Doukhobors, was signed by Peter Verigin, 
but it contains no acknowledgment of the facts that he had bor- 
rowed its contents from Tolstoy. It serves to show how far 
Verigin accepted Tolstoy's ideas; he passed on to his followers 

16 Elina TJiorsteinson m.v.h.r. 

Tolstoy's ideas of noiiresistance, vegetarianism, repudiation 
of govenimental authority, law courts, and the ownership of 
property. Some of these theories the Doukhobors simply trans- 
lated into forms already familiar to them. 

All during his banishment, Verigin prompted a marked re- 
ligious revival by the advice he sent through his messengers. 
He recommended the re-introduction of communism, strict ab- 
stinence from strong drinks and tobacco, the practice of vegeta- 
rianism, the destruction of all arms possessed by his followers, 
and an adherence to nonresistant principles. In 1887, conscrip- 
tion was introduced by which all male adults became liable for 
army service. The Doukhobors had at first complied with the 
law but when the above-mentioned reviva took place they de- 
cided they could no longer slay their fellow men. The decision 
to refuse army service was the result of a message sent by Veri- 
gin early in 1895. Their refusal was followed by a severe per- 
secution. Not all the Doukhobors would accept Verigin 's reg- 
ulations, so that there was a split in 1895 resulting in a middle 
or ''butchers' party,'' which rejected Verigin 's advice, and a 
"fasting party" which accepted it. The former, which consist- 
ed of nearly three hundred families out of the seven hundred or 
more families, begged the Russian authorities not to confound 
them with the ''fasting" Doukhobors and their undertakings. 
They remained true to their traditional secretiveness, however, 
and would not reveal what their opponents proposed to do. 
There was great excitement among them for the "f asters" de- 
manded the return of the "Fatherland" or "orphans' home" 
with the property belonging to it. They refused also to pay 
their taxes, which the manager of the "orphans' home" had 
attended to. They even went so far as to attempt to arouse the 
surrounding Mohammedan tribes against the government. Their 
young men began to refuse conscription, but the crisis came 
when this group prepared to leave the country. The "small 
party," disturbed by the suspicious preparations of the "f ast- 
ers" feared an attack from them. The local authorities were 
perjDlexed by the difficult situation and the government, misled 
by false reports and confused by the mutual recriminations of 
the two parties, found itself in an uncomfortable and unenviable 
position. The Doukhobors could not be exempted from con- 

Vol. IV, No. 1 xj^Q DouJchobors in Canada 17 

scription in a military empire. The local authorities, therefore, 
commenced persecuting them, though in their reports to the 
higher authorities they were careful to misrepresent what they 
had done. It must be admitted that the behavior of the Douk- 
hobors was very troublesome. They were often impudent and 
disrespectful and even deliberately insulted the governor of 
Tiflis and his subordinates, who thought it necessary to visit 
the district where the trouble took place. 

Verigin had sent instructions in 1895 that on his name-day, 
June 29, old style, his followers were to collect and burn their 
arms to show their firm resolve not to use physical force against 
their fellow men. This they did publicly and the next morning 
before the fire had quite burned out, the Cossacks, who had been 
sent into the district to keep order came upon the Doukhobors 
and flogged them brutally. Following this inhuman proceeding 
the Cossacks were quartered in the villages, as in a conquered 
country, and they committed many outrages. Many of the sect 
suffered violent death by flogging while others yielded to the 
pressure brought to bear on them. The government went fur- 
ther and broke up the homes of the **f asters'' in the Tiflis gov- 
ernment and scattered about 4,000 people among the Georgians 
and other tribes. As a result, in less than three years these 
people were reduced to such straits that about 1,000 of them 
died from sickness caused by want, change of climate, and other 
hardships.^® More would have perished but for the help which 
the Doukhobors of Kars and Elizavetpol were able to give them 
in spite of the police regulations which forbade communication 
with these dispersed people. Those of the men available for 
military service were sent for eighteen years to the Siberian 
criminal battalion. It is impossible to justify the inhuman 
treatment accorded to these people who had really committed 
no crime. The first to suffer were those serving in the army 
who laid down their arms. Imprisonment, banishment, flogging 

19 In the winter of 1894-1895 Tolstoy first made the acquaintance of the Doukho- 
bors. Externally they seemed to meet the requirements of his teachings and he 
naturally feU into the error of regarding them as examples of true Christianity in 
practical fife. ''Rejecting the Church and State, acknowledging (apparently) no 
human authority, they lived together and cooperated in a closely knit community. 
They professed the very principles of Christian anarchy dear to Tolstoy." Natur- 
ally, therefore, he was prominent in appealing for help for the sufferers. Maude, A 
peculiar people, 174. 

18 EUna Tliorsteinson m.v.h.r. 

ill various dogreos, and other minor liardsliips were inflicted on 
them. The policy of the officials between 1895 and 1898 seemed 
to be to make the Doukhobors abandon their principles or al- 
low themselves to be slowly exterminated. Still the sect had 
some sympathizers among the officials, and moreover, the gov- 
ernment was anxious that news of the persecution should not 
spread. The Russian press was forbidden to allude to the mat- 
ter and outsiders visiting the Doukhobors were expelled. But 
publicity was obtained through Tolstoy and his friends; repre- 
sentatives were sent to the Caucasus to investigate matters and 
a petition was presented to the tzar by a delegation sent to St. 
Petersburg. Through the English press were published unin- 
tentionally several extremely biased accounts of the Doukhobors 
and reports of the persecution. Tolstoy's representative, V. 
Tchertkoff, appealed for help to be administered through him 
for these people who were being persecuted ^^for having realized 
the Christian life. ' ' On the other side the Russian government 
in St. Petersburg sent out a general to investigate the whole 
matter. A number of Doukhobor elders were summoned before 
him and they were offered the restoration of land and property 
if they would take oaths of allegiance and submit to conscrip- 
tion. This official heard what they had to say and did all he 
could to persuade them to yield. He went so far as to acknowl- 
edge the excellence of their views, but asserted that the time 
had not yet come to put them into practice. To this they re- 
plied, '^The time. General, may not yet have come for you — but 
it has come for us!''^^ 

Finally, in March, 1898, the Doukhobors received permission 
to leave Russia on condition that they should go at their own 
expense. It was stipulated, however, that those who had been 
called on for military service should not be released, that those 
(including Peter Verigin) who were in Siberia, should remain 
to work out their sentences, and that if any of them ever re- 
turned, they should be banished to distant parts of Siberia. It 
would have been impossible for these ignorant, illiterate, and 
impoverished peasants to avail themselves of this permission 
but for the aid they received from the Society of Friends in 
London and in America, and from volunteer workers elsewhere. 

20 Maude, A peculiar people, 36. 

Vol. IV, No. 1 j/jg Doukhobors in Canada 19 

It is said that Tolstoy wrote his last great novel, Resurrection, 
to get money to pay for the emigration of the Doukhobors to 
Canada. The Doukhobors were anxious to move at once for 
fear the permission would be rescinded, and on the first of Sep- 
tember, 1898, Prince D. A. HilkofP, Aylmer Maude, and two 
Doukhobor families who were delegates for the Doukhobors, 
sailed from Liverpool to Canada.^^ Prince Hilkoff and Aylmer 
Maude accompanied the Doukhobors, Ivan Ivin and Peter Ma- 
hortof went with their families at their pressing request and at 
their own expense, to advise with them and act as interpreters. 
They were to ascertain whether Canada was a suitable country 
for Doukhobor settlement and what the Canadian government 
would do to help the migration.^^ Prince Hilkoff 's knowledge of 
the Doukhobors made him an admirable negotiator, especially 
in the matter of selecting land. 

Meanwhile an influential committee of the Society of Friends 
had interested itself in the project of transporting the Doukho- 
bors to the island of Cyprus. Prince Hilkoff, Ivin, and Mahortof 
had visited Cyprus in July, 1898, and reported that the island 
was altogether unsuitable for a Doukhobor settlement. This 
report came too late to prevent a temporary migration thither 
of 1,126 Doukhobors, who later came to Canada. 

As the Canadian government was anxious to attract immigra- 
tion, the delegates found its representatives ready to give every 
possible assistance. The government undertook to give each 
male over eighteen years of age 160 acres of good land subject 
to the payment of an entrance fee of ten dollars, which payment 
could be deferred for three years. Assistance by government 
interpreters and accommodation in the government immigra- 
tion halls was also offered on their arrival in Canada, and lastly 

21 Prince Hilkoff 's career is very interesting. He left what promised to be a 
brilliant career in the army because his conscience troubled him for taking human 
life. He incurred the displeasure of the tzar because he divided his estate among 
his peasants and incited them to resist the extortions of their priests. Persisting in 
his course, he was banished to the Caucasus, where he lived among the Doukhobors. 
Joseph Elkinton, The Doukhobors, their history in Eussia, their migration to Canada 
(Philadelphia, 1903), 173-175. 

22 This contemplated migration was not without precedent. Twenty years before, 
a successful settlement had been made in southern Canada by Mennonites from 
Russia, who had refused to do military service. Maude, A peculiar people, 39. 

20 Elina Thorsteinson m.v.h.e. 

a grant of one dollar Avas provided for each immigrant, man, 
woman, or child, reaching Winnipeg by June 30, 1899.'' As a 
further inducement the immigrants were to be exempt from 
militaiy service, the mihtia act of Canada being supplemented 
by an order in council which named the Doukhobors as a sect 
which was to have exemption from the provisions of this act. 

As the Doukhobors, Ivin and Mahortof, were unable to speak 
English and reluctant to take the responsibility of the decision, 
and as it was difficult and expensive to communicate with the 
Doukhobors in the Caucasus, Prince Hilkoff and Aylmer Maude 
found it necessary to take this responsibility, although they were 
not fully trusted by the two Doukhobor delegates. The ever 
suspicious Doukhobors were ready to believe the suggestions of 
some Eussian Jews of Winnipeg that Prince Hilkoff had a 
selfish motive for helping them. At this time Aylmer Maude, 
who was a personal friend of Tolstoy, was mistaken as to the 
real character of the Doukhobors. He accepted the Tolstoyan 
version of the matter to the effect that ^^They were supposed 
to have practically solved the great problem which divides an- 
archists from socialists, and to have shown how to combine 
complete individual freedom with equality of opportunity and 
material condition, and also with peace and good order in the 
life of the community. ' ' '* Tolstoy, with his dislike of conscrip- 
tion, had hoped also that the collective protest which the Douk- 
hobors had made would have a widespread result. The imper- 
fections of their system became obvious soon after they reached 
Canada, and Maude was completely disillusioned. 

The Doukhobors were anxious to settle as a compact com- 
munity with their lands as closely together as possible. A 
promising location was selected in the district near Edmonton, 
Al])orta, consisting of twelve townships where the Doukhobors 
might settle in a single group. But this arrangement came to 
naught because unfavorable accounts, which had found their 
way into print, furnished the conservative opposition to the lib- 

23 Usually the one dollar bonus was paid only to male adults. The government 
paid a similar bonus to agents of steamship companies to encourage immigration 
into Canada, but as there were no agents in this case, the bonus went into a fund 
out of which the government paid the expense of supporting the Doukhobors on their 
first arrival. Maude, A peculiar people, 48. 

2* Ibid., 59. 

Vol. IV, No. 1 j/^g Doukhobors in Canada 21 

era! government with weapons against the proposed immigra- 
tion. Absurd reports were published in the Canadian newspa- 
pers, and for these several reasons pressure was brought to bear 
on the government and the Doukhobor delegates found that they 
could not get this desirable land. It was impossible to find another 
suitable location large enough for the Doukhobor community, so 
that finally three different locations were selected. These were 
subsequently called the North (or Thunder Hill) colony, situated 
at the northeast corner of Assiniboia; the South colony (with 
an annex called the DeviPs Lake colony), situated about eigh- 
teen miles southwest of the North colony ; and the Saskatchewan 
colonies, divided into the Duck Lake and the Saskatoon settle- 
ments, also called Prince Albert or Rosthern colony, situated 
about 250 miles to the west or northwest of the others. In these 
settlements the Doukhobors were given more than 600 square 
miles, comprising some of the most fertile land in the northwest. 
To get the Doukhobors settled as nearly en hloc as possible, it 
was necessary for the government to give the Canadian Pacific 
railroad an equivalent elsewhere for the odd numbered sections 
held by that railway in the townships selected. This was satis- 
factorily arranged except with reference to a small part of the 
land allotted, which was held in trust for educational purposes. 
Maude, who met everywhere with promptness, cordial assist- 
ance, and encouragement during this difficult and critical time, 
arranged with the Canadian Pacific railway to carry the Douk- 
hobors from the coast, i.e. from St. John, New Brunswick, or 
Quebec, to the station west of Winnipeg nearest to their future 
location. The distance was over 2,000 miles and the rate was 
six dollars per adult, the colonist cars taking two days and eigh- 
teen hours, including stoppages, to make the journey. The 
Canadian authorities were quite explicit about the conditions on 
which the Doukhobors might come to Canada. In addition to 
the privileges already noted, they were not at first required to 
perform on each separate homestead the work legally necessary 
but were allowed to do this work on any part of the township 
they took up, in order to facilitate their communal arrangements. 
On their part the Doukhobors were to supply vital statistics, 
pay their taxes, and conform to other Canadian laws. Later, 
when trouble arose, they claimed that they had not understood 

22 Elina Thorsteinson m.v.h.r 

-svliat was expected of them, especially in the matter of statistics, 
although Maude had explained these demands and otfers of the 
o-overnment to the two Doukhobor delegates, and they had made 
no objections to the requirements. 

By December, 1898, negotiations and arrangements were so 
far advanced that Leopold Soulerzhitsky, at Batouni, on the 
Black Sea, had been empowered by the Doukhobors and their 
friends in England to engage the Beaver line steamer, Lahe 
Huron, to convey the first party of about 2,000 Doukhobors di- 
rect from Batouni to Canada. In January, 1898, the Lake 
Huron left the port of Batouni and after nearly a month's voy- 
age reached Halifax. Soulerzhitsky had the Doukhobors of this 
steamer in charge as well as the third party which consisted of 
the C}Tprus Doukhobors, already mentioned. The second steam- 
er, the Lake Superior, which arrived January 27, brought about 
2,000 Doukhobors in charge of Count Sergius Tolstoy, the sec- 
ond son of Leo Tolstoy. Each of the steamers made a second 
trip, and the last steamer, which was the most crowded of all, 
carried 2,318 Doukhobors besides several Russian helpers whose 
assistance was invaluable. ^^ On account of several cases of 
smallpox two of the shiploads had to stay in quarantine for a 
month at Grosse island in the gulf of St. Lawrence. Altogether, 
7,363 Doukhobors had reached Canada by June, 1899; about 
12,000 of them, who did not wish to emigrate, were left in the 
Caucasus, while about 110 were in Siberian exile. The Douk- 
hobors were able to furnish a part of the expenses, while the 
Canadian government spent about $20,000 in settling them, in 
addition to the $35,000 bonus money due according to the agree- 
ment. The Doukhobors agreed to refund a portion of the 
$20,000 spent by the government. 

Among the many whose services proved invaluable during the 
difficult time of arrival and settlement of the emigrants, the 
members of the Society of Friends took a prominent part. It 
was through the efforts and assistance of the Doukhobor com- 

2"' Among the workers whose unselfish exertions in behalf of the Doukhobors are 
noteworthy are: Herbert P. Archer, who continued Maude's work as an intermediary 
between the Doukhobors and the Canadian government; J. Elkinton, who also met 
thorn and accomj^anied them to their new homes; and Prince Hilkoff, who remained 
in Canada until all the Doukhobors were settled in their new locations. 

Vol. IV, No. 1 The Doukhobors in Canada 23 

mittee of Friends, in London, that the last three steamers were 
chartered for the migration.^^ They not only furnished able 
leadership for the movement but also generous financial as- 
sistance.^^ One of the Friends, Wilson Sturge, was also fore- 
most in removing the Doukhobors from Cyprus, where they 
landed in 1898. The climate of the island proved unsuitable, 
and about 100 Doukhobors died in a few months. There was 
much discontent among them and a strong desire soon developed 
to go to Canada to join the others. Wilson Sturge, to whom the 
Doukhobors were very grateful for his services, wound up their 
affairs in Cyprus. The Lake Superior was chartered and after 
a prosperous voyage the Doukhobors landed at Quebec, whence 
they were promptly transported to Yorkton. 

The Friends have also been foremost among the Doukhobors 
in educational work, many men and women of high character 
giving their services freely to them. Since the Doukhobors 
reached Canada no other body of men has assisted them so 
liberally and indefatigably as the Philadelphia Quakers. ^^ 

The majority of the Doukhobors arrived in Canada almost 
utterly destitute, for their transportation from Eussia had used 
up what slight resources they possessed and even this voyage 
itself was made possible only through the help given so gener- 
ously by the Society of Friends. Their first year in Canada 
was very trying for they had to face more than the ordinary 
trials of the pioneer. ^^They were located on the bare prairie 
almost without tools or building materials, distant from sources 
of supplies, without money, harassed by sickness, subject to the 
rigor of a strange climate with winter fast approaching.''^^ 

26 ' ' The members of this committee were William A. Albright, Edmund Wright 
Brooks, Frederick G. Cash, Samuel F. Hurnard, Thomas W. Marsh, Henry T. Men- 
nell, Arthur Midgly, Thomas P. Newman, Medford Warner and John Bellows, who 
acted as clerk to the committee." Maude, A peculiar people, 76. 

27 The English Friends had to raise a guarantee fund of $80,000 before the Eng- 
lish government would allow the Doukhobors to land in Cfyprus. Elkinton, The 
Doukhobors, 183. 

28 The author of this article has in her possession a letter from J. Elkinton, Jr., 
which gives a good account of what the Philadelphia Friends have done for the 
Doukhobors, as well as other interesting information about them. It serves to show, 
also, "why the Friends have taken so much interest in the welfare of this sect. 

29 Elkinton, The DouTchohors, 99. 

24 Elina Thorsteinson m.v.h.e. 

Their first task was necessarily that of making habitable shelters 
for themselves. As almost all the Doukhobor men were scat- 
tered over Canada as laborers on farms, railways, and in other 
places to earn wages snfficient to carry them through the winter, 
the women took their place as workers, building the villages and 
preparing the ground for harvest. The enterprising spirit and 
superior ability of the women was well shown in the way they 
faced the situation and built their homes. From the immigra- 
tion halls the Doukhobors had moved into huge barracks, built 
by the government in convenient places on the Doukhobor re- 
seixe. Using these as centers of operations, the women ener- 
getically began to build up their villages. They carted the logs 
for miles with the aid of two simple little wheels. They trod 
the mortar which they used in deep trenches and used their 
hands as trowels. They carried the earth for the mortar in 
willow baskets on their backs, while the water was often carried 
half a mile in two buckets, rough hewn out of tree trunks, hung 
on the end of a long pole. The weaker women chopped up hay 
or grass to mix with the mortar; several women, with their 
skirts kilted up, trod the mortar until it was as smooth as paste 
while another gang carried it in wooden troughs to the houses 
where six or eight women neatly and skilfully plastered the logs 
inside and out until the walls presented a smooth surface. The 
women also began the work of cultivating the soil. As few draft 
animals were available, they plowed much of the land by har- 
nessing themselves, twelve pairs of women to a plow, with one 
to hold the plow. Pictures of this novel method of plowing 
caused much unfair comment on the supposed cruelty and lazi- 
ness of the Doukhobor men; the fact w^as that the women rose 
to the occasion and did this necessary work in the absence of 
the men. Besides there were many more women than men 
among them and in many families there were no men to help 
bear the burdens, for Siberia had taken them. Out of the 7,361 
Doukhobors which came to Canada, only 1,500 were men; the 
others had been killed or were in exile. 

Much sickness appeared among them the first fall and winter, 
due to the insufficient food, exposure to the bitter weather, over- 
crowTJing and living in poorly ventilated rooms, and the fact 
that they were worn out by excessive labor. They suffered 

Vol. IV, No. 1 j^fiQ Doukhobors in Canada 25 

from scurvy, and from the fever brought by the Doukhobors 
who came from Cyprus. As they had no physicians, and no 
medicine in most of the communities, conditions were very bad 
for a time. They could not get through the winter without 
assistance and it was only by means of the united efforts of all 
their friends that they escaped starvation during the winter of 
1899-1900. The necessary help was furnished by Friends in 
Philadelphia and London who had already spent large sums of 
money to stock the Doukhobor farms and provide them with 
agricultural implements. The Friends in Philadelphia at this 
critical time raised $30,000 in a few weeks. Taking advantage 
of the law permitting settlers' effects to be carried at reduced 
rates, they were allowed by the authorities to ship in carloads 
of food and necessaries, which the Canadian officials distributed 
among the needy of the communities. Other organizations, 
among them the Dominion national council of women, rendered 
valuable assistance in this trying time. The Canadian govern- 
ment supplied the immigrants with seed for the spring sowing 
and through its agents also donated several thousand head of 
livestock.^^ In spite of the charity they have received, how- 
ever, the Doukhobors have never shown signs of becoming pau- 
pers but have utilized the aid given them in helping themselves. 
In 1902, matters had somewhat improved, especially in the more 
progressive communities. From this time on, the Doukhobors 
prospered and soon began sending money to their brethren in 
exile. By 1902, they had also begun to pay off the loan ad- 
vanced by P. N. Birukova and her sister, A. N. Sharapova, to 
pay for the chartering of the vessel that brought the Cyprus 
Doukhobors to Canada. Since they could not perhaps be held 
legally responsible for this loan, this action testifies to both their 
honesty and their remarkable industry and frugality. Accord- 
ing to Dr. William Saunders of the experimental agricultural 
department of Canada, who visited the Doukhobors of the North 
colony the first year, the estimated cost of living was two dol- 
lars a month per capita, debt was almost unknown among them, 
their credit with merchants was high, and they saved their money 
in banks instead of keeping it in a stocking or an old teapot. 

30 Harper's weeUy, 46: 1779. 

26 Elina Thorsteinson m.v.h.'r. 

The Doukhobors disapproved of private property for tlie most 
part and a commiiiial form of property holding, which many 
hold to be erratic and impossible, is general among them. 
The Doukhobor community of the North and South colonies, is 
the largest experiment in pure communism ever attempted. 
Communism seems to have become with them a religious prin- 
ciple for it is based not on economic but on spiritual factors. 
The village property, stock, and implements are owned in com- 
mon. They raise most excellent stock, are fond of fine horses and 
take veiy good care of them. Certain personal property is not 
regarded as conmion but a Doukhobor does not hesitate to ask 
his brethren for any article that takes his fancy and a good 
Doukhobor will give to any who ask. They till their fields in 
common and divide up the produce according to the number of 
members in each family. The system has its advantages and 
disadvantages. The mutual support that they have been able to 
give each other by their communal system has made it possible 
for them to survive the persecutions to which they were former- 
ly subjected. The system has its advantages, also, in the pur- 
chase of supplies of all kinds and implements for agricultural 
uses. It also makes it possible to utilize small resources so that 
if any village communes are improverished they are succored by 
the other Doukhobor communities. On the other hand, the sys- 
tem has the disadvantage of being a hardship for the individual. 
It is said that occasionally there has been a redistribution of 
property so that all might be approximately on one level of 
material well being, though these attempts have not been wholly 
successful. Communism is rendered possible by strong leader- 
ship, dominating the entire group. The Doukhobor communi- 
ties have been firmly centralized by Peter Verigin, who is su- 
preme among them. He is an adroit and able politician, al- 
though he seems too perplexed himself to guide the Doukhobors 
in finding the truth. 

Prince Ililkoff and others interested in getting the Doukho- 
bors comfortably settled were keenly anxious to induce them to 
arlopt or retain communism, but at that time the Doukhobors 
seemed to prefc^r individualism, and from 1899 until 1903, when 
Peter Verigin assumed active leadership, they were unable to 
come to a decision ; some villages became communistic and oth- 

Vol. IV, No. 1 The Doiikhohors in Canada 27 

ers individualistic. The number of communistic villages grad- 
ually diminished, although they prospered more than the indi- 
vidualistic villages. In August, 1900, only one of the ten vil- 
lages of the Saskatchewan Doukhobors was communistic. Among 
the Swan river villages three were really communistic, one was 
individualistic and in the rest there was a struggle between the 
two forms of ownership. Among the Yorkton villages a few 
were communal. All this was altered when Verigin arrived 
from Siberia in 1903. The individualistic villages of the North 
and South colonies resumed communism and the communism of 
the different villages was centralized so that the communal funds 
of both North and South colonies are now controlled by a com- 
mittee of three. Peter Verigin came at a time when the Douk- 
hobors needed leadership badly and he has given it with judg- 
ment and ability, not sparing himself the drudgery of attending 
to details. According to his own account the Canadian govern- 
ment, afraid of serious trouble with the Doukhobors at the time 
of the first pilgrimage, offered negotiations with the Russian 
government for Verigin 's liberation from exile in Siberia before 
the expiration of his term of imprisonment in Siberia. Verigin 
was liberated and on his arrival in Canada he assumed autocra- 
tic control of the Doukhobors. He is in every sense a remark- 
able man, cultured and intelligent, but he seems at times to be 
capable of questionable acts, and of insincerity. On his arrival 
in Canada he brought order out of chaos both in the North and 
South colonies. Firmly and tactfully he took hold of the situa- 
tion and induced his followers to adopt modem methods of 
agriculture and modern machinery, including the steam plow. 
He has introduced first class stock, horses, and cattle, and by 
his advice the Doukhobors have broken several thousand acres 
of land ; by 1905 they had purchased additional land to the value 
of $60,000. They now operate by steam several flour, saw, and 
flax mills, which they change from one kind of work to the other. 
They also have at Yorkton an excellent brick- and tile-making 
plant, one of the largest and best brickmaking plants in Cana- 
da. All goods for the colony are brought in wholesale quantities 
and there is a large warehouse for the distribution of these 
goods among the villages. 

Agriculture and cattle raising are still their principal occupa- 

28 Elina Thorsteinson ^- ^- h. R. 

tious. They also engage in lumbering on government lands, 
for which they hold permits. Then, too, they have made large 
earnings in cash on railroads built in their vicinity. Annually 
about 1,000 adults are sent out to labor on the railroads, and 
after dividing the living expenses, the greater part of the 
wages of these laborers goes into the common treasury. Some 
few of the better class look with jealousy on Verigin but the 
majority have implicit faith in him and he does his best to retain 
their good mil by warding off all outside influence. Maude 
remarks on this subject: *^ There is no denying the service that 
Peter Vengin renders to the Doukhobors by acting as their 
leader. But there is also no denying there is a considerable ele- 
ment of secrecy and covert despotism about it, and the opposi- 
tion to it is, in some cases, a moral revolt entailing heavy mate- 
rial sacrifices. '' ^^ There is at present growing dissatisfaction 
with the Yerigin regime and the entire communal system. Some 
are probably dissatisfied from selfish motives, others because 
they see the system spells despotism. The poor individual is 
quite helpless for the way out is exceedingly difficult. Many 
have not the moral courage to show their disapproval, since it 
would mean for them a good deal of unpleasantness. They are 
told, for instance, that they are not individualistic Doukhobors, 
but Galicians, whom they despise, and this appellation consti- 
tutes a heavy reproach against the would-be rebels. Those dis- 
approving of Verigin are reviled, debts are brought against 
them, and every means taken to compel them to remain in the 

Verigin, with pretended humility, claims no authority for 
himself, but somehow what he desires to have done comes to 
pass. It is said that when he came to Canada he ascertained 
who were influential men among his people and made friends 
with them, converting them into his obedient tools. 

That their life in Canada has from the first been a stren- 
uous one has been already shown. In their own words: 
*^We founded steam mills, we acquired steam plowing engines, 
and steam threshers, we organized steam brick factories, we 
finished the construction of a great flour mill which, with the 
machinery, will cost us $30,000, and though we lived in this 

81 Maude, A peculiar people. 

Vol. IV, No. 1 T^^Q DouJchohors in Canada 29 

region during eight years, yet we have had no joy in our life, 
as the life itself did not allow it. We had nothing and often we 
had to work more than was good. ' ^ ^^ 

The Doukhobor women show great deftness in manual labor; 
but apart from their outdoor work they play an important part 
in the industrial life of the community. Besides having the 
household management they spin, weave, dye, embroider, and 
practice tailoring and millinery as far as they have use for the 
art. They are skillful with the needle and they do some ex- 
quisitely fine work in making and decorating linen for household 
use and for the church. Among the pieces used in religious 
ceremony is the marriage scarf, the sacred emblem of marriage 
with which each woman is presented when she is married. The 
texture of some of their table linen is equal to that produced by 
the best looms of Belfast. They make their linen cloth from the 
flax raised by themselves. The dyeing, spinning, and weaving 
are all done by the community. For the spinning they use the 
old-fashioned distaff, while their wooden loom is very primitive. 
The clothes of the men and women are made of similar material, 
those of the latter being generally lighter in color. * ' The women 
wear a very picturesque and comfortable hood, with a rosette 
of bright color on the front of it. The velvet band which en- 
circles the head is invariably black, otherwise there is consider- 
able variety in the color used, although the shape is always the 
same.'^^^ This hood is reserved for special occasions, for they 
wear a white shawl or kerchief in the fields and whenever they 
are working. They are neat in their appearance. They keep 
immaculate their kerchiefs and their white aprons, which they 
wear over their dark cloth skirts when in the house. 

Elkinton thus describes their physical appearance: *^The 
Doukhobors are people of the purest Eussian type, large and 
strong, men and women both being of magnificent physique. 
They are characterized by broad square shoulders, heavy limbs 
and a massive build generally. Their features are prominent, 
but refined and bear the marks of a life that is free from vice. 
The most striking characteristic of all is the bright, kindly 
sparkle of their eyes, which gives a winning expression to the 

^2 Papers relating to DouTchohor homestead entries (Ottawa, 1907), 15. 
83 Elkinton, The Doukholors, 46. 

30 Elina Thorsteinson m.v.h.r. 

wholo face, and quickly wins confidence in their character. All 
their habits demonstrate that they are possessed of keen 
minds. ' ' ^* The men are grave, deliberate, and slow of speech ; 
the women are tender-hearted and their feelings are easily 

Village life has great attractions for them and this perhaps 
is one reason why they have objected to making homestead en- 
tries singly. Their villages are clean and well kept. Each vil- 
lage has a public bath house which is used daily, as the Douk- 
hobors are very cleanly in their personal habits. Their houses 
during the first years may be said to have been of three kinds. 
Where logs were procurable, substantial homes were built; the 
roof was made of poles on which was laid prairie sod four inches 
in thickness. Where no wood was available, they built wonder- 
fully neat and compact houses of sod. Mention is also made of 
half dug-outs, damp and dark. In one village, where neither 
timber nor sod were to be had, the houses were made in a re- 
markably ingenious manner by the use of poplar sticks five or 
six inches in diameter. These poles were driven into the ground 
one foot apart to form an enclosure thirty by twenty feet, and in 
and out of these, willow withes were tightly woven like baskets. 
The whole structure when completed was plastered inside and 
out by the women, who used their hands as trowels in plastering 
the walls with a thick tenacious clayey mixture which they had 
already prepared for the purpose. This style of house is dur- 
able, and well adapted to resist cold weather. Each room has a 
window or two and a door, although little provision is made for 
ventilation. The floors are of hard, smooth-packed earth or 
sand. Their storehouses and stables are built like the houses, 
are similar in size and appearance and are often under the same 
roof. In each house the great oven of sun-dried bricks, which 
serves for warming the hut and cooking the food, is a character- 
istio feature. The oven front stands six or eight feet high and 
five feet wide ; the interior baking space is approximately three 
by four feet. The whole family sleep on the oven in extremely 
cold weather. 

The interior of the houses of the North colony has been de- 
s^iribed by one who visited the Doukhobors shortly after they 

2* Elkinton, The Doulchohors. 

The Doukhohors in Canada 31 

built their villages. The Doukhobors have made their own 
furniture, which consists of a few rough stools to sit on and 
higher benches for tables. The beds are made of a series of 
poplar poles about six feet long and three or four inches in di- 
ameter, placed close together along the wall. These are cov- 
ered with hay, with a piece of felt over it, or in a few cases, 
feather beds. On this framework they sleep, using such bed 
clothes as they can command. Some use curtains to divide the 
sleeping places into compartments, for most of the houses con- 
sist of one large room used as living-room, bedroom, dining- 
room, and kitchen. The Doukhobor families are not large and 
they aim to have in all their villages a house for each family. 
Absolute cleanliness is characteristic of every house, even that 
of the very poorest family. The houses of the Swan River 
villages in the North colony of a later date show great improve- 
ment over those already described. One observer says of them : 
*^They are built on either side of a wide street, are of unsawn 
timbers, covered with clay, painted white and ornamented with 
yellow dados. The roofs project and form verandahs orna- 
mented with carved woodwork. The yards in front of the houses 
are spread with sand, swept and watered once or twice a day. 
The interiors are all white-washed and spotlessly clean, and 
mostly consist of three or four rooms. Many of their houses 
to-day are comfortable and attractively clean. ''^^ The rooms 
in all the houses are lighted by large iron lamps. 

Most of the Doukhobors are vegetarians, and in their own 
houses they live principally on vegetable soup made of potatoes, 
onions, and water. A big panful or bowl of soup is placed on 
the table and each Doukhobor with a wooden spoon helps him- 
self from this common dish. They eat also black bread, fruit, 
cereals, and vegetables. Eggs and milk are tabooed, the latter 
because as vegetarians the Doukhobors consider it sinful to take 
the natural food from the calves. On Sundays, as a special 
treat, they have pancakes made of flour and water. When sick 
or away from home they permit themselves a more liberal and 
nourishing diet. They are not as strict vegetarians now as 
they were during the time of the persecution, 1895-1898, because 

S5 Arthur G. Bradley, Canada in the twentieth century (Westminster, 1903), 298, 

32 Elina Th or steins on m.v.h.r. 

the lisli in the waters near their new home is a constant tempta- 
tion. They refnse. to eat animal fat and when offered food by 
outsiders they look at it with suspicion and inquire, ''Grrease!'^ 
Manv of their Indian neighbors in northwest Assiniboia do not 
care to have the Doukhobors visit them as they regard them as 
^' queer/' and a story is told of a Cree who, desiring to keep a 
Doukhobor away from his tent, held up a piece of bannock with 
a deprecatory gesture, at the same time uttering the word 
^^ Grease."^' 

The Doukhobors are kind-hearted, thrifty, honest, industrious, 
and are noted for being extremely hospitable. A simple, kind- 
ly, gentle folk of integrity and pure morals, they are appre- 
ciative of kindness done them, and are charitable toward the 
needy. Most of their neighbors praise them for their many 
admirable virtues. Upright and God-fearing, they regard the 
family bond highly and love their homes. They are non-smok- 
ers and drunkenness is practically unknown among them. Al- 
though most of them are exceedingly industrious, there are some 
lazy Doukhobors, and they spend much time visiting because as 
guests they are not required to work. They are possessed of 
infinite patience and cheerfulness under sorrow, suffering pri- 
vations bravely, and they are noted for their readiness to sac- 
rifice themselves. 

The Doukhobor children are very interesting; they are re- 
markably well-behaved and polite, and impress one very favor- 
ably. They have won much praise by their good conduct in 
school and their eagerness to learn. Respect for parents is 
strictly observed by all children and the older people in turn 
regard them as spiritually their equals. 

The Doukhobors are extremely peaceable ; some of them will 
not even kill a mosquito. On their journeyings in the mosquito 
season, when the air is literally full of these pests, these indi- 
viduals carry a portable smudge which consists of a little vessel 
of burning charcoal covered with clay and grass, and carried 
by a string; this makes a dense smoke which surrounds and 
protects them as they swing it along. No punishments are to 
be found among the Doukhobors. They admonish each other 
in a brotherly way, according to the gospel, and if this is not 

86 Outlook, 72 : 353. 

Vol. IV, No. 1 xhe Doukhobors in Canada 33 

sufficient, the offender is brought before a general assembly of 
the villagers. Therefore, though they have no written regula- 
tions, disagreement and disorder are rare, and they have no 
use for lawyers. While the Doukhobors have religious meet- 
ings, they do not for the most part have any special place for 
them as they do not attach sanctity to locality, nor do they have 
special days for their meetings. Any member of the commun- 
ity can arrange one at his house by inviting his friends and 
neighbors. If he is too poor to provide and serve food, he is 
supplied beforehand, for all who attend are usually served with 
food afterwards. At the meetings they recite prayers and read 
the bible. The Doukhobor ritual or creed is not printed or writ- 
ten for it is altogether a matter of tradition. The men are the 
more devout church-goers than the women who are not encour- 
aged to attend church services. They often use the Sabbath to 
talk business. In spite of the fact that they reject all church 
rites, there have been established among them meetings for wor- 
ship, the forms of which are as strictly maintained as those of 
most churches. A striking instance of this kind is their ^ ' sunrise 
service. '^ The Doukhobors rise about four o'clock in the morn- 
ing to take part in this service, which takes place in one of their 
largest houses. The men and women form in two lines; the 
children not taking an active part in these devotions until they 
are fourteen or fifteen years of age. The oldest man present 
takes his place at the head of the men's line, and the oldest wo- 
man at the head of the women's line, and so on down according 
to age. Then each of the men gives a recitation, beginning by 
the eldest, in order.^^ This may be a prayer, a part or chapter 

37 The first two recitations here given are samples of the recitations given at the 
sunrise service of the Doukhobors. The third is a secular song not used in services. 
All three were furnished by Mr. M. de Sherbinin of Winnipeg, Canada. 

For thy sake, O Lord, I have loved the narrow gate, 

For thy sake, I have forsaken father and mother. 

For thy sake, O Lord, I have forsaken both brother and sister, 

For thy sake, O Lord, I have forsaken wife and children. 

For thy sake, O Lord, I have forsaken my whole kith and kin. 

For thy sake, O Lord, I have forsaken this life and its lust, 

For thy sake, O Lord, I go about hungry and thirsty. 

For thy sake, O Lord, I am aflBicted and persecuted, 

For thy sake, O Lord, I endure dishonor and reproach, 

For thy sake, O Lord, I wander without shelter. 

34 Elma Thorsteinson m,v.h.e. 

from the bible, a creed, a hynin, a part of a letter from a pious 
person, something that may have been handed down by their 
fathers as sacred or edifying; often it is of their own composi- 
tion, learned by heart. When the men have finished, the women 
take their turn. Frequently one of the women stumbles and 
the nearest woman prompts her. They do not have any repe- 
tition ; each gives a different recitation. After this service they 
devote some time to chanting their hymns or psalms, all remain- 
ing standing. Before they close, the man next to the eldest man 
takes his hand, steps in front of him and kisses him on both 
cheeks and returns to his own place. He then turns to the 
women and bows to them in one general bow. The third man in 
line salutes the elder and the second man in the same way, re- 
turns to his place and then makes a general bow to the women. 
So the ceremony proceeds, each man salutes every one in his 
line, and returning to his place, gives one bow to the women. 

A great thing it is to know God the Creator. 
There is not better, there's no greater thing in the world 
Than if a man knows God. 
If a man knows God he will also exalt him. 
That man will also he one of the elect. 
With Christ the prophets are always in conversation, 
The holy angels sing their songs. 
They glorify Christ. 
Righteous men have lived on earth, 

They knew God, they received all things from the world: 
Distresses, oppression, dishonor, reproach, stripes and afflictions. 
For this sake also the Lord loveth them. 

He calls them to himself, he strengthens them by his word, he caUs them his sons. 
He sends them to his paradise to his most bright paradise, to the kingdom of 
heaven I 

The boisterous winds are blowing 

Lord, does the little bird sing. 

O my liberty, my liberty 

O thou my golden one! 

Liberty — a falcon of the sky 

Liberty — a bright morning dawn. 

Not with the dew didst thou descend. 

Not in my dream do I behold. 

Surely the fervent prayer 

Has ascended up to the King, 

Cfirtainly our Lord — provider 

Has tested our life and living and need. 

The Qijfif^n from Under Heaven (or the Sub-Celestial Queen) 

Has come down to abide with us. 

Vol. IV, No. 1 j/jg Doukhobors in Canada 35 

When the last man in the line has done his part the women do 
the same thing, saluting each other and bowing to the men. 
When this ceremony is over the men sing hymns or psalms to- 
gether, purely from memory. Finally each person bows down 
to the ground, placing both hands flat on the ground with fore- 
head on the earth. They all do this together ; this concludes the 
ceremony and they go about their daily duties. This order of 
service among the Doukhobors prevailed previous to Peter Ver- 
igin^s arrival in 1903. He has since then introduced some 
changes and modifications. For example, he has each man go 
to the front of the meeting to recite his piece of prose or poetry 
or to read from the bible. It is also said that he has abolished 
the kissing, handshaking, and bowing as superfluous and ridicu- 
lous. Under Canadian influences the Doukhobors no longer rise 
at the former early unusual hour for prayer. The ^^ sunrise 
service'' is held on Sundays and on the twelve Greek church 
annual holidays of Russia and some others, because on these 
holidays no Russians do any farm work. This rule holds good 
only for those holidays which are observed bv. the Doukhobors 
in Canada since they have settled there. J Jeli< 

The marriage ceremony of the Doukhobors, if such it can be 
called, is very simple. There is no prayer or blessing, or any 
judicial act or agreement. The bridal couple merely make a 
declaration before their elders and this act is accompanied by the 
chanting of hynms and by a feast, if the parties can afford it. 
A number of Doukhobor men and women were united in mar- 
riage on the way to Canada, while taking the trip by boat be- 
tween Halifax and St. John, Canada. The ceremony is thus de- 
scribed by an eye-witness: *^ It was the simplest thing imagin- 
able. It took place on the spar deck. The young men ap- 
proached the young women of their choice, who were attended by 
their parents, and asked the ladies to become their wives, hav- 
ing first shaken them by the hand. The wooed ones consented, 
the young gentlemen kissed them, and it was all over. But the 
brides' parents did not allow the newly married couples to de- 
part without a word of advice. " ^® 

Ill-treatment of wives is rare among the Doukhobors, and in 
cases where it occurs the life of the husband is made intolerable. 

ssElkinton, The Doukhotors, 194, 195. 

EUna Thorsteinson 

M. V. H. R. 

Tlie Doukliobors generally many at tlie age of seventeen; and" 
on the whole the women are treated with great consideration. 

Most of the Doukliobors are ignorant and unlettered; only 
about three in a hundred can read. As a result many of them 
are suspicious, fanatical, intensely clannish, and superstitious 
to the point of attributing divinity to their leader. To educate 
them requires tact and wisdom for they frequently mistake cus- 
toms and traditions for dictates of conscience. Although seem- 
ingly anxious to learn English so as to be able to communicate 
with their neighbors, they look with suspicion on government 
schools, as a natural result of previous experience in Eussia. 
The Saskatchewan Doukhobors have seemed more disposed to 
accept suggestions about the schooling of their children than 
the Yorkton Doukhobors, who are not so progressive as the 
others. Peter Verigin, while in exile, wrote to them rec- 
ommending elementary training for their children, but for once 
his suggestions do not seem to have carried weight, because 
other leaders, influential with them, counselled the opposite. 
This attitude was strengthened by the act of an officious school 
trustee who seized some Doukhobor property as a fine for re- 
fusal to pay a school tax of $800, which the Doukhobors could 
not understand as being obligatory when their children were 
not yet admitted to the district school. At first many of the 
parents extended their hearty cooperation when they found that 
those who taught their children did not seek to undermine any 
of their religious tenets, but were working in a truly disinter- 
ested way. But their attitude has changed since Verigin came 
upon the scene, for he discourages schools among them. Most 
of them have since become indifferent or hostile on the whole 
matter of schools for their children. 

Among the first to render educational services to the Doukho- 
bors was Miss Nellie Baker, a cousin of Mrs. E. Varney, who 
established a dispensary among them during the first year. Miss 
Baker established a school the first summer at one of the Douk- 
hobor villages on Good Spirit lake. She conducted her school 
very successfully in a tent twenty feet square, teaching by signs 
and objects her tentful of children, who did not understand a 
word of English. She found them possessed of strong minds 
and inexhaustible energy. Some even walked five miles to the 

Vol. IV, No. 1 xff^e Bouhhohors in Canada 37 

school; most of them were anxious to have home work as- 
signed, and they were never satisfied with the amount of these 
tasks. Miss Baker ^s work was voluntary and quite unremuner- 
ated but she was highly successful because of her keen interest, 
sympathy, and high intelligence. She was the type of teacher 
most needed among the Doukhobors and others followed in her 

The Friends of Philadelphia desired to further the education- 
al interests of the Doukhobors but though Peter Verigin, in the 
fall of 1903, promised that log houses should be built in the vil- 
lages for school purposes, nothing came of it. Such school 
houses were started in both the Saskatchewan and the Yorkton 
district but were left incomplete in some villages for years, while 
in others they were converted into stables or meeting-houses. 
One school, however, was begun among them in Petrofka, Sas- 
katchewan, though Verigin did not wish the Friends to spend 
money assisting the Doukhobors to start schools. He said he 
wanted his followers to support their own schools as they were 
wealthy enough to do so. The truth is that he was always hos- 
tile to English schools and discouraged them and all other at- 
tempts at education among his people for fear it might lessen 
his influence. A clear instance is found in the case where he 
utterly disapproved of accepting the offer of the Philadelphia 
Friends to build a large school in Terpenie. After stating that 
he was powerless to influence the Doukhobors in this matter he 
wrote a letter to the Friends refusing their offer, pretending this 
refusal was a decision of the general meeting in council of the 
Doukhobors. Verigin has also recommendecJ that the Doukho- 
bors should not consult physicians, and they have no doctors or 
druggists. They are prejudiced against schools from never 
having known any other but those of the Eussian villages, which 
were in a miserable condition. They do not recognize their own 
educational needs, and to bring them to do this seems to be an 
essential step before anything further can be accomplished. 

It early became evident that the Doukhobors were suspicious 
not only of the Canadian government, but of every other kind 
of govemmeat except their own. In 1900-1901 they were deep- 
ly stirred by the preaching of an eccentric theorizer and dream- 
er, Bodyansky, who for months palmed off his opinions on the 

Elina Thorsteinson 

M. V. H. R. 

Canadian government as genuine expressions of Doukhobor 
principles. Because his agitation happened to coincide with the 
suspicions state of mind the government was in, he succeeded 
in starting troubles which lasted for years, for they were only 
partially settled by Verigin when he reached Canada in 1903. 
Among other things, Bodyansky issued in the Doukobors' name 
what he called an ^^ Address to all people," explaining their dis- 
approval of Canadian laws and inquiring ^^ whether there is any- 
where such a country and such a human society where we would 
be tolerated, and where we could make our living, without being 
obliged to break the demands of our conscience and of the 
Truth.'' He also drew up a special appeal to the sultan of 
Turkey, in the same strain, signed by a number of representative 
Doukhobors. In 1901, through Bodyansky, the Doukhobors 
protested against making private property of God's earth. The 
Doukhobors seem to have accepted the suggestions of Bodyan- 
sky, merely because they wanted to puzzle the Canadian immi- 
gration department and keep matters in suspense while they 
waited for instructions from Peter Verigin in Siberia, though 
at the same time they carefully concealed the real reason for 
their hesitation. Bodyansky eventually returned to Europe; 
but in the fall of 1902 a religious fanatic, who posed as a 
prophet, preached to them certain doctrines which together with 
other causes increased the unrest among them and started them 
on a remarkable pilgrimage, the accounts of which electrified 
two continents. This zealot told the Doukhobors that it was 
wrong to till the ground when they could live on fruit in a warm 
country, that it was wrong to use money or anything made of 
metals which were obtained from the earth and prepared for 
use by their enslaved brethren. He told them it was against the 
divine law to use animals as beasts of burden or to utilize any 
of their products. He cited the example of Christ ''who aban- 
doned manual labor and went about preaching and teaching the 
law of God." This, he considered, the Doukhobors ought to do 
also. The sect immediately split. The majority of the Doukho- 
bors refused to accept these teachings and abandon their settled 
way of life, while about one-fourth of them prepared to carry 
into actual practice these wild theories. Literal and foolish 
interpretation of familiar texts played a part in inaugurating 

Vol. IV, No. 1 j>}ie Doukhohors in Canada 39 

the movement. Much bitter feeling was aroused as families and 
villages were divided. Efforts were made by members of their 
own sect, like Gregory Verigin, brother of the leader, to dis- 
suade them from their mad enterprise, but in vain. They first 
turned loose their stock, which the mounted police at once took 
charge of for the government. They next gave their money to 
the nearest immigration agent, cut off metal hooks, eyes and but- 
tons from their clothes, threw away their leather footgear (as 
products of animal life), and exhorting their friends to join 
them, they started on the famous pilgrimage, increasing in num- 
bers as they passed on. 

Their object was first to seek the messiah, whom they expected 
to find in Minnedosa or Winnipeg. Next they were to preach 
the gospel to all men and seek a rich, warm country where there 
would be no government and they would not have to work and 
** spoil the earth,'' but could live on fruit from the trees. They 
had another motive which they carefully concealed, but which 
became known years afterward. They had hitherto refused to 
pay taxes or enter their land individually or return vital statis- 
tics. They hoped that their march would so inconvenience the 
Canadian government that the oiBficials would agree to their de- 
mands on the land question, the registration of vital statistics, 
the payment of taxes, and the transport of their whole number to 
a warmer climate. The religious element entered into the case, 
but one who has lived among them for years expressed the opin- 
ion that *Hhe Pilgrimage like the Address to All Nations of two 
years previous, was partly a piece of politics masked by religious 
phraseology and Bible Texts. ' ' ^® The two most prominent lead- 
ers in preparing the people for the pilgrimage were Ivan Pono- 
marof and Vasily Abeydkof. They were influential among the 
sect and years before the emigration from Russia were the ac- 
<jredited messengers who brought back from Siberia Verigin's 
recommendation to his people that they abandon meat, tobacco, 
and strong drink. Among the pilgrims were some of the ablest 
of the sect, and although most of them seemed to be sincere, they 

39 This is the opinion of Herbert P. Archer, who has done a great deal for the 
Doukhobors. A direct impulse was given to the movement by Verigin's letters, 
which had been published in 1901 in Eussia, and were in circulation among the 
Doukhobors. They were ready to put into practice the leader ^s views as expressed 

40 EUna Thorstemson m.v.h.e. 

have never seen lit to give any satisfactory explanation of their 
eonduet dnnng this movement. 

On the march, the pilgrims endured fatigne and hardships 
which wonkl seem enough to kill ordinary men but to which some 
of them appeared quite insensible. They set out, many of them, 
barefooted, bareheaded, and with nothing but their clothes and 
some bread and apples. Early on the march they threw away 
their hea^y outer clothing, for many believed that Grod would 
send them a second summer instead of winter, and this belief 
was strengthened by the singularly fine weather which they en- 
joyed for a time. They lived on what was given them in the 
tillages through which they passed, and on grain and corn 
gleaned in the fields and picked up around elevators, supple- 
mented by dried rosebuds, leaves, herbs, grasses, and anything 
of vegetable origin. They carried their sick and feeble on 
stretchers made of poplar poles and blankets. As they marched 
they sang their weird and plaintive psalms; they have always 
been fond of singing and some of their strange but beautiful 
music has come down to them from remote generations. A 
special correspondent writing a reliable account in the Mani- 
toba Free Press said of them: ^^A razor has not touched the 
beard of one of the pilgrims since they adopted their new be- 
lief. All are unkempt, unshaven, hollow cheeked, and wild eyed. 
In front stalks the new *John the Baptist,' his jet black beard 
and long hair floating in the autumn wind. Suddenly he will 
stop with eyes glaring before him, then leap forward, clutching 
at the air with extended grasping hands, crying, ' I see him ! I 
see Jesus! He is coming! He is here!' The dementia can be 
seen to run through the procession like a wave at these words. ''*^ 
Their condition became serious after they passed the last of 
their villages October 25, 1902, for the sick would not take medi- 
cine for fear their souls would be forever lost. When they 
reached Yorkton, the 1,060 women and children were not allowed 
to go further, and the police by using a mixture of force and 
persuasion, dispatched them home. The authorities tried to 
stop the men also, but they eluded the police and tramped dog- 
gedly on. On November 3, the weather changed and the first 

*o Maude, A peculiar people, 237. 

Vol. IV, No. 1 j'jiQ DouJchohors in Canada 41 

snows fell. A sharp wind came on, and as they had to sleep in 
the open, they suffered much from the exposure. Under the 
combined influence of the increased cold, starvation, exhaustion, 
and religious theories and superstitions, some of the pilgrims 
became quite demented. Finally the authorities took decisive 
action and through the efforts of the mounted police, the deluded 
men were taken in hand and more or less forcibly deposited on 
the cars of a special train by which they were sent back to York- 
ton, November 8. This closing incident of the pilgrimage took 
place at Minnedosa but it was some weeks before the dissension 
and excitement calmed down. Peter Verigin, on his arrival, 
firmly and promptly set to work to restore harmony, but it was 
no easy matter. Another attempt at a pilgrimage was made in 
1903 and came about in the following fashion. Verigin in visit- 
ing the different villages after the first pilgrimage, had deemed 
it expedient in villages where the pilgrims were predominant to 
approve of their zeal for righteousness. He even went to the 
length of reproaching the non-pilgrims for lack of zeal, and over- 
played his part. Some of the non-pilgrims resolved to mend 
matters by starting a pilgrimage more thoroughgoing than the 
first. It never grew to any proportions, however, and was a 
small affair in comparison with the first one. Verigin discour- 
aged it in every way for it was contrary to his real wishes, and 
it was promptly stopped by the police. The second pilgrimage 
had one additional feature not found in the first. During the 
march, at intervals, especially when entering a town or settle- 
ment, the pilgrims divested themselves of all garments and both 
men and women ^^following the example of Adam and Eve in 
Paradise,'^ presented themselves in a state of absolute nudity. 
Some of these semi-sane fanatics were imprisoned in Eegina for 
a term of three months. Disgraceful reports, which have never 
been either verified or disproved, were afterward circulated 
about the cruel treatment which they received while in various 
prisons in Canada. These statements naturally produced an 
unfavorable impression of Canadian justice among the Douk- 
hobors. The whole movement materially injured the Doukho- 
bors and reflected upon the good judgment of their friends and 
well-wishers. There have been no more pilgrimages since 1907, 
when one was undertaken by a small number — about sixty-four 

42 • Elina Thorsteinson ^- ^- h. R. 

— who called themselves ^^free men,'' but who are called by the 
others ** wanderers'' or *^ pilgrims." These Doukhobors, how- 
ever, are still looking for a warm country where they need not 
work but can live on fruit. Both communistic and independent 
Doukhobors disapprove of them. They were even refused food 
by the former when they passed their villages on the march. 
The *^free men" made their headquarters at Hlebododamoe, a 
\dllage where the extremists from all the other villages have 
gathered and lived for several years. The ^'free men," how- 
ever, are now more moderate than they formerly were. The 
Doukhobors need careful attention on the part of the govern- 
ment until the influence of their environment and the public 
school system shall have their full effect in transforming them 
into good citizens. 

The most perplexing phase of the Doukhobor problem to the 
Canadian government is the attitude which they have maintained 
toward the civil authorities. Many of them deny the authority 
and righteousness of any governmental control over the indi- 
vidual. From the first they have showed that they were sus- 
picious of the kindest and most well-intentioned efforts of the 
Canadian government. They feared that any compliance on 
their part with the governmental regulations would involve some 
obligation conflicting with what they understood to be the ^ ^ law 
of God." They objected to the Canadian homestead laws which 
required them to apply in severalty for their homesteads. Most 
of them protested against the civil registration of land titles, 
marriages, births, and deaths, declaring that these were no con- 
cern of the government. Communications from the Society of 
Friends in Philadelphia urging compliance with Canadian laws, 
and direct explanation by government officials were of no avail. 
The Doukhobors adhered to their views on the subject until the 
arrival of their leader, Verigin, when they began to comply with 
the registration laws to some extent. They refused to become 
British subjects because, they said, as believers in Christ, who 
forbade his followers to take an oath, they could not take the 
oath of allegiance. Besides, they consider themselves citizens 
of the entire globe and do not recognize the existence of national 
states and separate forms of government. They are also afraid 

Vol. IV, No. 1 xiiQ Doukhohors in Canada 43 

to sign their names to any document as they recall the trouble 
that came to them by doing this in Russia. Their instinctive 
and inbred attitude of antagonism may seem unreasonable and 
childish, but it can be largely explained by their long and bitter 
experience under Russian despotism. 

Unwilling to proceed to harsh measures to enforce their au- 
thority, the Canadian authorities wisely adopted a policy of 
waiting in the hope that as their means increased and they 
became more enlightened, the Doukhohors would finally come to 
a more reasonable attitude. In this hope the government has 
been partially justified, for certain localities have made sub- 
stantial progress, entering some homesteads and partly comply- 
ing with the registration laws. This is true particularly of the 
Prince Albert settlers. On the other hand, many localities have 
made no progress at all for years and new vagaries like the 
pilgrimage are continually arising to vex the officials. 

The government, for some years, has practically granted to 
the Doukhohors the privilege of possessing their land in com- 
mon, for there was a provision in the law at the time the Douk- 
hohors came to Canada which allowed the people to live in vil- 
lages. As they lived almost entirely in villages and were en- 
titled to hold their homesteads under this hamlet provision of 
the Dominion lands act, their right to their homesteads did not 
altogether depend upon their actual residence upon them. Af- 
ter having been in Canada for seven years the large majority of 
the Doukhohors were still cultivating their land in common and 
refusing to become British subjects. The Canadian government, 
which had made every allowance for them with the expectation 
that in time they would comply with the requirements, felt that 
matters could not be left in this condition indefinitely. The 
Doukhohors were not complying with the provisions of the lands 
act, and prospective settlers were persistently clamoring for the 
lands of the Doukhohors since the latter were not fulfilling the 
conditions or making use of them. A commission was appointed 
to investigate and secure accurate information in regard to the 
conditions among them. This commission reported November 
25, 1906. *^They found 61 villages, 8,701 people, 2,160 home- 
stead entries, 49,429 acres under cultivation, average entries 

44 Elina Thorsteinson ^- ^- h. R. 

per village 35, average population per village 142, and an aver- 
age cnltivation of 5.6 acres per head.''*' The large majority 
of the Doukhobors refused to acknowledge individual ownership 
of their homesteads, while a few of them, called independents, 
were complying or intended to comply with the terms of the 
Dominion lands act, although residing in the villages. ^'The 
total number of Independents was 849, they had made 211 home- 
stead entries, with 6,906 acres total cultivation, an average of 
8.1 acres per head.''*^ The settling of the land question in a 
fair and just manner was a difficult and complex matter, for 
various difficulties had to be considered. For example, con- 
fusion had resulted from the fact that some of the Doukhobors 
had removed their residence from village to village without 
regard to the location of the lands entered in their names. Fur- 
thermore, community land already cultivated had also to be pro- 
tected. After reserving 768 quarter sections or 122,880 acres 
of land for 8,175 communistic Doukhobors and giving the inde- 
pendents their entries, the commission found available for set- 
tlement and at the disposition of the government 1,618 home- 
steads. In 1911 about 600 Doukhobors had taken up homesteads 
and had become British subjects. The suggestions of the com- 
mission in regard to the settlement of this troublesome land 
question were carried out. All entries by Doukhobors, who were 
not cultivating the land entered in their names for their own 
benefit, were cancelled. The Doukhobors were given six months, 
or until May 1, 1907, in which to make entry. In case the home- 
stead of an independent Doukhobor was more than three miles 
from the village where he resided, his entry was protected for 
six months, but if he was not in residence on his homestead be- 
fore May 1, 1907, his entry was subject to cancellation. To pro- 
tect the community Doukhobors as much as possible, there were 
reserved the quarter- section on which the village was situated 
and adjoining quarter-sections not exceeding in total area fifteen 
acres to each resident of the village, exclusive of independents, 
or approximately three times as much land as they had brought 
under cultivation during eight years, including as much of the 
community cultivation as possible, in no case exceeding a dis- 

41 Papers relating to Doulchohor homestead entries, 9. 
43 Ibid. 

Vol. IV, No. 1 j'j^e Doukhobors in Canada 45 

tance of three miles from the village. Some of the Doukhobors 
claimed they could not support themselves on this reserve but 
most of them were satisfied with the arrangement/^ Fearing 
that their holdings would be reduced to seven acres per soul if 
they did not cultivate their land, the Doukhobors actively set to 
work to break it up. As they have prospered and their wealth 
increased, they have since bought several thousand acres in ad- 
dition to these reserves. Thus in consequence of their refusal 
to become Canadian subjects, they lost the greater part of their 
homesteads amounting in value to about two million dollars. 

Peter Verigin's attitude toward the land question is note- 
worthy. It is true that he is in a difficult position but his proce- 
dure in this matter appears questionable, to say the least. He 
found everything in confusion on his arrival and until matters 
had settled down he announced that the sect would become Brit- 
ish subjects. After that, while Verigin still professed his will- 
ingness that they should become British subjects, his assistants 
apparently worked against him and supported the opposition to 
naturalization among the villages. As it is an indisputable 
fact that the Doukhobors obey no authority other than Yerigin's, 
only one conclusion is possible. If evidence of his supremacy 
were wanting it might be found in the fact that at his suggestion 
in 1886 they changed their name to the * * Christian Community 
of Universal Brotherhood '' after they had in 1816 announced 
to the Russian government that they would rather die than 
make such change. The settlement of the land troubles, al- 
though it has proved beneficial, has not disposed of the Douk- 
hobor question. 

The essence of Doukhoborism is struggle and wandering and 
the latest development in the history of the Doukhobors is their 
emigration to British Columbia. Upon the decision of the special 
commission on the Doukhobor land question there occurred a 
split in the community; for some of the members of the com- 
munity, as has already been stated, accepted the government's 

43 The Prince Albert colony of about one thousand people, not satisfied with its 
lands, has sought to remove to the Yorkton district. Seven hundred seventy-four 
Doukhobors, living near Devil's Lake, on March 30, 1907, also petitioned to join the 
Yorkton Doukhobors, requesting that their lands be exchanged for allotments in the 
Yorkton district. The government found it necessary to refuse the petition but 
many of them have removed in spite of this refusal. 

46 Elina Thorsteinson m.v.h.e. 

offer, made individual entries and became Canadian subjects. 
From that time on, Peter Verigin determined to move the com- 
munity to some other province where he thought conditions 
would be more favorable for continuing communistic life. Brit- 
ish Columbia was decided upon and Verigin secured the first land 
holding there by private purchase, and moved a first installment, 
consisting in all of two thousand Doukhobors. Altogether ^ve 
thousand and seven hundred out of the eight thousand Doukho- 
bors in Saskatchewan moved to British Columbia. The rest 
were to follow shortly. Verigin purchased a total of 14,407 
acres at a cost of $646,017 in British Columbia on the banks of 
the Columbia river, and established four large settlements there 
at Brilliant, Glade, Pass Creek, and Grand Forks. The trans- 
portation and resettling cost about $200,000, both the exodus 
and the establishment of the immigrants in their new home, as 
well as the land itself, being paid for from the central fund. This 
fund is administered under the direction of Verigin though 
managed by Mihail Kazahoff for the benefit of the community. 
It represents the community property. Each adult man in the 
village contributes $200 annually to this central fund. A village 
committee manages the village property which belongs to each 
individual village. While in Saskatchewan the Doukhobors had 
acquired wealth ; the balance sheet of the conmiunity dated Au- 
gust 13, 1912, showed total assets of $332,300 and this sum did 
not include property owned by individuals or independents. 
The Doukhobors have paid their debts and no better evidence is 
needed of their thrift than the fact that eighteen months after 
their arrival in Canada and their settlement under the most un- 
favorable conditions, in a moneyless condition and lacking every- 
thing, they requested the English Quakers ''to cease pecuniary 
gifts and apply them where they were more needed.'' 

In British Columbia they have cleared and cultivated land, 
have established water-works and electric light systems at Bril- 
liant, have erected sawmills at all the settlements and have 
operated successfully a brickworks plant at Grand Forks and a 
jam factory at Nelson, thus adding manufacturing to their agri- 
cultural pursuits. The leading characteristic of the Doukho- 
bors is still simplicity in life and manners. They have built 
their houses in the British Columbia colonies so that each of 

Vol. IV, No. 1 jT/jg Doukhobors in Canada 47 

them accommodates several families. The women take turns at 
cooking, baking, cleaning, and other work, and the men take 
turns caring for the heating stoves, and similar tasks. They are 
still strict vegetarians and raise everything for themselves. 
Verigin claims that the cost of living for a Doukhobor family 
is the lowest in America. They have banished the use of money 
from their community ; when members receive money from out- 
side it is turned into the common treasury. Their need of money 
has in fact been eliminated, for clothing and every other neces- 
sity is free of charge for all members of the colony. A commit- 
tee has charge of purchasing and selling and this committee 
exists as long as it does its work acceptably. The Doukhobors 
discuss and settle their public affairs at a public forum, which 
is an assembly house for more than 2,000 people. 

But even in British Columbia the Doukhobors have failed to 
find peace. Soon after settlement they came into conflict with 
the government. They had asumed that they would not be dis- 
turbed in the matter of governmental regulations but the offi- 
cials began to demand compliance with the school laws and the 
registration of marriages, births, and deaths. The Doukhobors 
object to registration as being against the tradition of their re- 
ligion. They insist that they can not comply with a law which 
they cannot sanction. They reject the English kind of educa- 
tion with boy scouting and military drill as ^^a most pernicious 
and malicious invention of this age.'' They denounce the pre- 
vailing commercial system of education as emphasizing too much 
the development of material interests and ignoring the spiritual 
factors. They say it creates an insatiable greed for easy money 
and luxury. In regard to registration they state that they do 
not consider their residence in Canada as fixed for all time, say- 
ing * ^ To-day we happen to be here, after some time we may find 
ourselves in another country altogether." Since they consider 
war wicked and wholesale murder, they absolutely refuse to 
serve in the army. 

Thus the hope of finding perfect freedom in a new country 
has not been realized and the history of the Doukhobors in Can- 
ada is not finished. Convinced of the worthlessness of their 
material success and of all worldly aims, they are as intent as 
ever on spiritual salvation. That their efforts to realize cer- 

48 Elina Thorsteinson m.v.h.r. 

tain ideals of couduct, however admirable, will prove futile seems 
certain. Their policy is too negative and the spirit of the times 
is against them. ^'At the same time, in the stubborn seeking for 
perfection in isolation from the world, society and temptations 
of wealth and the body they are an example and light to a mate- 
rialistic age. '' In their future, as with all primitive and natural 
phenomena of decay and dispersal, lies the possibility of extra- 
ordinaiy evolution. Whatever the ultimate outcome, for the 
Canadian government the Doukhobor problem remains still, as 
it was in the beginning, the most perplexing one which the im- 
migration department has to face. 

Elina Thorsteinson 
University of North Dakota 
Grand Forks 


Sectionalism in Kentucky is a subject that might be treated in 
many different ways. It is the purpose of this paper to confine 
the discussion to the political sentiment of the population as it 
crystalized in election returns, both national and state, during 
the decade from 1855 to 1865. This particular period is a signif- 
icant one to the student of American history, because it includes 
the civil war issues and likewise marks a transition from the 
political alignment that prevailed in the preceding decades to 
that which has continued up to the present time. This theme 
involves a brief outline of party action in Kentucky during these 
important ten years, with especial attention to the grouping of 
political sentiment on the basis of interests that arise from the 
physical features of the country. 

Kentucky is rich in diversity of natural features and its 
very complexity makes a study of this kind more difficult in this 
case than it would be in reference to some other states. The 
well known popular division of the state into **blue grass, pen- 
nyroyal, mountain, and purchase '^ is useful for some purposes 
but it fails to draw important distinctions in soil that are neces- 
sary to our study and it is more scientific and more accurate to 
make six divisions, more closely allied to the geological forma- 
tions of the state. 

The first division is the blue grass land with its brown surface 
loam on a bed of limestone, hard and deep. (See map no. 1.) 
The second division is the knob land, named from the prevalence 
of sand stone knobs that have been left in the process of erosion. 
Its soil is mostly clay on a bed of shale and it is the poorest land 
in the state. The third division is the cavernous limestone land, 
with a soil better than that of the knob land and poorer than 
that of the blue grass, capable of good productivity. The lime- 
stone bed is softer than that of the blue grass and is honey- 

1 This paper was read before a joint meeting of the American historical associa- 
tion and the Mississippi valley historical association, Cincinnati, Ohio, December 29, 


James B. Robertson 

M. V. H. R 

combed with caves in many places, a characteristic from which 
its name is derived. The fourth and fifth divisions include the 
coal fields of Kentucky ; they are hilly and rugged in character, 
especially in the eastern part of the state. The sixth and last 
division is known as the ^ * purchase, ' ' and is located at the ex- 
treme western end of the state, between the Tennessee river and 
the Mississippi. It is level, in the main, with a sandy and clay 
soil of considerable fertility. 


I ! Purchase 

1771 Cavernous lim^stQue 

Blue grass 
GKP Coal fields 


Map No. 1 

The lines of division are not so clearly marked as the above 
description would indicate, for there are areas of excellent land 
in the section that are poor in the main; and thin-soiled hills 
occur in the richest portions of the state. Individual counties, 
moreover, in many cases exhibit a diversity within their own 
boundaries which is reflected in the political sentiment. 

Before considering the decade of our choice, it will be inter- 
esting to notice for a moment, for the purpose of comparison, 
the grouping of party sentiment in the presidential election of 
1852. (See map no. 2.) This was the last campaign in which 
the whigs, as an organization, took part. It resulted in a vic- 
tory for their candidate in Kentucky, but the majority for Scott 
was so small that it must be regarded as prophetic of the de- 
cline and fall of the historic whig party in that state. 

From a sectional point of view, this first test of the relation- 

Vol. IV, No. 1 Sectionalism in Kentucky, 1855-1865 



[71 Whips 

Map No. 2 

ship of political sentiment and the soil is significant. It is ap- 
parent that the whig party predominated in the richer soils of 
the blue grass and the cavernous limestone while the democratic 
party controlled in the thinner lands of the knob country and 
the coal fields of the west and the east. It is not possible to say 
that the relation is exact for the great party that had grown up 
under the leadership of Clay was not to be held strictly within 
sectional boundaries; nor can it be said that the principles of 
democracy held sway only in the poorer and more remote parts 
of the state, especially since democracy was vitally changing in 
character in the fifties. 

The election of 1855, the first of the decade under considera- 
tion, was a contest for the governorship of the state between 
Charles S. Morehead and Beverly L. Clarke, candidates, respec- 
tively, of the American or knownothing and the democratic par- 
ties. The former was successful by a majority of 4,403. (See 
map no. 3.) 

Viewed from the sectional standpoint it is interesting to note 
the exactness with which the new party had slipped into the 
strongholds of the old time whigs. This process of change can 
also be traced from the newspapers of the time. The Mercer 
county Ploughhoy, for example, declares it is **no longer a secret 
that Sam has caught all the Whigs in the county but five and 
quite a number of the Democrats. " ^ 

2 Quoted in Commonwealth, February 2, 1855. 

52 James B. Robertson m. v. h. r. 

Sectionallv the democratic counties increased considerably, 
especially in the mountains of eastern Kentucky. The Com- 
ma }i weal fh, a leading organ of the American party, explained 
this change by saying that the people of the highlands ^^had not 
yet been reasoned with,'^ and it promised that before another 
election ^^Sam'' mil have ^^ visited and fully talked with the 
hardy mountaineers at their homes and firesides and when its 
polls shall again be opened they will vie with their brethren of 
the united midland and river shore, in rolling up majorities in 
vindication of the sentiment that Americans are able to rule 
their own country without foreign assistance."^ 

I Americans 

Map No. 3 

In the election of 1855 the whigs had not put any ticket in the 
field, believing it would be better to go into a condition of 
* ^ quiescence " or ^^ armed neutrality," casting their vote wher- 
ever the guarantees for the country ^s good were best. 

The strong hold that the know-nothing or American party had 
taken upon the population of Kentucky is one of the peculiar 
facts of its poUtical history. The foreign element in the state 
was not large and the Roman church was neither overbearing nor 
disposed to interfere in the affairs of the people. A St. Louis 
paper, the Intelligencer,^ in urging the fitness of Kentucky to 
name the American candidate for the presidency in the coming 
ehiction, based its opinion on that ''perfect abandon;^" with 
which the state had given itself up to the new movement. 

3 Commonwealth, Au^st 20, 1855. 

4 Quoted in ibid., .June 15, 1855. 

Vol. IV, No. 1 Sectionalism in Kentucky, 1655-1865 53 

The democrats were inclined to look on the situation as a 
* ^ whig trick ' ' and they persisted in calling it a bargain with the 
freesoilers and abolitionists of the north, and a desertion of the 
true interests of the south. This, in fact, was the leading issue 
of the campaign in Kentucky, and throughout its career in the 
state the American party was obliged to set forth its fidelity to 
southern interests, in many ways and at many times. 

A fine expression of the spirit and sentiment which carried 
the election for the American party in 1855 is found in an ad- 
dress by Robert J. Breckinridge, in a paragraph in which he 
sums up the movement as follows: ^^What I behold is a vast 
and apparently spontaneous uprising of American nationality. 
Beneath that we behold the restoration of that primeval spirit 
of Protestant civilization in which the country itself was origin- 
ally created ; and still beneath that the renewal of that profound 
sense of overwhelming necessity of our national Union which 
was the grandest outbirth of our national revolution. ' ' ^ 

Other issues of a more local nature figured in the grouping by 
parties and sections. These are indicated in the proceedings 
of the legislative assembly. An appropriation of $5,000 a year 
for the colonization of negroes in Africa was a continuation of 
the whig policy in regard to slavery. Appropriations for agri- 
cultural fairs and asylums for the blind reflect little, if any, sec- 
tional significance. Such is not the case, however, with an effort 
to secure charters for several new banks in the state. The 
American party was in control of both houses of the legislature 
and it opposed an increase in the number of banks, on the ground 
that it would lead to an undue expansion of the currency. The 
democrats, on the other hand, true to their traditional attitude, 
favored the charters. 

The election of 1856 was a contest between Fillmore and Bu- 
chanan for the presidency and resulted, in Kentucky, in a vic- 
tory for the democratic candidate by a majority of 6,118. (See 
map no. 4.) The high hopes of the American party were thus 
blasted and its decline from this time on was rapid. 

Several things contributed to bring about this result. Bu- 
chanan was a democrat of the Jacksonian type and popular for 
that reason. John C. Breckinridge, his running mate, was a 

5 Commonwealth, May 4, 1855. 


James B. Robertson 

M. V. H. E. 


I Americans 

Map No. 4 

favorite son of Kentucky, a descendant of one closely associated 
with the origin of the resolutions of 1798 and possessed of per- 
sonal qualities that made him popular with the people to a de- 
gree second only to Clay among the noted men of Kentucky. 
The acts of violence that had occurred in the election of 1855, 
particularly in Louisville on the ^^ Black Monday, '' reacted to 
the detriment of the anti-foreign program. The Frankfort 
Yeoman, a democratic organ, had charged the American party 
with winning the election by *' murder and arson.''® The dis- 
tinctive doctrines of the party did not strike deep into the Ken- 
tucky mind and the leading advocate of the party complained 
in its columns that its platform was ignored entirely in the cam- 
paign of 1856, while the democrats fought against republican 

In the general assembly which followed the election of 1856 
the democrats were in control. In retaliation for the American 
opposition to the charter of new banks they now, in turn, op- 
posed the recharter of those strong financial institutions of the 
state, which had established a sound currency, given stability to 
industrial conditions, and enabled the state to pass through 
the depression of 1857 without suspension of specie payment.^ 
In this assembly the subject of internal improvements was 
likewise a source of division. The Commonwealth in comment- 

« Quoted in Commonwealth, August 20, 1855. 
7 Ibid., March 21, 1857. 
9 Ibid., March 5, 1858. 

Vol. IV, No. 1 Sectionalism in Kentucky, 1855-1865 


ing on the situation declared that Kentucky was ^languishing 
and loitering in the rear of her sister states merely for the want 
of internal improvements,'' while the *^ Democracy resists every 
attempt to aid in their completion. ' ' ^ 

In its subsequent bearing on sectional grouping a significant 
feature of the election of 1856 was the nomination by the repub- 
licans of Kentucky of a complete state ticket. In this the Amer- 
ican party rejoiced, on the ground that it would draw from the 
democracy of the mountains at least three thousand votes.^^ The 
convention was held at the southern end of Madison county, 
just at the border between the blue grass and the mountains. 
The leaders of this growing party in Kentucky were acting on 
sectional principles when they looked for their constituency to 
that section of the state where economic conditions were least 
favorable to the plantation system and the institution of slavery. 
As early as 1845 the antislavery movement was under way; by 
1850 an effort was made, under the leadership of Cassius M. 
Clay, to elect members to a constitutional convention for the pur- 
pose of removing slavery by legal amendment; and in 1851 Clay 
ran for governor of the state on the issue and secured about 
three thousand votes. 


Map No. 5 

The election of 1859 was a contest for the governorship of the 
state between Beriah Magoffin and Joshua F. Bell, and resulted 

9 Commonwealth, May 4, 1857. 
lolUd., July 16, 1856. 

56 James R. Robertson ^- ^- h. e. 

in the election of the democratic candidate, Magoffin, by a ma- 
jority of 8,904. (See map no. 5.) In this election the American 
issue was practically dead, and its place in the election was taken 
by the ' ' opposition. ' ' 

Sectionally considered, the democrats had made still further 
gains. That party was now coming to take a more conservative 
stand on the peculiar institutions of Kentucky and the south. 
The change was apparent, particularly in the central part of the 
state. In the more remote and poorer sections democracy was 
still loyal to its earlier principles. The statement of Mr. Shaler, 
in his Kentuchy, that the election of 1859 is a conspicuous exam- 
ple of the influence of soil on political sentiment is a curious 
mixture of truth and error. He says: ''The Democratic ma- 
jority came mostly from the Blue Grass or wealthier districts 
of Kentucky; the counties on the poorer soils where the slave 
interest was small or non-existent, retained their resolutely hos- 
tile attitude to the leadership of the slave power. "^'' 

As a matter of fact the poorer sections of the state contribut- 
ed to the result of the election fully as much, if not more, than 
the richer ones. Sectional lines, it is true, were beginning to 
shift on the question of slavery and all that went with it, but 
there is reason to believe that many of the more remote coun- 
ties of the state were still cherishing the principles of the Jack- 
sonian democracy and perhaps, in some cases, those of the Jef- 
fersonian brand, and were standing by it with singular tidelity. 
Pertinent to this point is a remark of the Louisville Journal, 
an organ of the opposition, in a warning to partisans deserting 
its ranks, to the effect that they must remember that democracy 
was changing and that the democracy of 1859 was no more to 
be compared to the democracy of Andrew Jackson than was 
night to day.'^ 

Successful as the democracy of 1859 had been, it is neverthe- 
less true that it was in process of division from within. The 
Kansas-Nebraska bill, which a Kentucky paper had fittingly 
called that ''sectional tornado," was dividing the democrats as 
it had divided the whigs. One section favored Douglas and 
joined the democrats of the north, while the other section gath- 

iJ Nathaniel S. Shaler, KentucTcy, a pioneer commonwealth (Boston, 1885), 232. 
12 Lrmisville Journal, July 30, 1859. 

Vol. IV, No. 1 

Sectionalism in Kentucky, 1855-1865 


ered around Breckinridge in a stronger stand for the paramount 
interests of the south. Democratic newspapers became bitter 
in their expressions of hostility toward one another. The Mays- 
ville Express, for example, declared that the Louisville Demo- 
crat, a Douglas organ, was a greater menace to the welfare of 
the state than the opposition itself.'^ The Commonwealth, see- 
ing the opportunity that the situation offered, proclaimed: ''A 
furious war is now raging in the ranks of Democracy and now 
is a favorable time to assail those who are at war among them- 

The election of 1860 was a contest among four tickets in the 
presidential race. (See map no. 6.) The constitutional union 

Constitutional Union 


Map No. 6 

party and its nominees. Bell and Everett, won the election in 
Kentucky by a vote of 14,180 over Breckinridge and a vote of 
40,372 over Douglas. The latter did not carry a county in the 
state. The issue of union had been put to the front in the plat- 
form of the constitutional union party. ^^This party,'' said 
John J. Crittenden, ^^has arisen out of the troubles and dangers 
of the country for the protection and preservation of our insti- 
tutions. . . This is, in my judgment, the party that is safest 
and most conservative."^^ 

13 Commonwealth, March 19, 1858. 
^4:IUd., November 18, 1859. 

15 Ann M. B. (Crittenden) Coleman, Life of John J. Crittenden, with selections 
from his correspondence and speeches (Philadelphia, 1871), 2: 216. 

58 James R. Robertson ^- ^- ^- ^• 

Sectionally considered the issues of the growing storm had 
revived the spirit of nationalism and driven the democracy from 
the center of the state. At either end of the state it still held 
guard for the principle that the people of a state have a right 
to manage their own affairs. 

In our time we have come to classify with a good deal of ex- 
actness the parties of 1860 with reference to the stand they took 
on union, states' rights, slavery, and secession. To one who 
reads the newspapers of the decade, however, the lines of cleav- 
age are not so sharp and clear. The constitutional union party 
put union to the front, but it still desired to be known as favor- 
able to the rights of the states; the Douglas democracy allied 
itself with the democracy of the north, but it never ceased to hold 
its loyalty to southern interests; the party of Breckinridge 
placed states' rights before everything else, but it did not go 
before the people as opposed to union. The Louisville Courier, 
an organ of the states' rights ticket, on the day before the elec- 
tion said that the victory of its candidates would bring ^* peace 
and quiet to the Union, . . . fresh impulse to industry and 
trade, . . . and patriotic effort to lengthen and strengthen 
the Union. ' ' ^^ Only upon such an interpretation of the Breck- 
inridge ticket can we explain the vote of the counties in the 
mountain region where the people were lovers of liberty but 
never of secession. 

The election of Lincoln created an issue of which many had 
long been thinking. As early as January, 1860, a banquet 
had been given in Louisville at which the governors of Ken- 
tucky, Tennessee, Ohio, and Indiana had been present and taken 
part. The following are some of the toasts to which responses 
were made : ^ * The Union it must be preserved ; " * * If treason to 
the Union shall prevail in the South or in the North, our noble 
state will stand between the sections as stood the people of old 
between the living and the dead to stay the pestilence. " ^^ 

Robert J. Breckinridge, in a famous letter to John C. Breck- 
inridge, wrote of the dissolution of the union : '*It is the delib- 
erate opinion of Kentucky that it is no remedy for- anything 
whatever, and is in itself, the direst of calamities." '® Ten days 

!*» Louisville Courier, November 6, 1860. 
^T Cf/mmonwealih, .January 27, 1860. 
18 Ibid., January 17, 1860. 

Vol. IV, No. 1 Sectionalism in Kentucky, 1855-1865 59 

after the election the governor of the state wrote to the editor 
of the Yeoman, the organ of his party: ''What will Kentucky 
do and what ought she to do now that Lincoln is elected pres- 

The efforts of Kentucky to harmonize the sections, by com- 
promise measures ; the effort to preserve a policy of neutrality 
and make it effective by a border state league, are not the sub- 
jects of this paper. By the logic of events it was only a few 
months before the one issue in Kentucky became union or seces- 
sion. Every election from 1861 to 1864 hinged on that question, 
in some form, whatever the office to be filled might be. In 1861 
there were three elections: one in May, to elect delegates to the 
border state convention; one in June, to select representatives 
to a special session of congress in July; and one in August, to 
elect members of the general assembly and a treasurer for the 

I I Union 

YXA. Secession 

Map No. 7 

Mr. Thomas Speed, in his book entitled The union cause in 
Kentucky regrets that so little attention has been paid to these 
elections.^^ Discredit has been thrown upon them by charges of 
interference with the voting, of absence from the state or vol- 
untary refusal to go to the polls.^^ The election of July regis- 
tered a vote on both sides of 107,000 as compared with a vote of 
146,000 in the presidential election preceding, which was the 

19 Thomas Speed, TTie union cause in Kentucky, 1860-1865 (New York, 1907), 87- 

20 Commonwealth, May 9, 1861. 

60 James R. Robertson m. v. h. r 

largest vote ever polled in the state. (See map no. 7.) Of this 
election of Jnly the Commonwealth says: ^'It is an expression 
of the people, the whole people, the sovereign people. ' ' ^^ 

Interpreted in the light of other elections of the war period 
involving the cause of nnion and of other evidences of the senti- 
ment of the Kentncky population, the map may be taken as a 
fine tribute to the loyalty of the population of the state as a 
whole, and it comes as a reminder, in the midst of a paper on 
sectionalism, that there are issues so great in their character 
that they break over any lines that the physical features of a 
country may tend to produce. 

The election contest of 1863 between Thomas Bramlette and 
Charles A. Wicliffe, for the governorship of the state, resulted 
in a majority of over 50,000 for Bramlette, the union candidate, 
on sectional lines very similar to those of 1861. The appropria- 
tion of money for the support of soldiers in Kentucky was the 

The issues of the war were responsible for the new party 
alignment that was rapidly coming to be made in the state. The 
Lexington Observer in summing up the change coming over the 
mountains said: *^The Mountains are well nigh a unit against 
secession. ''^^ To the same effect is a letter from Estill county 
in eastern Kentucky, which voices the opposition to the gov- 
ernor's call for a convention to submit the question to a vote in 
the words: ''All the Mountains are against it.'' If the pur- 
pose is to keep Kentucky in the union it is not necessary, for 
''we are thank God already there," and if its purpose is to take 
Kentucky out of the union it is pernicious.^^ Eockcastle county, 
likewise, in a letter threatened to "rise en masse at the first 
efforts to precipitate Kentucky into the vortex of ruin. ' ' ^* 

The election of 1864 was the contest between Lincoln for a 
second term and McClellan, the candidate of the democratic 
party. The result was a victory for McClellan in Kentucky. 
This result is to be interpreted as a protest of the population 
against the interference of the federal government in the affairs 

21 Commonwealth, June 26, 1861. 

22 Quoted in itnd., April 26, 1861. 
2'i Quoted in ihid., January 26, 1861. 
2* Quoted in ihul., May 13, 1861. 

Vol. IV, No. 1 Sectionalism^ in Kentucky, 1855-1865 


of the state. (See map no. 8.) The alignment of central Ken- 
tucky on the side of democracy was as rapid as that of the moun- 
tains on the side of republicanism. 

The plea for an end to the war put forth by democracy; the 
law of expatriation, by which a citizen lost his rights as a pen- 
alty for encouraging or helping the enemy ; the interference with 
the elections in the later years of the war; the enlistment of 
negroes in the army; the drafting of men into the army; the 
proclamation of emancipation, even with its clause of compen- 
sation to the border states ; the restrictions on trade, with com- 
pulsory orders to sell products of plantations and farm to fed- 
eral officers at prices set by themselves; the imprisonment or 
deportation of citizens for expressions of sympathy with the 
confederacy, are responsible for the reaction toward states' 
rights and the strengthening of the democratic majority. 


l///\ Democrats 
No returns 

Map No. 8 

The governor of the state supported McClellan in the cam- 
paign and spoke in his behalf .^^ Even the old Maysville Eagle, 
which had heralded to the people so many years the doctrines 
of whig, American, and constitutional union, supported Mc- 
Clellan.^® The spirit of the election which won for the de- 
mocracy may be seen in an expression of an eminent jurist of 
the time who said, ^^If a recusant state should lay down its arms 
and submit to the national constitution as its supreme law, and 

25 Commonwealth, September 19, 1864. 

26 Ibid., October 7, 1864. 


James B, Robertson 

M. V. H. R. 

nevertheless the war should still be waged against her for the 
unconditioned purpose of changing organic laws and institu- 
tions by force, I should expect that the true Union men in every 
state would repudiate such a policy. ' ' ^^ 

The election of 1865 had for its purpose the selection of mem- 
bers of congress, particularly with reference to the passage of 
the thirteenth amendment, and the state registered its will 
against the measure by returning a democratic majority, though 
not so large as that of 1864. (See map no. 9.) Sectionally, the 


Y// \ Democrat* 

Map No. 9 

republicans had gained several counties, with some signs of 
recovering for the new party a foothold in the old whig strong- 

We come to the close of our decade with sectionalism still 
apparent and following the Hues of natural conditions of soil 
and location, but with party alignment largely reversed. De- 
mocracy now dominates the richer blue grass lands and the re- 
publican party controls the thinner and more remote sections of 
the state, especially in eastern Kentucky. It would be interest- 
ing if space permitted to mention in greater detail certain coun- 
ties, like Morgan and Pulaski in eastern Kentucky, where the 
sectional action was rather peculiar; or the group of counties 
in the purchase which at times act contrary to expectation; or 
the hilly counties to the north of the blue grass. 

In conclusion it may be said that political sentiment, as ex- 

27 Commonwealth, September 2, 1864. 

Vol. IV, No. 1 Sectionalism in Kentucky/, 1855-1865 63 

pressed in election returns, did group itself along sectional lines, 
as it surged around the larger issues of the decade: union, 
states' rights, slavery, secession; and likewise around the more 
local issues of currency, internal improvements; and probably 
around many minor currents of opinion, feeling, and interest 
that this study has not revealed nor even discovered. We see 
that this grouping was related to the physical features of the 
country; that it shifted backward and forward over the coun- 
ties that lay on the border between sections in the confusion of 
issues; that at times it broke entirely over sectional lines as 
some great issue came clearly before the people ; that the align- 
ment of political sentiment was reversed in the changes of the 
decade ; and finally that the broadest generalization of sectional 
action portrays a population loyal, at the same time, to union 
and to states' rights, a phenomenon not remarkable when we 
remember the sectional location of Kentucky on the border be- 
tween the group of states to the south and those to the north 
of the Ohio river. 

James E. Eobertson 
Berea College 
Berea, Kentucky 


The field under survey remains as previously defined; this is 
the record of a yearns progress, not an unusual year but one 
characterized by encouraging evidences of steady progress. 


The state historical society of Wisconsin continues to main- 
tain its leading position among historical agencies of this re- 
gion. The scope of the work undertaken by the society has been 
enlarged; the new plan for handling the publication work with 
systematic classification of the various lines of activity seems 
to be working very satisfactorily. At the suggestion of Super- 
intendent Quaife an archives committee has been appointed to 
consider the need of additional space to house the growing col- 
lections of the society; the archives situation in other states is 
being investigated before any definite recommendations are at- 
tempted. A comprehensive printed report will probably result 
from the labors of the committee. In Bulletin of information, 
number 83, the Wisconsin historical society publishes a ^^List of 
active members of the State historical society of Wisconsin and 
of its local auxiliaries'^ (June, 1916). 

The centennial celebration of the state of Indiana last year 
was in every way a distinct success. The fund of $5,000 which 
was permitted to be used for historical publications out of the 
appropriation of $25,000 for the Indiana historical commission 
for centennial purposes resulted in the publication of a series of 
Indiana historical collections, consisting of five volumes of 
source material.^ It is to be regretted if this good work cannot 
be continued on a permanent basis. The distribution of these 
volumes is a matter of some interest. Copies are offered to the 
X>ublic at practically the cost of printing, the proceeds going into 
the state treasury as a fund for the use of the historical commis- 
sion in producing other volumes. One copy is to be furnished 
at the expense of the commission to each public library, college, 

1 See section on publication of source material. 

Vol. IV, No. 1 Historical Activities 65 

and normal school in the state. Two hundred copies are to be 
furnished to the Indiana state library and two hundred to the 
historical survey of Indiana university, for purposes of ex- 
change for similar publications. 

Three historical agencies in Illinois, the state historical li- 
brary, Illinois historical survey, and the Illinois centennial com- 
mission, are concentrating their energy on preparations for the 
celebration of the centennial anniversary of the state in 1918. 
The centennial commission is interested in the larger aspects of 
the celebration ; it is engaged in giving publicity to and arousing 
local interest in all the features of the anniversary. Besides 
the centennial history already contracted for there are plans for 
a general state-wide celebration and for local celebrations. 
Episodes in Illinois history will be staged by suitable pageantry. 
The officers of the general committee are Dr. Otto L. Schmidt, 
Chicago, chairman, and Mrs. Jessie Palmer Weber, Springfield, 
secretary. Important progress is reported on the five volume 
centennial history of Illinois. The unfortunate illness of Clar- 
ence W. Alvord, general editor and author of the first volume, 
has tended to handicap the entire project, but the work is being 
pushed with every indication of intention to get the work in 
press before winter. The preliminary volume by Solon J. Buck, 
surveying conditions in Illinois in 1818, has experienced numer- 
ous delays and has been distributed only recently. This has 
been printed as an official state publication and is distributed on 
the same plan as the volumes of the Illinois historical collections. 
The centennial history will be published in a limited edition on 
the same basis, after which it is probable that a contract will be 
made with a publisher for the issue of a larger edition from the 
original plates. The centennial memorial building commission 
has succeeded in raising the $100,000 fund required of it, which, 
added to the $125,000 appropriated by the general assembly, has 
enabled it to go ahead with the project for the erection of an 
imposing monument to the state's progress in the last one hun- 
dred years. 

The Chicago historical society has employed an expert cata- 
loger who has cataloged its library in conformity with the li- 
brary of congress plan. The map catalog was brought up to 
date at the end of December, 1916 ; it now contains 2,587 entries. 

66 Arthur C. Cole ' m.v.h.e. 

The Micliigaii historical commission continues to show evi- 
dence of aggressive activity; it has enlarged its staff by the ad- 
dition of Mr. Floyd B. Streeter as research assistant. With 
their arguments reenforced by a fire in the old state house last 
summer, officers of the commission continue their agitation for 
fireproof housing of the records collected by the commission. 
They are anxious for some safe centralized archival building 
which will render documents more easily and quickly accessible. 
The commission has prepared for consideration in the legisla- 
ture of 1917 a bill amending the act of 1913, which created the 
Michigan historical commission, so as to define a larger field of 
action for the commission in the publication of historical works 
and bulletins ; it would provide for the appropriation of $15,000 
annually for the work of the commission. At present the ap- 
propriation is $6,000 per annum. 

The headquarters of the Ohio archaeological and historical 
society continue to be at Columbus, Ohio. The most important 
recent development has been the erection of the Hayes memorial 
library at Fremont, on the grounds formerly belonging to Ex- 
president Hayes. This building was dedicated May 30, 1916; 
an extended account of the dedicatory ceremonies may be found 
in the Olfiio archaeological and historical quarterly for October, 
1916. The Hayes papers and private library are now being 
cataloged. The annual report of the historical and philosophi- 
cal society of Ohio may be found in the October-December num- 
ber of its Quarterly publication. 

The Harvard commission on western history, while giving 
especial attention to the activities of New England upon the 
ocean and in the far west, is laying the foundation for the col- 
lection of material from all regions influenced by the New Eng- 
land pioneer. Alumni clubs are organizing committees on wes- 
tern history and individual graduates are preparing to work 
along the same lines independently or in cooperation with per- 
sons interested in the formation of local historical societies. 
The results of this activity are just becoming evident in the 
middle west. An article on the work of this commission may 
be found in the Harvard alumni bulletin, March 22, 1917. 

The cooperative enterprise is still in progress-by which the 
state historical departments of Wisconsin, Minnesota, Michigan, 

Vol. IV, No. 1 Historical Activities 67 

Illinois, Indiana, and Iowa have undertaken to locate and calen- 
dar papers which bearing upon the history of the old north- 
west, are on file in the governmental offices at Washington. 
This has proved to he a more formidable task than was original- 
ly expected ; it has for this reason, however, proved all the more 
worthy a venture. The practical problems arising in this com- 
bined undertaking were discussed at a conference of the super- 
intendents of these historical societies at Chicago, September 
23, 1916. 


The Wisconsin state historical society has been very fortun- 
ate in its recent accessions of manuscript materials. The office 
of the adjutant-general of Wisconsin turned over a large mass 
of unclassified papers covering the activities of that office from 
1850-1890; they are especially extensive and important for the 
civil war period. To the Cyrus Woodman collection of 181 
bound volumes acquired over a year ago, there have been added 
twenty-one volumes of Woodman's letter-books, the gift of his 
son, Edward Woodman of Portland. The civil war papers of 
Harvey Eeid, a university of Wisconsin student who left school 
to enlist in the union cause, have been deposited with the society. 
Negotiations were pending at the time of the 1916 ^^ Historical 
activities'' article for the acquisition of the collection of manu- 
script papers of the Empire lumber company of Eau Claire; 
since that time the documents have been presented to the so- 
ciety by 0. H. Ingram, the founder of this lumber concern. It 
may be possible to secure from the manuscript letters and the 
letter-press copies in these papers sufficient material for a his- 
tory of the lumbering industry of the Chippewa valley. The 
papers are being sorted and classified; the collection may num- 
ber many thousands. The society has continued the addition 
of photostatic copies of material relating to Wisconsin and to 
the surrounding territory from the Indian office and from the 
land office at Washington; it has also secured several hundred 
prints of documents from the George Washington papers for 
use in one of the forthcoming volumes of the Draper series. It 
is rumored that Senator La Follette has deposited in the state 
historical library all his papers down to the time when he went 

68 Arthur C. Cole m.v.h.r. 

to Washington as United States senator from Wisconsin; they 
are not immediately to be made accessible to the public. 

The officers of this same society have been formulating a more 
aggressive policy in the collection of contemporary newspapers. 
The library has added half a dozen new Wisconsin journals rep- 
resenting either special interests or new localities; it has also 
increased its non- Wisconsin newspaper list, so that it now in- 
cludes daily papers of interest and value to the historical worker 
in the old northwest from representative places throughout this 
section, such as Buffalo, Pittsburg, Detroit, Cincinnati, Chicago, 
St. Louis, and Louisville. The success of this policy is just now 
menaced by the effects of the unprecedented cost of print paper. 
The society has acquired almost 100 volumes of early newspa- 
per files ; these include the following middle west journals: Ea- 
cine Argus, 1838; Oconomowoc Free Press, 1858-1860; Alma 
(Wis.) Buffalo County Journal, 1 volume, 1861-1864; Cincinna- 
ti West and South, 1867-1868 ; and the Chicago Advance, 1867- 

The Illinois historical survey has made some notable acquisi- 
tions during the past year. From the archives nationales at 
Paris were secured transcripts of selected documents taken from 
the correspondance generate, colonies, series B and C ; these re- 
late to the French period of Illinois history. A valuable set of 
photostatic copies of letters taken from the Lyman Trumbull 
collection of manuscripts at the library of congress throws im- 
portant light on the political developments of the period from 
1855 to 1870. A collection of northern Illinois newspapers of 
the last forty years has been secured by purchase from J. A. 
Clinton, who has been a patient and industrious collector of 
such materials ; the survey also acquired files of the Columbus 
(Ohio) Crisis, 1861-1865. All these materials have been added 
to the survey's collection at the university of Illinois. The 
Chicago historical society has made additions only to its museum 
collections; the most notable accession is the 0. L. Schmidt col- 
lection illustrating household manners and customs among the 

The historical and philosophical society of Ohio has added to 
its library several manuscript items including the manuscript 
records of the Colerain, Oxford, and Brookville turnpike com- 

Vol. IV, No. 1 Historical Activities 69 

pany, 1832-1841, and seven volumes of records of a group of 
Ohio Baptist churches, 1790-1910. Mr. Joseph B. Foraker has 
presented to the society 150 scrapbooks filled with newspaper 
clippings of political import arranged by years, and numerous 
packages of similar clippings not yet placed in scrapbooks. 
The Buffalo historical society has acquired during the past 
year numerous miscellaneous manuscripts relating to the his- 
tory of western New York and the adjoining region. 

The Harvard commission on western history has added sever- 
al important items to the Cambridge collection within recent 
months. The Beaman account books and papers, from Poult- 
ney, Vermont, 1820-1850, consist of several thousand documents ; 
they contain information on western settlement, especially con- 
cerning Vermontville, Michigan.^ The manuscript letters of 
Ephraim Brown and family, of Bloomfield, Ohio, 1805-1853, 
were presented to the commission by George C. Wing, author of 
Early years on the Western Reserve (Cleveland, 1916). Two 
items which promise to add to an understanding of the old north- 
west are D. H. Budd's manuscript diary of an overland journey 
to California, 1852-1856, and the Breckenridge collection of Mis- 
souriana, 2,349 pamphlets, newspapers, and magazines. 


The one significant general addition in this line is the Writ- 
ings on American history, 1914 (New Haven, 1916. 161 p.), com- 
piled by Grace G. Griffin. The lists of published historical 
works in the History teacher's magazine continues to do an im- 
portant service in furnishing general bibliographical informal 

The bibliography of printed materials relating to Michigan 
history in preparation by the Michigan historical commission is 
nearing completion. It has involved the cooperation of various 
local libraries at various points in the state of Michigan and the 
library of congress. A copious index is planned for this work 
to enable the user to find readily all material relating to a given 
subject ; the entries will show in what libraries the specific items 
may be consulted. The volume will probably include a general 
descriptive list of manuscript materials in the Burton branch 

2 See MicMgcm pioneer and Mstoricdl society collections, 28 : 197. 

70 Arthur C. Cole m.v.h.r. 

of the Detroit public library, and a tentative calendar of early 
files of Michigan newspapers. The commission hopes to issue 
at a later date a descriptive list of early Michigan newspapers. 

In January, 1917, the Wisconsin state historical society began 
the publication of a monthly check list of Wisconsin public docu- 
ments. This is a unique undertaking for a state historical 
agency. The value to historians, librarians, and state officials, 
of such a series of bulletins makes it a welcome bibliographical 
addition. Several of the society ^s Bulletins of information 
should be noted in this same connection : number 82 lists ^ * Peri- 
odicals and newspapers currently received at the Wisconsin his- 
torical library, June, 1916 ; ' ^ number 84 is entitled ^ ^ Historical 
pageantry : a treatise and a bibliography, July, 1916 ; ' ' number 
86, *^ Periodicals and newspapers currently received at the Wis- 
consin historical library, corrected to January 1, 1917^' was is- 
sued in February, 1917 ; number 87, ^ ' The public documents di- 
vision of the Wisconsin historical library, ' ' by Anna W. Evans, 
has been distributed recently. The Wisconsin historical society 
is planning to bring out during the present year a check list of 
newspaper accessions to the state historical library for the five 
year period 1912-1916, inclusive. The purpose of this publica- 
tion will be to supplement the volume issued in 1911, entitled 
Annotated catalogue of newspaper files in the library/ of the state 
historical society of Wisconsin. 

The Illinois survey has had some of the more important man- 
uscripts in its possession, particularly the Eddy papers, calen- 
dared by Dr. C. H. Lincoln. 

The state historical library of Wisconsin, like the Michigan 
historical commission, undertakes to answer historical inquiries 
made of it ; this involves the maintenance of bureaus of histori- 
cal information which are numerously patronized both from 
within and without the respective states. 


The Indiana centennial celebration contributed three import- 
ant volumes of published sources as the beginning of a series of 
Indiana historical collections. One is a volume entitled Indiana 
as seen by early travelers, a collection of reprints from books of 
travel, letters, and diaries, prior to 1830, selected and edited by 

Vol. IV, No. 1 Historical Activities 71 

Harlow Lindley (Indianapolis, 1916. 596 p.).^ Two constitute 
a set on Constitution making in Indiana, a source book of con- 
stitutional documents with historical introduction and critical 
notes, by Charles Kettleborough (Indianapolis, 1916. 530 p., 
693 p.). * Two additional volumes have been planned to contain 
the messages of the governors of Indiana from territorial days 
to 1851. James A. Woodbum has edited Eobert Carleton's 
(Bayard R. Hall) The new purchase or seven and a half years in 
the far west (Princeton, 1916. 522 p.);^ it contains intimate 
pictures of pioneer life in Indiana. 

A volume illustrating Circuit rider days in Indiana has been 
edited by W. W. Sweet (Indianapolis, 1916. 344 p.).^ My story 
of the civil war and underground railroad is the title of a vol- 
ume of reminiscences prepared by M. B. Butler, first lieutenant 
company A, Forty-fourth Indiana (Huntington, Indiana, 1916. 
390 p. ) . "' The pioneers of Jefferson county, ^ ' a series of remin- 
iscences by James B. Lewis, John Vawter, Robert and Alexander 
Miller, C. G. Sapington, and John R. Cravens, appears in the 
Indiana magazine of history for September, 1916. The Remin- 
iscences of Thomas T. Newhy is the title of a fifty page pamphlet 
full of pioneer flavor. A similar nine page pamphlet entitled 
Pioneer recollections of early Indiana has been issued by J. W. 
Sansberry. A letter from General Harrison, written in 1802 
when he was governor of Indiana, may be found in the June, 
1916, issue of the Mississippi Valkey Historical Review. 

The publication activities of the Wisconsin historical society 
have gone forward under the new plan for the society's publica- 
tions. Volume 22 of the Collections, containing the journals of 
Sergeant Ordway and Captain Lewis on the Lewis and Clark ex- 
pedition, was distributed last summer.^ Volume 23 of the Col- 
lections (Draper series, volume 4), containing selections from 
the Draper manuscripts pertaining to Frontier advance on the 
upper Ohio, appeared in January, 1917.® A similar volume en- 
titled Frontier retreat on the upper Ohio, 1779-1781, volume 24 

3 To be reviewed later. 
* To be reviewed later. 

5 Eeviewed in this number. 

6 Eeviewed ante, 3 : 250-251. 

7 To be reviewed later. 

8 To be reviewed later. • '== 

72 Arthur C. Cole m.v.h.e. 

of the CoUcctions (Draper series, volume 5), has passed the edi- 
torial stage and has been in the hands of the printer for several 
months ; it is not expected, however, to come from the press for 
another month. Attention should be called to the ^^ Extracts 
from Capt. McKay's journal — and others'' in the Proceedings 
of the society for 1915. Work on the preparation of a docu- 
mentary history of the constitution of Wisconsin continues with- 
out YQTj definite plans for its publication ; it may run to four or 
^Ye volumes. Plans are being made for a volume of papers 
dealing with pioneer farming in Wisconsin; the Bottomley fam- 
ily papers acquired by the society a few years ago will constitute 
the nucleus for this volume. The rare old pamphlet by Ole Nat- 
testadt, published in Norway in 1839, describing for the benefit 
of his fellow countrymen his journey to the United States and 
his impressions of the new country, will be reprinted both in the 
original Norwegian and in translation; the work of translating 
and editing has been done by Easmus B. Anderson of Madison. 
A number of letters from the correspondence of Senator James 
E. Doolittle, including five from Carl Schurz, were published in 
the Missouri historical review for October, 1916. A diary writ- 
ten by a young woman in early Wisconsin may be found in the 
Collections of the New Hampshire historical society, volume 

The most significant development in this field for the state of 
Michigan is the undertaking of C. M. Burton of Detroit to pub- 
lish certain selected manuscripts from the Burton historical col- 
lection. The first number, edited by M. Agnes Burton, appeared 
in October, 1916; it constitutes a thirty-two page pamphlet of 
very suggestive source material. The second number of forty- 
eight pages has also been distributed. Two more pamphlets are 
to make up the first set. 

The Illinois state historical library is putting its energy into 
the coming centennial celebration; no effort therefore is being 
made at present to continue the Illinois historical collections. 
Some scattered items of source material have appeared, how- 
ever. The Journal of the Illinois state historical society has 
printed a suggestive letter written by Andrew Shuman, editor 
of the Chicago Journal, to Senator J. E. Doolittle, August 13, 
1862 ; also a series of letters received by P. P. Enos in the period 
from 1821 to 1832 and letters written by General Grant and his 

Vol. IV, No. 1 Historical Activities 73 

son to I. N. Morris. The papers of Barnard and Michael Gratz, 
Philadelphia merchants who had important commercial rela- 
tions with the Illinois country in the revolutionary period, have 
been edited by William V. Byars (Jefferson City, Mo., 1916. 
386 p.). M. M. Quaife has edited a volume on the Development 
of Chicago J 1673-1914 for the Caxton club of that city (Chicago, 
1916. 290 p.). He has also been the advisory editor in the work 
of getting out a reprint of Black Hawk's Autobiography^ under- 
taken by the Lakeside press of Chicago in its series of Lakeside 
classics, A volume of Personal recollections of Abraham Lin- 
coln has been prepared by H. B. Eankin (New York, 1916. 412 


A volume of modest size contains the Story of my life and 
work, by Gr. Frederick Wright, since 1897 president of the Ohio 
state archaeological and historical society. Gorham A. Worth's 
** Recollections of Cincinnati from a residence of five years, 1817 
to 1821" has been reprinted in the Quarterly publication of the 
historical and philosophical society of Ohio, April- July, 1916. 
Tract number 96 of the Western Eeserve historical society 
prints nineteen documents relating to the beginnings of coloni- 
zation in the Western Reserve by the Connecticut land com- 
pany; a twenty-five page study of the documents by Claude 
L. Shepard accompanied the documents. The *^ Memoirs of 
Laforge," translated by L. J. Kenny, may be found in the 
Ohio archaeological and historical quarterly, January, 1917; 
the documents contain material relating to the French set- 
tlement of Gallipolis, Ohio. Light is thrown on the same 
topic by a group of documents in the July, 1916, number of 
the Catholic historical review entitled, *^A vanished bishopric 
of Ohio." Papers relating to the transplantation of free ne- 
groes to Ohio, 1815-1858, may be found in the Journal of negro 
history for July, 1916. 

A few significant items of source material bearing generally 
on the old northwest region have been published recently. The 
volume of Travels in the American colonies, edited by N. D. 
Mereness (New York, 1916. 693 p.) includes D 'Artaguiette 's 
journal (1722-1723) of a tour up the Mississippi to the Illinois 
country, and Hamburgh's fragment (1763) concerning Detroit 
and the lakes. A volume of Original narratives of the north- 

74 Arthur C. Cole m.v.h.e. 

west has been edited by Louise Phelps Kellogg (New York, 1917. 
382 p.)'" i'or the well-known series of Original narratives of early 
American history, authorized by the American historical asso- 
ciation and prepared under the general editorial direction of J. 
Franklin Jameson of the Carnegie institution at Washington. 


The Annual report of the American historical association for 
1914 (Washington, 1916) '" records the features of the thirtieth 
annual meeting held at Chicago. This meeting was, naturally, 
especially attractive to historical workers in the upper Missis- 
sippi valley. The influence of the frontier in the old northwest 
received attention in Frederick J. Turner's paper on the *' Sig- 
nificance of sectionalism in American history, ' ' which is record- 
ed in the Report only by title. Max Far rand, in a paper entitled' 
*^One hundred years ago,'' called attention to the westward 
movement and to the development in the middle west of a con- 
scious nationality and national type ; the paper is preserved only 
in abstract. The joint session held with the Mississippi valley 
historical association was chiefly devoted to a discussion of the 
origin of the Kansas-Nebraska act. F. H. Hodder, in a paper 
entitled ^^When the railroads came to Chicaigo," called at- 
tention to the influence of railroad building on Douglas' politi- 
cal policies. P. Orman Ray replied with a paper on ^^The gen- 
esis of the Kansas-Nebraska act," stressing the responsibility 
of Senator Atchison of Missouri ; his paper is printed in full. A 
suggestive paper by William J. Trimble on ** Agrarian history 
of the United States as a subject for research" is recorded in 
abstract. The paper by Otto L. Schmidt on ''The Chicago his- 
torical society" reviews the history of the society, outlines its 
recent activities, and discusses its plans for future work. ' 'Leg- 
islation for archives," by Charles H. Rammelkamp, gives special 
consideration to the experiences of states of the middle west. 

At the 1916 session of the association at Cincinnati two papers 
were read which pertained to the history of the old northwest: 
James A. James presented a paper on "Spanish influence in the 
west during the American revolution," and Ernest A. Smith 

'•* To be reviewed later. 
10 To be reviewed later. 

Voi.iv,Mo.i Historical Activities 75 

analyzed the ^^ Influence of the religious press of Cincinnati on 
the northern border states." In the conference of archivists, a 
paper was read by Theodore C. Pease entitled ' ^ The problem of 
archive centralization with reference to local conditions in a 
middle western state/' taking as its basis the situation in the 
state of Illinois. At one of the sessions of the American politi- 
cal science association which met in Cincinnati on the same date, 
N. H. Debel submitted a paper on *^The operation of the veto 
power in Illinois.'' 

Volume IX of the Proceedings of the Mississippi valley histor- 
ical association for 1915-1916 has recently been distributed. It 
contains two papers relating to the history of the upper Mis- 
sissippi valley, namely : * * Eeligion as a factor in the early de- 
velopment of Ohio," by Margaret J. Mitchell; and **The veto 
power in Ohio," by R. C. McGrane. The presidential address, 
**The Mississippi valley in American history," by Dunbar Row- 
land, should also be noticed, as well as one entitled **The func- 
tions of a state historical society," by S. J. Buck, in which the 
author had in mind the institutions in states of the old north- 
west. The 1917 meeting of this association was held at Chicago, 
April 26-28. Papers on the history of the middle west were 
read as follows: **The value of the memoir of George Rogers 
Clark as an historical document," by James A. James; *^The 
coming of the circuit rider across the mountains," by W. W. 
Sweet ; * * Glimpses of some old Mississippi river posts, ' ' by Louis 
Pelzer; ^^The military-Indian frontier," by Ruth Gallaher; 
*'Fur trading companies in the northwest 1763-1816," by W. E. 
Stevens; **The pioneer aristocracy," by Logan Esarey; ^*Nau- 
voo, a possible study in economic determinism, ' ' by Theodore C. 
Pease; *^The influence of the west on the rise and decline of po- 
litical parties," by Homer C. Hockett; and '^President Lincoln 
and the Illinois radical republicans," by Arthur C. Cole. 

The Ohio valley historical association held its tenth annual 
meeting at Indianapolis, October 4 and 5, 1916, upon the joint 
invitation of the Indiana historical commission and the Indiana 
historical society. The meeting was featured as one of the 
events in the program of the Indiana state centennial celebra- 
tion. A full report of all papers is given in the proceedings, 
which have been published in the first number of volume vi of 

76 Arthur C. Cole m.v.h.r. 

the Indiatm historical society/ publications. The following should 
be noted here: ^'Speculations in the thirties, '' by E. C. Mc- 
Grane; ''The new purchase/' by James A. Woodburn; ''A lost 
opportunity: internal improvement,'' by Worthington C. Ford; 
"Kentucky's contribution to Indiana," by James R. Robertson; 
"Organizing a state," by Logan Esarey; ''Early railroad build- 
ing in Indiana," by Ralph Blank; "Civil war politics in In- 
diana," by Charles Kettlebo rough ; and "A hoosier domesday," 
by F. L. Paxson. 

The formal celebration of the one hundredth anniversary of 
Indiana's admission into the union took place at Indianapolis 
December 11, 1916; a record of the meeting is preserved in Bul- 
letin no. 8 of the Indiana historical commission, December, 1916. 
The centennial address was delivered by James A. Woodburn 
on the theme, "The foundation of the commonwealth;" and a 
centennial ode was read by William D. Foulke. 

Volume 40 of the Michigan historical collections has not as yet 
put in its appearance ; it will contain the papers read at the two 
meetings of the Michigan pioneer and historical society held in 
1915. During the year 1916 the society held three meetings in 
cooperation with the Michigan historical commission. At the 
eleventh mid- winter meeting in February the following papers 
were read: "History of Little Traverse township, Emmet 
county," by H. S. Babcock; "Evolution of Emmet county," by 
B. T. Halstead; "Catholic missions in Emmet county," by 
T. Linehan ; ' ' Presbyterian missions in Emmet county, ' ' by John 
Redpath; "The Indians of northern Michigan and their le- 
gends," by J. C. Wright; "The first bank of Michigan," by W. 
L. Jenks ; ' ' Revolutionary soldiers and their daughters in Mich- 
igan," by Mrs. William H. Wait; "The Adventist movement in 
Battle Creek," by F. W. Gage. The forty-second annual meet- 
ing was held at Lansing, May 24 and 25, 1916, and the following 
papers were read: "A tribute to William Fletcher, first chief 
justice of the Michigan supreme court," by R. H. Person; "A 
tribute to the late Judge Isaac Marston," by W. L. Clements; 
"National aid to education in Michigan," by J. L. Snyder; 
"Historical phases of railroad problems in Michigan," by D. 
Friday; "Pioneers of southern Michigan in 1846," by Sue L. 
Silliman; "The field for the historian of the upper peninsula," 

Vol. IV, No. 1 Historical Activities 77 

by F, X. Barth; ^'The spirit of the times," by W. N. Ferris. A 
special meeting at the invitation of the Delta county historical 
society was held at Escanaba, October 18 and 19, 1916 ; papers 
were read as follows : ^'The forests of the upper peninsula and 
their place in history," by A. L. Sawyer; ^'The history of Esca- 
naba 's ore docks," by F. H. Van Cleve; ''The Keweenaw water- 
way and the copper industry," by Lew A. Chase; ''Romance 
and adventure in Ontonagan history," by H. M. Powers ; "Forts 
and old buildings of Mackinac Island," by M. A. Breuckman; 
"The early history of Delta county," by J. P. McCole; "Father 
Marquette at Michilimackinac, " by 0. Wood; "Early highways 
and mail routes in the upper peninsula, " by G. T. Werline ; ' ' In- 
dian geographical names in the upper peninsula and their inter- 
pretation, ' ' by William Gagneur. 

The Proceedings of the Wisconsin historical society at its 
sixty-third annual meeting, October, 1915 (Madison, 1916. 231 
p.) includes the following papers : "The settlement of the town 
of Lebanan, Dodge county," by W. F. Whyte; "Chicago's first 
great lawsuit," by C. E. Preussing; "A forgotten community: 
a record of Eock Island, the threshold of Wisconsin," by H. R. 
Holand; "British policy on the Canadian frontier, 1782-1792; 
mediation and an Indian barrier state," by Orpha E. Leavitt; 
and a paper entitled "Remains of a French post near Trem- 
pealeau," the results of the combined efforts of E. D. Pierce, G. 
H. Squire, and Louise P. Kellogg. 

Two volumes of the Transactions of the Illinois state histori- 
cal society have appeared since last year's article on historical 
activities. The Transactions for 1914 (Springfield, 1915. 214 
p.) prints the papers read at the annual meeting in May, 1914, 
including the following: "The early courts of Chicago and 
Cook county," by 0. N. Carter; "The life and services of Shelby 
M. Cullom," by H. A. Converse; "The Methodist Episcopal 
church and reconstruction," by W. W. Sweet; "The destruction 
of Kaskaskia by the Mississippi river," by J. H. Burnham; 
"Black Hawk's home country," by J. H. Hauberg; "The Wil- 
liamson county vendetta, ' ' by G. W. Young ; ' ' The Yates phalanx 
— the thirty-ninth Illinois volunteers," by W. H. Jenkins; 
"Northern Illinois in the great whig convention of 1840," by 
Edith P. Kelley; "Southern Illinois and neighboring states in 

78 Arthur C. Cole m.v.h.e. 

the great whig convention of 1840,'' by Martha M. Davidson; 
''The young men's convention and old soldiers' meeting at 
Springfield, Illinois, June 3-4, 1840," by Isabel Jamison. The 
Transactions for 1915 (Springfield, 1916. 211 p.) contains the 
following papers read at the meeting in May, 1915: ''Life of 
Adlai E. Stevenson," by J. W. Cook; ''A group of stories of 
American Indians," by Lotte E. Jones; ''Eeminiscences of old 
Yellow Banks," by J. W. Gordon; ''Duden and his critics," by 
Jessie J. Kile; ''Jesse W. Fell," by Frances Morehouse; "The 
story of the banker-farmer movement originating with the Illi- 
nois bankers' association," by B. F. Harris; "Indian treaties af- 
fecting lands in the present state of Illinois," by F. R. Grrover. 
The volume also contains an address on "General James Shields 
of Illinois, " by F. 'Shaughnessy and a series of papers on the 
history of Quincy prepared by the Quincy chapter of Daughters 
of the American Revolution. 

At the May, 1916, meeting of the Illinois state historical socie- 
ty the following papers were read : ' ' The first two counties of 
Illinois and their people, ' ' by Fred J. Kern ; ' ' The veto power of 
the governor of Illinois, ' ' by N. H. Debel ; ' ' The Indian history 
of Illinois," by Ralph Linton; "Oddities in early Illinois laws,'^ 
by J. J. Thompson; "Jacques Thimote de Monbreun," by W. A. 
Provine; "Early Presbyterianism in east central Illinois," by 
Ira W. Allen; "Random recollections of sixty years in Chica- 
go, " by W. J. Onahan ; ' ' The work of the Illinois park commis- 
sion and the preservation of historical sites," by J. A. James; 
"Slavery and involuntary servitude in Illinois," by O. W. Al- 
drich; and "Old settlers' tales," by Mabel E. Fletcher. A 
special meeting of the Illinois state historical society was held 
at Springfield, December 7, 1916, to celebrate the ninety-eighth 
anniversary of the admission of Illinois into the union. At the 
same time there was a conference of representatives of local 
historical societies in Illinois. 


The Indiama magazine of history continues to maintain its 
high rank among local historical periodicals. Some of the most 
important articles published since June, 1916, are: "The so- 
cialist party in Indiana," by Ora E. Cox; "Who was our Sieur 

Vol. IV, No. 1 Historical Activities 79 

de Vincennesr' by J. P. Dunn; ''Some features in the history 
of Parke county,'^ by Maurice Murphy; ''Tecumseh's confeder- 
acy, '^ by Elmore Barce; ''Terre Haute in 1850," by John J. 
Schleicher; ''Indiana in 1816," by Merrill Moores; "Develop- 
ment of the city school system of Indiana, 1851-1880, ' ' by Harold 
Littell; "Social effects of the Monon railway in Indiana," by 
John Poucher; "Catholic education in Indiana, past and pres- 
ent," by Elizabeth Denehie; " Universalism in Indiana," by 
Elmo A. Robinson; "Old Corydon," by Charles Moores; "Rem- 
iniscences of the civil war; escape from Fort Tyler prison," by 
H. B. Little; "The wilderness road," by Frances Higgins; and 
"Memories of the National road," by Harriet M. Foster. A 
series of historical sketches of Indiana university by James A. 
Woodburn has been appearing in the Indiana alumni quarterly. 
The Magazine of history, extra number 44, contains an "Ad- 
dress on old Vincennes," by John Law. The Home and school 
visitor has in the October, 1916, number an article on "Indiana," 
by W. S. Grable ; one on ' ' One hundred years of Indiana, " by G. 
S. Cottman; and one entitled "Down to New Orleans," by Logan 
Esarey. In the September-December number of the German 
American annals may be found an account by Preston A. Barba 
of the General Swiss colonization society, a society organized in 
Cincinnati in January, 1857, which shortly afterwards founded 
Tell City, Indiana. 

The Journal of the Illinois state historical society has been 
carried down to July, 1916, with some possibility that an addi- 
tional number will appear before this issue of the Mississippi 
Valley Historical Review is distributed. The last four num- 
bers include the following articles: "Indian treaties affecting 
lands in Illinois," by Frank R. Grover; "Forgotten statesmen 
of Illinois: Robert Smith," by W. T. Norton; "Military history 
of Kane county," by John S. Wilcox; "Oddities in early Illinois 
laws," by J. J. Thompson; "The pacification of the Indians of 
Illinois after the war of 1812," by Lizzie M. Brown; "Lincoln at 
Galesburg," by J. F. Evans; "Personal reminiscences of Mr. 
Lincoln," by J. W. Vinson; "Abraham Lincoln," by Edward 
F. Dunne; "A modem knight errant: Edward D. Baker," by 
J. H. Matheny; "Slavery or involuntary servitude in Illinois 
prior to and after its admission as a state," by 0. W. Aldrich; 

so Arthur C. Cole m.v.h.e. 

''Early Presbyteriaiiism in east central Illinois/' by Ira W, Al- 
len; ''The two Michael Joneses, '^ by Frances H. Eelf; ''Old 
trails of Hancock county/' by Herbert S. Salisbury; and 
"James M. Davidson, 1828-1894,'' by E. A. Snively. The 
Jahrhuch der Deutsch-Amerikanischen historischen Gesellschaft 
von Illinois for 1915'' contains two Ilhnois articles: "The 
premises and significance of Abraham Lincoln's letter to Theo- 
dor Canisius," by F. J. Herriott; and "Recollections of a forty- 
eighter," by Frederich Behlendorif, relating the author's ex- 
periences as an Illinois soldier in the civil war. The Magazine 
of history has been giving special consideration to Lincoln arti- 
cles; one by E. B. Washbume on "Abraham Lincoln" may be 
found in extra number 43, and in extra number 45 there are two 
contributions: "Abraham Lincoln, his 'illusion' of 1860," by 
E. E. Holt; and "Life and character of Abraham Lincoln," by 
Richard Edwards. 

The contents of the Ohio archaeological and historical quar- 
terly for the past year include an account of "the dedication of 
the Hayes memorial at Spiegel G-rove, Fremont, Ohio ;" "Rarey, 
the horse's master and friend," by Sara L. Brown; "The ex- 
ploration of Tremper mound," by W, C. Mills; "Joseph Badger, 
the first missionary to the Western Reserve," by B. E. Long; 
' ' Memoir of Antoine Laf orge, ' ' by L. J. Kenny ; ' ' The ballad of 
'James Bird'," by C. B. Gralbreath; "The Coonskin library," by 
Sarah J. Cutler; "Flatboating on the Ohio river," by I. F. 
King; "Silver mines of Ohio Indians," by R. S. King; and 
"Birthplaces of three Ohio presidents," by F. J. Koch. 

In the April-June, 1916, number of the Journal of American 
history may be found an article by E. 0. Randall entitled "The 
mound builders of Ohio." The Ohio history teachers^ journal 
which is published as a bulletin of Ohio state university presents 
in its November, 1916, issue an article by Clarence E. Carter on 
"Some Ohio historians." 

Two articles may be noted in the Wisconsin archaeologist: 
"Grrant county Indian remains," by C. E. Brown and A. 0. 
Barton, and "Indian remains in Waushara county," by George 
R. Fox and E. C. Sagatz. An article by Carl R. Fish entitled 

11 To be reviewed later. 

Vol. IV, No. 1 Historical Activities 81 

'* Raising of the Wisconsin volunteers in 1861," appears in the 
Military/ historian and economist for July, 1916. 

The Iowa journal of history and politics has two articles that 
in part overlap the field of this report. ^'Agents among the 
Sacs and Foxes," by Ruth A. Gallaher, may be found in the 
July, 1916, issue as the third of a series of four articles on "The 
Indian agent in the United States before 1850;" J. S. Heffner's 
paper on the ^ ' Congregational church of Iowa City ' ' in the Jan- 
uary, 1917, number contains a brief sketch of the movement of 
Congregationalism westward from New England. 

The general historical periodicals have about the usual num- 
ber of articles bearing on phases of the history of the old north- 
west. The July, 1916, issue of the American historical review 
prints an article on "Western ship-building," by A. B. Hulbert; 
the January, 1917, issue contains C. R. Fish's "Social relief in 
the northwest during the civil war." The following contribu- 
tions have appeared in the 1916-1917 volume of the Mississippi 
Valley Histokical Review: "Virginia and the west," by C. 
W. Alvord ; ' ' The organization of the British fur trade, ' ' by W. 
E. Stevens; "The story of James Corbin," by M. M. Quaife; 
and "Effects of secession upon the commerce of the Mississippi 
valley," by E. M. Coulter. The American political science re- 
view for November, 1916, includes, a paper by A. C. Millspaugh 
on "The operation of the direct primary in Michigan." The 
Catholic historical review for April, 1917, contains an article by 
0. B. Corrigan entitled "The provinces of Philadelphia, Mil- 
waukee, and Santa Fe." The Magazine of history for July, 
1916, contains a brief paper by Mrs. Louise S. Houghton con- 
cerning "The French-Indians and the United States." 


Several general works may be mentioned in this connection 
as having a direct bearing on the Mississippi valley: English 
and American tool builder s, by Joseph W. Roe (New Haven, 
1916. 315 p.) ;^^ History of manufactures in the United States, 
by V. S. Clark (Washington, 1916. 675 p.) ; The centennial his- 
tory of the American bible society, by H. 0. Dwight (2 vols. 
New York, 1916. 605 p.) ; History of domestic and foreign com- 

12 Eeviewed ante, 3 : 405. 

82 Arthur C. Cole m.v.h.e. 

merce of the United States, by Johnson, Van Metre, Huebner, 
and Hancliett (Washington, 1915) ; The National road, by Eob- 
ert Bruce (Washington, 1916. 96 p.) ; The story of corn and the 
westward migration, by E. C. Brooks (Chicago, 1916. 308 
p.) ;'^ and The birth of Mormonism, by J. Q. Adams (Boston, 
1916. 106 p.)-^* The commerce of Louisiana during the French 
regime, 1699-1763 (New York, 1916. 476 p.), by N. M. M. Sur- 
rey, is a recent addition to the Studies in history, economics, 
and public law series of Columbia university (volume lxxi, no. 
1, whole no. 167) ;^^ it has chapters on the trade of the Illinois 
country, on New France in the fur trade of the Mississippi val- 
ley, and on kindred topics. A study of A century and a half of 
fur trade at St. Louis, by I. Lippincott, has been published in the 
Washington university studies for April, 1916. Miss Catha- 
rine C. Cleveland's study entitled The great revival in the west, 
1797-1805 (Chicago, 1916. 215 p.)^« has been published during 
the past year. Probably the most important contribution of the 
past year is the two volume study by C. W. Alvord entitled 
The Mississippi valley in British politics: a study of the trade, 
land speculation, and experiments in imperialism culminating in 
the American revolution (2 vols. Cleveland, 1916. 358; 396 p.)-^^ 
A study, for the most part from unused documentary sources, of 
the history of the lower lakes and upper Ohio valley under 
French control will appear shortly as volumes 20 and 21 of the 
Publications of the Buffalo historical society; it is the work of 
Frank H. Severance, the secretary-treasurer of that society. A 
few new titles of general studies which cover this section have 
been announced by candidates for the doctor's degree: The 
history of tobacco growing in the Ohio valley, by M. K. Cam- 
eron (Harvard) ; The Presbyterian church and slavery, by I. S. 
Kull (Chicago) ; Economic aspects of the campaign of 1860, by 
G. R. Bedenkapp (Columbia) ; Recruiting during the civil war, 
by 0. E. Hooley (Wisconsin) ; and The early history of the edu- 
cation of women in the northwest, by A. E. Stanley (Chicago). 
Three new numbers of the University of Illinois studies in the 

12 To be reviewed later. 
i*Roviewecl in this number, 
ifi To be reviewed later. 
11 Reviewed ante, 3:550-551. 
17 Reviewed in this number. 

Vol. IV, No. 1 Historical Activities 83 

social sciences have been brought out in the past year. They 
are: The life of Jesse Fell (volume v, no. 2, 1916. 129 p.),'' by 
Frances M. I. Morehouse ; Land tenure in the United States with 
special reference to Illinois (volume v, no. 3, 1916. 135 p.)>^^ 
by Charles L. Stewart; and Mine taxation in the United States 
(volume V, no. 4, 1916. 275 p.),'« by L. E. Young. The veto 
power of the governor of Illinois, by N. H. Debel, will be dis- 
tributed shortly as numbers 1 and 2 of volume vi. A History 
of the university of Chicago, by Thomas W. Wakefield, has been 
issued by the university of Chicago press (Chicago, 1916). The 
making of Illinois: a history of the state from the earliest rec- 
ords to the present time (Chicago, 1916. 254 p.) is a work writ- 
ten by I. F. Mather. More Lincoln material has appeared: 
Abraham Lincoln, by Lord Charnwood (New York, 1916. 479 
p.), a good biography; Abraham Lincoln, by Daniel E. Wheeler, 
in the Macmillan series of True stories of great Americans (New 
York, 1916) ; Abraham Lincoln, the lawyer-statesman, by J. T. 
Eichards (New York, 1916. 260 p.);^^ Abraham Lincoln and 
constitutional government, by B. A. Ulrich (Chicago, 1916. 
406 p.);^^ Abraham Lincoln, by C. P. Bissett (Los Angeles, 
1916. 56 p.) ;^^ and The convention that nominated Lincoln, by 
P. 0. Eay (Chicago, 1916. 38 p.). A brief biography of La 
Salle has been prepared by Louis S. Hasbrouck (New York, 
1916. 212 p.). The history of the Illinois and Michigan canal, 
by J. N. Putnam, is now in press, to be published under the au- 
spices of the Chicago historical society. 

The Ohio-Michigan boundary is the title of a work compiled 
by C. E. Sherman and issued as the first volume of an Ohio offi- 
cial publication (Ohio cooperative topographic survey, Final 
report, volume i. 115 p.) ;^* besides the reports of the commis- 
sioners and of the engineer engaged in a topographic survey of 
the boundary zone it contains two scholarly papers on the his- 
torical aspects of the boundary dispute, namely: ^^ Basis of the 

isEeviewed ante, 3: 554-556. 

19 To be reviewed later. 

20 To be reviewed later. 

21 Eeviewed ante, 3 : 537-538. 

22 To be reviewed later. 

23 To be reviewed later. 

24 To be reviewed later. 

84 Arthur C. Cole m.v.h.r. 

Oliio-Micliigan boundary dispute,'' by A. M. Schleisinger and 
"The controversy over the Ohio-Michigan boundary," by Anna 
M. Soule. Three other Ohio items are: The life of William 
McKinJeij, by Charles Olcott (Boston, 1916. 2 vols. 400; 418 
p.) ;-^ and The fifteenth Ohio volunteers and its campaigns, by 
Alexis Cope (Columbus, 1916. 706 p.) ;^^ and Early years on the 
western reserve^ by George C. Wing (Cleveland, 1916). 

The recent centennial celebration in Indiana has stimulated a 
good deal of writing along various lines of state history. Many 
of the publications take the county as a working unit; these 
include: Centennial history of Washington county, Indiana, its 
people, industries, and institutions, by W. W. Stevens (Indian- 
apolis, 1916. 1060 p.) ; Perry county, a history, by T. J. de la 
Hunt (Indianapolis, 1916. 359 p.);^' The first century of the 
public schools of Tippecanoe county, by Brainard Hooker (La- 
fayette, 1916) ; History of Hancock county, Indiana, by Gr. J. 
Eichman (Greenfield, Indiana, 1916). A large number of state 
histories of varying pretensions have appeared : a Centennial 
history of Indiana for schools and teachers' institutes, by H. M. 
Skinner (Chicago, 1916. 101 p.) ; ^ similar work entitled His- 
tory of Indiana, by J. A. Woodburn and T. F. Moran (New 
York, 1916. 63 p.) ; a History of Indiana, by 0. H. Williams 
(New York, 1916. 72 p.) ; and The history of Indiana for hoys 
and girls, by C. W. Moore (Boston, 1916. 72 p.). Julia H. Lev- 
ering has issued a second edition of her Historic Indiana revised 
and enlarged and designated a *^ centennial edition" (New York, 
1916. 565 p.). The play-party in Indiana is the title of a volume 
by Miss Leah J. Wolford issued under the auspices of the In- 
diana historical commission ; as a study of folk customs of early 
Indiana it is a distinct contribution to the history of the social 
life of the state. Harlow Lindley has prepared a biographical 
bulletin for the Indiana state library entitled The governors of 
Indiana. Frances D. Streightoff and Frank H. Streightoff are 
the joint authors of Indiana, a social and economic survey (In- 
dianapolis, 1916. 261 p.). 28 A volume of documents entitled 

2r> Reviewed ante, 3 : 543-545. 

20 Rfniewed ante, 3 : 414-415. 

27 R<3viewcd ante, 3 : 553-554. 

2<i Reviewed ante, 3 : 552-553. 

Vol. IV, No. 1 Historical Activities 85 

Circuit rider days in Indiana (Indianapolis, 1916. 344 p.)^^ con- 
tains an historical introduction of ninety pages which deals with 
the early history of Methodism in Indiana; it was prepared by 
the editor, W. W. Sweet. He has completed another work along 
similar lines entitled History of the north Indiana conference 
of the Methodist Episcopal church (Indianapolis, 1917. 363 p.) ; ^° 
this volume was planned and started by the late H. N. Herrick. 
A three volume work on Courts and lawyers of Indiana has been 
prepared by L. J. Monks, Logan Esarey, and E. V. Shockley 
(Indianapolis, 1916. lxxv, 384, 527, 526 p.). A Memorial to the 
pioneer mother of Indiana has been issued in pamphlet form 
(Indianapolis, 1916. 30 p.). 

Economic and social beginnings of Michigan, by George N. 
Fuller (Lansing, Michigan, 1916. lxxii, 630),^^ is the first num- 
ber of the University series of the Michigan historical commis- 
sion's publications; it is a careful study of the settlement of the 
lower peninsula during the territorial period, 1805-1837. Vol- 
ume II of this series. The public life of Zachariah Chandler, 
1651-1875, by Wilmer C. Harris, is now in press. To the other 
volumes being edited by the commission has been added a work 
on Historic Mackinac, by Edwin 0. Wood ; it will probably be a 
two volume study. The commission is planning to revise and 
bring down to date the volume authorized by the Michigan legis- 
lature in 1887 and published under the title Early history of 
Michigan with biographies of state officers, members of con- 
gress, judges, and legislators-, it will be enlarged in scope and 
printed in two volumes as Michigan biographies. Government 
of Michigan, by C. S. Larzelere (Chicago, 1916. 152 p.),^^ is a 
little volume containing a ten page sketch of Michigan history. 
Two new doctoral dissertations on Michigan history are De- 
velopment of the free school and the abolition of rate bills in the 
states of Connecticut and Michigan, by A. R. Mead (Columbia) 
and History of the Pere Marquette railroad, by P. W. Ivy 
(Michigan). An Economic history of Wisconsin during the civil 
war decade, by Frederick Merk, is expected to appear shortly; 

29 Reviewed ante, 3 : 250-251. 

30 To be reviewed later. 

31 To be reviewed later. 

32 Reviewed ante, 3 : 551. 

86 Arthur C, Cole m.v.h.e. 

it will bo volume one of a new series of studies in Wisconsin 
and western history of the Wisconsin historical society^s publi- 
cations. Mr. Merk has been for five years in the employ of that 
society. A study on The organization' of political parties in 
Wisconsin is announced by J. T. Carter as a Wisconsin doctoral 


The Michigan historical commission is preparing to issue a 
bulletin containing the Prize essays, written by pupils in Mich- 
igan schools in the local history contest, 1915-1916, These es- 
says were submitted in a prize contest arranged by the Michigan 
Daughters of the American Ee volution and the Michigan state 
federation of women ^s clubs, to encourage the study of local 
history in the schools of the state. The topics of the 1915-1916 
essays concern the settlement and development of the cities of 
Manistee, Three Rivers, Traverse City, and Cadillac. Other 
bulletins issued by the commission are: number 5, Names and 
places of interest on Mackinac Island, Michigan, designated and 
adopted by the Mackinac Island state park commission and the 
Michigan historical commission, by Frank A. O^Brien {S6 p.) ; 
number 6, Nicolet day on Mackinac Island ; and number 7, Lewis 
Cass day on Mackinac Island. Two other papers should be 
mentioned: *^ Forgotten heroines'' and ^^Two missionaries to 
the Indian," both by Frank A. O'Brien. 

A twenty page pamphlet, entitled Indiana local history; a 
guide to its study, has been prepared by Logan Esarey and has 
been published and circulated by Indiana university. The sen- 
ior class of 1913 of the Vevay high school has prepared a small 
booklet entitled A brief history of Switzerland county. The 
Tipton county centennial committee has issued another contain- 
ing a biography of General John Tipton together with a brief 
account of the settling of Tipton county; it was prepared by 
Ebert Allison for use in the schools. Some ^* Notes on centen- 
nial pageants in Indiana" may be found in the December, 1916, 
issue of the Indiana magazine of history. 

The Chicago historical society has held a number of special 
exhibits during the year including exhibits of Lincoln memen- 
toes and of early Chicago imprints. A committee of the so- 

Vol. IV, No. 1 Historical Activities 87 

ciety resurveyed the archaeological remains of Cook, Dupage, 
and Will counties preparatory to the publication of A. F. 
Scharf 's Indian trails and villages in the vicinity of Chicago. 
The society still maintains its propaganda to retain the original 
names of Chicago streets believing that in no better way can the 
achievements be commemorated of those in whose memory they 
were named. About ten thousand portraits of Chicago citizens 
have been filed in the society's library during the year. Mrs. 
Margaret Bangs is the author of A syllabus of twelve studies in 
Illinois history, A Souvenir of early and notable events in the 
history of the northwest territory is the title of a privately pub- 
lished pamphlet by William H. Bates (Pekin, Illinois, 1916. 31 
p.). An account of the movement in Illinois for obtaining a 
state flag or banner may be found in the July, 1916, number of 
the Journal of the Illinois state historical society. 

A committee of the Ohio history teachers' association is gath- 
ering material for a Source hook of Ohio history; the expecta- 
tion is that copy will be ready by the fall of 1917. A committee 
of the history section of the Illinois high school conference is at 
work on a similar volume of source readings on Illinois history. 

Some developments may be reported in the field of coopera- 
tion between state and local historical agencies. While some of 
the older state organizations have come to despair of being able 
to accomplish anything important along this line, the Michigan 
historical commission comes forward with youthful energy and 
enthusiasm for an elaborate system which it proposes to carry 
into practice. Under this scheme county historical societies 
properly organized, ofiicered, and encouraged by the state or- 
ganization will be invited to cooperate in collecting manuscript 
and printed materials now widely scattered in private homes. 
Should the proposed plan work out in practice Michigan will 
be organized for local historical work more effectively than any 
state of the old northwest; it will bring clearly to the attention 
of all interested the ideals toward which the state pioneer and 
historical society and the historical commission are working and 
should quicken public sentiment to attract the attention of mem- 
bers of the legislature to the need of legislation in the interests 
of the history of the state. The commission succeeded in at- 
tracting to the forty-second annual meeting of the society a large 

88 Arthur C. Cole m.v.h.b. 

number of delegates from various counties to report on the 
work of the local organizations and to discuss ways and means 
for more efficient cooperation between Michigan historical work- 
ers. The state historical society of Wisconsin has always en- 
couraged such local auxiliary societies and has sought to culti- 
vate close relations with them; they are entitled under a state 
law to send delegates to the annual meetings and to have their 
reports of proceedings printed by the state historical society. 
The coming centennial in Illinois should stimulate developments 
along these lines ; at a special meeting of the Illinois state his- 
torical society in December, 1916, a conference of representa- 
tives of local historical societies was held to encourage such 

Arthur C. Cole 
University of Illinois 


Notes on the Discovery of Gold in the Northwest 

In a recent review of Laveille's Life of Father Be Smet the 
reviewer says of the famous missionary : * ' He long knew of the 
presence of gold in Montana and Idaho, but kept the secret and 
swore his Indian informants to secrecy in order that his mis- 
sions and the entire native population might be spared as long 
as possible the fate that had overtaken the Indians of California 
after the discovery of gold there in 1848. ' ' ^ The reviewer appar- 
ently accepts without question the word of the author that 
Father De Smet actually was the discoverer of gold in the north- 
west, and thus gives the sanction of scholarly authority to this 
shadowy tradition. If Father De Smet actually ^^had known 
for twenty years of the gold buried in the mountains'' or in 
other words had discovered gold in 1840 as asserted by his 
biographer,^ then this missionary to the Indians should be cred- 
ited with having retarded the whole course of northwest history 
and with it the history of the nation. 

The only evidence that Father De Smet actually discovered 
gold rests upon the testimony of the missionary himself. His 
first statement relating to the discovery of gold was written in 
1849, at the time of the gold rush to California. He then wrote 
to his brother Charles, who was living in Belgium, as follows: 
^ ^ In 1840 I climbed a lofty mountain a few days ' travel from the 
Sacramento. The bed of a stream that came down from it 
seemed to me to be of gold &and. It was so abundant that I 
could not believe the thing was real and I passed on without ex- 
amining it. Today I have little doubt that it was really the 
precious metal. "^ If Father De Smet saw gold it must have 

1 Mississippi Valley Historical Review, 3 : 418. 

2 E. Laveille, S. J., Life of Father De Smet, S. J., translated by Marian Lindsay 
(New York, 1915), 319. 

3 De Smet to Ms brother Charles, April 26, 1849. H. M. Chittenden and A. T. 
Richardson, Life, letters, and travels of Father Pierre- Jean de Smet (New York, 
1904), 1421. The editor declares that in 1840 Father Be Smet passed over Alder 

90 Notes and Documents m.v.h.e. 

boon at tlio hoadwators of the Stinking Water and old miners 
whom I have interviewed are unanimous in the opinion that 
never was there such a display of gold as that described by 
Father De Smet.* They think that the good father was de- 
ceived by the reflection of mica which is found in various parts 
of the west. It must be borne in mind also that Father De Smet 
was not a miner and that, when years later he learned of the 
discovery of gold in California, he would naturally recall this 
incident of 1840 as an actual discovery of gold. 

The second statement of Father De Smet relative to his 
knowledge of gold in Montana was written in 1845, but its mean- 
ing is clear only if one accepts the explanation of it which he 
made in 1864. In this later year he wrote: **I have known of 
the existence of the precious metals in this region for many 
years past, and the thought has always filled me with apprehen- 
sion for the future of the Indian tribes who inhabit it. On the 
3rd of September, 1845, while I was on missionary duty among 
the mountain Indians, I wrote (page 125 of the Oregon Mis- 
sions) *Poor unfortunate Indians! They trample on treasures 
unconscious of their worth, and content themselves with fishery 
and the chase. When these resources fail, they subsist upon 
roots and herbs ; whilst they eye with tranquil surprise the white 
man examining the shining pebbles of their territory. Ah ! they 
would tremble, indeed, could they learn the history of those 
numerous and ill-fated tribes that have been swept from their 
land, to make place for Christians, who have made the poor 
Indians the victims of their rapacity.' ^^^ 

There is no doubt but that when the good missionary was 
writing in 1864 regarding opinions which he held in 1845 he 
thought that he was referring to the existence of gold. But if 
we examine the whole of the letter to which he refers, we find 
that he had something else in mind. In the paragraph immediate- 
Gulch. Ihid., 1422 n. This, however, is impossible, for when Father De Smet came 
into Montana in 1840 he crossed the mountains near Bed Rock lake and descended 
the Stinking Water, the Beaverhead, and the Jefferson rivers to the Three Forks. 

4 Mr. G. W. Wolf, president of the Western Montana National bank, and a man 
of wifle exj>erience and knowledge of placer mining, and Granville Stuart, one of the 
l>e8t known x>lacer miners in Montana, are among those who believe that Father De 
Smet must have been deceived. 

5 De Smet to Father Terwecoren, March 26, 1864. Chittenden and Eichardson, 
Life, letters, cmd travels of Father Pierre-Jean de Smet, 1519. 

Vol. IV, No. 1 2^/^g Discovery of Gold in the Northwest 91 

ly preceding the one quoted above, he explains what he meant 
as follows: **The quarries and forests appear inexhaustible; 
and having remarked large pieces of coal along the river, I am 
convinced that this fossil could be abundantly procured. What 
could this now solitary and desolate land become under the fos- 
tering hand of civilization. Indeed the entire tract of the Skalzi' 
seems awaiting the benign influence of the civilized people. 
Great quantities of lead are found on the surface of the earth ; 
and from the appearance of its superior quality, we are lead to 
believe there may be some mixture of silver. ' ' ^ 

This letter was written by Father De Smet to his superior and 
there is apparently no reason why he should conceal his belief 
that gold existed in the northwest or mislead his brother Jesuit 
who was just as much interested as he in keeping the white men 
out of the country. The letter also indicates that Father De 
Smet at this time looked forward with favor to the coming of 
the whites. It was not until after he learned of the evils inflict- 
ed by the miners upon the Indians of California that he sought 
to preserve the country for the red men.^ 

All the later references which Father De Smet has made to his 
knowledge of gold in the territory before the discovery was 
given to the world, apparently refer back to the incident of 
1840 or to the letter of 1845, neither of which can possibly estab- 
lish the claims which are made for him.® 

Laveille further asserts that * * on another occasion Father De 
Smet learned from a reliable Indian, that on one summit of the 
Black Hills, the iuterstices of the rocks were filled with golden 
sand, ' ' and he attempts to prove this statement by a letter which 
Father De Smet wrote to General Pleasanton in 1865.^ In this 
letter Father De Smet refers to the rumor of gold on the head- 
waters of Pointed Arrow or Flint creek. Laveille assumes that 

6 De Smet to Monseigneur, September 2, 1845. IMd., 493. 

7 Laveille, Life of Father De Smet, S. J., 319. 

8 De Smet to Caulfield, March, 1862, Chittenden and Eichardson, Life, letters and 
travels of Father Pierre-Jean de Smet, 1508; De Smet to Blondeal, the Belgian am- 
bassador. May 4, 1862, ihid., 1510. Both these letters refer to his keeping the secret 
*'for twenty years pasf A letter of February 4, 1863, to W. H. Campbell, is not 
so specific. IMd., 1511. 

9 Laveille, Life of Father De Smet, 8. J., 320 n. Chittenden and Richardson, Life, 
letters, and travels of Father Pierre-Jean de Smet, 1521. 

92 Notes and Documents m.v.h.r. 

this stream was in the Black Hills, an assumption which cannot 
possibly be true. Father De Smet gives as one of the reasons 
for not accompanying the Indian to the headwaters of Flint 
creek that he was ^4n hopes that by hurrying in my journey to- 
wards Fort Benton I might arrive in time to meet the boat of 
the American Fur Company. "^^ If he had been in the Black 
Hills he would not have gone to Fort Benton at all to meet the 
boat but would have sought it at a point hundreds of miles lower 
down, where he could have met it several days later. 

Flint creek must doubtless be the stream of that name which 
empties into Clark's Fork near Gold creek. Before 1865 gold 
mines were opened on Flint creek but Father De Smet's letter 
does not indicate the date when the ^*old Indian'' gave his testi- 
mony. It must have been after the opening of placer mines in 
the northwest, for it is doubtful if the *^gold dust" mentioned by 
Father De Smet was shipped into the country. The evidence 
presented by this letter is so vague that no conclusions can be 
drawn from it. 

The proof that Father De Smet discovered gold remains still 
very shadowy, and presents in itself some very good reasons to 
think that he is not entitled to the credit. Let us look then at 
the claims of other contenders. 

In addition to Father De Smet there are two serious claim- 
ants for the honor of discovering the yellow metal in the north- 
west. One of these was a half-breed named Frangois Finley, 
but usually called Benetsee, and the other, the party of the 
Stuart brothers and Eeese Anderson. Finley 's leading cham- 
pion is Mr. Duncan MacDonald of Ravalli, Montana. 

Mr. MacDonald 's mother was an Indian. His father, Angus 
MacDonald, was a Scotchman who in 1847 built a trading post 
for the Hudson's Bay company a few miles south of Flathead 
lake on Post creek in the present Flathead Indian reservation. 
On March 8, 1916, in answer to our query, Mr. MacDonald sub- 
mitted the following: ^*In answer to question regarding Angus 
MacDonald my father finding or handling gold given him by a 
half-blood by name of Penatsee Finley (Penatsee was a nick 
name, Francois is his right name). Him and several other Ca- 
nadians and mixed bloods stampeded to California in 1849. It 

10 Chittenrlen and Richardson, Life, letters, and travels of Father Pierre-Jean de 
Smet, 1522. 

Vol. IV, No. 1 xhe Discovery of Gold in the Northwest 93 

was in California he learnt the value of gold. He returned to 
Montana in 1850, and went up . . . what we call now Hell 
Gate River. When he pitched camp at a stream now known as 
Gold Creek he thought he would try for gold. And sure enough 
he found some. I did not learn how much but [it] was part of a 
teaspoonful. When he returned at Post Creek [the Hudson's 
Bay post mentioned above] he gave it to my father. At the 
same time IVCacDonald was not satisfied. He told him [Benet- 
see] to get some more gold, which he did. I think the last gold 
he gave . . . him [Angus ]\iacDonald] was in 1851 or 2, 
about a teaspoonful. The said IMacDonald then wrote a letter 
to the Board of Management [of the Hudson's Bay company] 
at Victoria about gold being found in this part of the country. 
The Company then wrote him to keep it secret as it might cause 
a big excitement same as [in] California, as they [Hudson's 
Bay company] were in quest of fur and [the miners] might 
ruin their business. He, Angus MacDonald, was the first white 
man [who] saw gold and handled it without doubt in Montana. 
Father told me this several times. Then he told me Major 
John Owens [who built Fort Owens in the Bitter Root valley] 
got wind of it but he also kept quiet feeling same as the Hud- 
son's Bay Company. But he had a lot of white employees . . . 
some of them sent word to the Stuarts about rumors of gold in 
this part of the country. So the Stuarts made a straight line 
to Gold Creek and the gold was there and they [the Stuarts] 
are getting the credit instead of Frangois Finley (Penatsee) 
and Angus MacDonald. . . [signed] Duncan MacDonald." 

This indirect evidence is our only authority for Benetsee's 
venture save for rumor and legend as old as the early fifties. 
As far as is known there is not a contemporary account of his 
discovery. Neither have we a word written subsequently by 
anyone who saw Benetsee with the gold. Pride of race is very 
strong is Mr. MacDonald. For years he has sought to revive 
Indian legends and Indian geographical names, and he is proud 
to claim for one of his race the honor of discovering gold in the 
northwest. It is but natural too that he should seek to give all 
the glory possible to his father. 

While there is not enough evidence to accept the Benetsee 
legend as fact, the story was so generally believed in the early 

94 Notes and Documents m.v.h.e. 

gold milling days tliat there must be something in it. That 
Beuetsee was a historical character is not doubted. He has 
an aged daughter still living in Montana. Granville Stuart, his 
rival for the honor of opening the gold fields of the northwest, 
remembers him well. On November 24, 1916, Mr. Stuart gave 
us the following statement : * ^ I met Frangois Finley, the breed, 
while hunting. He told me he came from California, and that 
he had looked about for gold — as all men from California in 
those days did. He [Finley] said he had never systematically 
mined in this region. He never considered himself a miner 
and never claimed to have opened the gold fields of the North- 
west. At least nothing ever came of his discovery. * ^ ^^ 

Although no one doubts Mr. Stuart's word, in fairness it 
should be remembered that he and Benetsee are rivals for the 
same honor. Much more valuable than this late description of 
events is one which Mr. Stuart made in early years. His first 
written account of the Benetsee rumor is found in his valuable 
little book, published in 1865, which he called Montana as it is, 

11 Lieutenant Bradley in his journal of 1876 apparently agrees with this statement 
of Mr. Stuart. He says: *'The first discovery is credited to Francois Finley, in 
1852, but he did not seem to profit by it and nothing came of it." '^Journal of 
Lieutenant James H. Bradley in the Sioux campaign of 1876," in Contributions to 
the Historical society of Montana; wiih its transactions (Helena, 1876-), 2: 150. It 
is very strange that Captain Mullan does not once mention either Benetsee or the 
Stuarts in his various references to Gold creek. In one place he says : ' ' This creek 
has been named ' Gold Creek ' as Colonel Lander is said to have found gold specimens 
in it." Captain John Mullan, "Eeport on the construction of a military road from 
Fort Walla- Walla to Fort Benton," Executive documents of the senate, 37 congress, 
3 session, no. 43: 138. It is very, queer that he does not mention the Stuarts as this 
note was made on November 24, 1860, two years after their discovery. In his Miners 
and travelers^ guide to Oregon, Washington, Idaho, Montana, Wyoming and Colorado, 
via the Missouri and Columbia rivers (New York, 1865), he also mentions no gold 
discoveries. But this little book was lifted almost bodily from the text of the former. 
The above mentioned Colonel Lander is thus another of the so-called ^' first discov- 
erers" of gold in the northwest. F. H. Hayden, United States geologist, in his 
various reports makes no mention of the Montana gold discoveries. See F. H. Hay- 
den, "Preliminary report of the United States geological survey of Wyoming and 
portions of contiguous territories," and ''Preliminary report of the United States 
geological survey of Montana and portions of adjacent territories," Executive docu- 
ments of the house of representatives, 42 congress, 2 session, nos. 325, 326. The lat- 
ter deals largely with agricultural surveys. H. H. Bancroft mentions several others 
credited with discovering gold in the northwest. See his History of Washington, 
Idaho and Montana, 1845-1889 {WorTcs of Hubert Howe Bancroft, vol. 31 — San 
Francisco, 1890), 611-616. As usual Bancroft follows any tradition given him. 

Vol. IV, No. 1 xfi^e Discovery of Gold in the Northwest 95 

Here he tells the Benetsee episode as follows: ^^ About the 
year 1852, a French halfbreed from the Red River named Fran- 
cois Finley, but commonly known by the sobriequet of ^Benetsee' 
who had been to California began to prospect on a branch of 
Hell Gate, now known as Gold Creek. He found small quanti- 
ties of light float gold in the surface along this stream, but not 
in sufficient quantities to pay. This became noised about among 
the mountaineers."^^ 

Stuart tells the story not very differently fifty years later. 
In the Daily Missoulian of November 12, 1916, he said : ^ ^ Dur- 
ing the winter (of 1857-8) some residents from the Bitter Root 
Valley came over to the Beaverhead and told a rumor that a 
Red River half-breed known as Benetsee, some years before 
had come from California and had prospected for gold. He 
had scraped up a little gravel in the stream which is called 
Benetsee creek and washing that gravel as he had seen it done 
in California, he saw a few bright specks in the bottom of the 
pan and having seen gold in California, thought this might be 
gold. However, he did not dig any holes or wash any gravel or 
try to mine in any way whatsoever. Five years passed without 
anything being done. . . " ^^ 

Stuart does not in a single instance deny that before his party 
found gold at Gold or Benetsee creek in 1858 there were rumors 
of Benetsee 's find. In fact he implies that his party went to 
that stream on the strength of this rumor. That the Stuarts 
and Anderson found gold there is history. 

Another tale similar to Finley 's, which grew up in the western 

12 Granville Stuart, Montana as it is; heing a general description of its resources 
. . . to which is appended a complete dictionary of the SnaTce language, and also 
of the famous ChinooTc jargon (New York, 1865), 7. Mr. Stuart wrote this book in 

13 This claim of Mr. Stuart 's that ' ' five years passed without anything being 
done" does not agree with his earlier statement in Sanders, where he says that in 
1856 Eobert Hereford, John Saunders, Bill Madison and others, hearing the Benetsee 
story went to Gold creek where they found a little gold which they gave to Captain 
Grant, *^who used to show it, up to the time of his death in 1862, as the first piece 
of gold found in the country.'' Helen F. Sanders, History of Montana (Chicago 
and New York, 1913), 1: 167. Evidently Captain Grant either did not believe the 
Benetsee story or had never heard of it. It is also possible that the story of the 
find of 1856 is fiction. It seems hardly possible that the Benetsee story could have 
been unknown to Captain Grant. As far as can be learned every contemporary had 
heard of the Benetsee rumor. 

9(3 Notes and Documents m.v. h.r. 

part of ^[oiitaiia developed in the same region and at the same 
time- Mr. Charles S. Warren, writing in 1876 says: *' There 
seems to be some diversity of opinion as to the first discovery of 
gold in Montana. In 1852 Samuel M. Caldwell discovered gold 
on what was then known as Mill Creek, nearly opposite Fort 
Owen, west of the Bitter Root River.'''* This ''pre-historic" 
tale like that mentioned ahove '^ is not often told. Its defend- 
ers seem to be few. 

Still another quite popular legend had its center at Fort Ben- 
ton farther east. This is the oft repeated account of the ^^moun- 
taineer" Silverthorne. Lieutenant Bradley, who is usually fol- 
lowed in vouching for this story, gives it as follows: ^^In 1856 
a mountaineer named Silverthorne appeared at Fort Benton 
with gold dust to the amount of $1,525.00 which he claimed to 
have mined in the mountains of this Territory and disposed of 
it in trade. It would seem that he afterwards went to Califor- 
nia to form a party to return to his mines. ' '^^ 

If this Silverthorne story has any foundation, the fact led to 
nothing, for as far as is known Silverthorne did not later at- 
tempt to exploit the gold deposits of Idaho territory. In an- 
other account Bradley says that the late Judge Frank Woody 
and others in years subsequent to 1856 often saw Silverthorne 
about the Bitter Eoot valley." The story seems fairly plausi- 
ble as Bradley claims that Major Culbertson gave him a part 
of the facts and that the famous trader, M. Mercure, told him 
the whole tale. In fact, Mercure said that he later found Sil- 
verthorne and got the particulars from him. The account, 
therefore, largely hinges on the veracity of Bradley. 

Where Silverthorne found the gold is not known. The near- 
est Bradley could come to it was that it was ^4n the mountains 

14 Charles S. Warren, ''The territory of Montana," in Contributions to the His- 
torical society of Montana, 2 : 83. 

i""' See note 13 above. 

i« "Journal of Lieutenant James H. Bradley in the Sioux campaign of 1876," in 
Contributions to the Historical society of Montana, 2 : 150. The Silverthorne episode 
is also jpven in Sanders, History of Montana, 1 : 170. Major Culbertson, the Amer- 
ican Fur comj^any factor at Fort Benton, seems to have taken a similar attitude to 
that said U> have been adopted by the Hudson's Bay company in the case of Ben- 
etsee's diwtovery. 

17 Saunders, Hvstory of Montana, 1: 170. This account is evidently taken from 
Brarlley's narrative in the New Northwest (Deer Lodge, Montana), October 8, 1875. 

Vol. IV, No. 1 xj^Q Discovery of Gold in the Northwest 97 

of this Territory/' As Bradley was writing in 1876 he doubt- 
less refers to Montana territory as the latter was separated 
from Idaho territory in 1864. Like many other '^Forty-niners" 
from California Silverthome was doubtless on the lookout for 
gold during his wanderings. 

The above stories, like that of Benetsee, were not given us by 
the principals, nor are there any contemporary accounts of them 
to be found. All these stories may have some grains of truth in 
them. Grold was later found quite widely scattered over the 
mountainous sections of the northwest. Considering the num- 
ber of men in the region who had been through the California 
craze, and the fact that most of the wandering trappers of the 
period would be on the watch for the elusive metal, the finding 
of it now and then would not be strange. Legitimate evidence 
of their veracity, however, is lacking, and we can consign them 
all to tradition. 

The Stuart brothers and Reese Anderson present the first 
valid claim to the discovery of gold in the northwest, and there 
is no doubt that they are responsible for the gold rush to the 
territory now comprising Montana and Idaho. The Stuart par- 
ty was returning from an unsuccessful expedition to California, 
when they decided to try their luck once more in the mountains 
north of the Grreat Salt lake. In 1857 they crossed the Red 
Rock divide into the old Idaho territory. The following year 
they found gold in paying quantities on Gold or Benetsee creek, 
between the present cities of Deer Lodge and Missoula, Mon- 
tana. It was news of this discover}^ that started the gold rush 
to the northwest and paved the way for its future development.^^ 

P. C. Phillips 
H. A. Tkexleb 

18 Granville Stuart has given several accounts of the discovery of gold by his party 
in 1858. The earliest is perhaps that which appears in his Montana as it is, 7. 
There is also a narrative of his in Sanders, History of Montana, 1: 167. Stuart's 
fullest and latest description of the expedition is in the Daily Missoulian of Novem- 
ber 2, 1916. 


Modernizing the Monroe doctnne. By Charles H. Sherrill, late United 
States minister to Argentina. With an introduction by Nicholas 
Murray Butler. (Boston and New York: Houghton Mifflin com- 
pany, 1916. 203 p. $1.25 net) 
This interesting little volume is a plea for Pan-Americanism, "the 
most altruistic and the most practical foreign policy to which any coun- 
try ever devoted itself. " It is altruistic because it contemplates serious- 
ly the advancement of the interests of states other than our own ; it is 
practical because it makes for world peace. As the author understands 
it, Pan-Americanism is an attempt to assemble the fuiest traits of a 
score of republics that they may be employed in combination for the 
common good of all. 

The realization of this ideal — for it is an ideal — must come through 
mutual appreciation of good qualities, mutual toleration of conflicting 
viewpoints, and finally through the development of a patriotism which 
is not circumscribed by the bounds of any single state. In this work 
the United States must lead and there can be no hope for success until 
we are able not only to understand our South American neighbors better 
but to command their respect as well. Until recently the history of our 
relations with them has been that of lost opportunities. We have 
ignored and misunderstood them; we have made no really intelligent 
attempts to become acquainted with them or their country, their likes 
or dislikes, their good qualities or their short-comings. To picture the 
Latin Americans, as we of the northern continent are often inclined to 
do, ''in a landscape of palms beneath the sultry rays of a tropical sun, 
rolling cigarettes, and occasionally ejaculating, maiiaxia" is an error" 
bom of ignorance. They have not been enervated by a tropical climate 
because most of them live under temperate climatic conditions. Neither 
is their chief occupation or amusement that of fomenting political revo- 
lutions. The South Americans have fully as much political sense per 
capita as their northern brethren ; they take their politics more soberly 
and seriously; and furthermore ''there is no more chance of a revolution 
in such countries as Argentina and Uruguay than there is in Brooklyn.'' 
Buenos Aires with its 2,000,000 people, its splendid hotels, department 
stores, and public buildings, its university, and its excellent newspapers, 
Ls thoroughly European in appearance and thoroughly progressive. It 
suggests the solid character of the best South American citizenship. 

Vol. IV, No. 1 Sherrill: Modernizing the Monroe Doctrine 99 

The North. American has erred not only in neglecting to acquaint him- 
self with the good points of his South American brother but in failing 
to present his own good qualities in a favorable light as well. In both 
cases he, not the Latin American, is the loser. Strange as it may seem 
it has never been thought worth while to take full advantage of the 
tremendous trade opportunities which the southern continent affords. 
Although the trade of Argentina, Chili, Brazil, and Uruguay amounted 
to $1,800,000,000 in 1913 we enjoyed only a comparatively small part of it 
because we thought it unnecessary to send there competent, highly train- 
ed business and diplomatic representatives who would measure up to 
the agents employed by England and Germany. In the comparisons 
which were very naturally made the United States suffered. Moreover, 
our news service is poor. Cable news from the United States has gen- 
erally been scanty and so sensational in character as to make an ex- 
ceedingly unfavorable impression upon South American readers. On 
the other hand England, Germany, and Japan having studied conditions 
closely, recognize the value of a carefully supervised news distribution. 
At regular intervals they furnish to the leading newspapers of the con- 
tinent adroitly worded statements concerning affairs of world interest 
not neglecting to magnify the importance of their part in these events. 

This general indifference upon the part of the United States has creat- 
ed in South America a corresponding indifference which borders closely 
upon well defined suspicion. If Pan- Americanism is to become a real- 
ity, and if the Monroe doctrine is to be more than the unilateral policy 
at which Latin Americans and Europeans alike look askance, it is im- 
perative that the United States make some earnest, well-considered, and 
tactful endeavors to remove the causes of this distrust. Happily some 
things have been done already. The meetings of the Pan-American con- 
gresses, which periodically gather together for the discussion of prob- 
lems of common interest the best minds of the republics of the western 
hemisphere, have done much good. The frequent meetings of the Pan- 
American union (consisting of the Latin -American ambassadors and 
ministers under our secretary of state as chairman) have contributed to 
increase mutual respect and to create a new appreciation of the respon- 
sibilities as well as the advantages of the Monroe doctrine. The A. B. C. 
congress was of the greatest practical benefit. In it the United States, 
by demonstrating its desire to profit by their advice and cooperation in 
the solution of problems of international interest, proved to the South 
American republics that its own policy was by no means selfishly na- 
tional in scope. 

The most interesting part of the volume deals with the ' ^ Triangle for 
peace," — Mr. Sherrill's plan for developing Pan- Americanism. His 

100 Reviews of Books m.v.h.e. 

first suggestion is that affairs common to the interests of the several 
Ameriwm st<ites ought to^be discussed and settled by a body in which 
the South American republics are accorded full representation. Second, 
that the European colonies in the southern continent and Central Amer- 
ica should have their freedom either through grant or by purchase by 
the United States. Finally, the United States must withdraw from the 
Philippines. Although these islands are rich in resources and are locat- 
ed at the doorway of the orient they are an embarrassment. In times 
of peace they present serious problems in the civilization and government 
of the native population ; in times of war they must either be defended 
— an expensive and troublesome task — or evacuated, which would be 
humiliating. Were the Philippines to be traded for the European col- 
onies in the western hemisphere a long step toward world peace would 
be taken. The Monroe doctrine would be restored to the position it oc- 
cupied before the Spanish-American war, the suspicion of Japan would 
be allayed, and the east would be left to those nations most vitally in- 
terested in it and best equipped to solve the problems arising from the 
administration of colonial dependencies. With South America, Central 
America, and the West Indies free from European control reorganization 
could take place with the aid of the United States. The Guianas, Vene- 
zuela, Colombia, and Ecuador, more or less closely united physiograph- 
icaUy, might be induced to form a confederacy; Argentina, Chili, Bo- 
livia, Paraguay, and Uruguay could do the same since their interests are 
identical; and although the West Indies would remain in the possession 
of the United States the Central American states might find it to their 
advantage to unite into some sort of a league. 

Not many years ago these suggestions had a place only in the realm 
of possibility but today they may well be called probabilities. The 
United States will be represented at the conference which makes the 
world peace and this nation can make a solid contribution to the welfare 
of the western hemisphere and at the same time aid in securing the peace 
of the world by urging the program advanced by Mr. Sherrill. At no 
time in the world's history will our allies be more inclined to favor such 
proposals. Moreover, if the plan already hinted at in German circles of 
an alliance with Russia and Japan matures, it is imperative that the 
United States unify the western hemisphere or be prepared to abandon 
the doctrine of ''entangling alliances with none." 

William V. Pooley 

History of the presidency. By Edward Stanwood, Litt.D. (Bowdoin). 
In two volumes. Volume one, History of the presidency from 1788 
to 1897. Volume two, History of the presidency from 1897 to 1916. 

Vol. IV, No. 1 Stanwood: History of the Presidency 101 

(Boston and New York: Houghton Mifflin company, 1916. 586 p. ; 
396 p. $4.50 net) 

The first volume of this set is the well-known work carrying the pres- 
idential narrative down to the inauguration of President McKinley in 
1897. It is again submitted in the original form, without an attempt 
at revision. Comment is therefore unnecessary except by way of re- 
gret that the author did not see fit to incorporate the results of recent 
historical discoveries, whether in the field of acquisition of new materials 
or in the realm of historical interpretation. 

Volume II continues the discussion to the inauguration of WHson and 
Marshall in 1913 and closes with an analysis, in a chapter of thirty-five 
pages, of the evolution of the presidency. One prominent difference be- 
tween the two volumes is the difference in space available for the con- 
sideration of a single presidential administration. The first volume 
covers twenty-seven administrations in thirty chapters averaging less 
than twenty pages; the second volume has three hundred pages for a 
period of sixteen years in which governmental affairs were directed by 
but three different executives. In content it appears less a history of 
the presidency and more a general treatise of the political narrative of 
the period, more perhaps a history of presidential elections. Issues had 
become more complicated, new independent parties were in the field, 
some with indications of an increasing element of permanence, and party 
platforms came to include more and more planks; all these factors com- 
bined to make the change mentioned more or less inevitable. There is, 
therefore, too little opportunity to suggest the significance of a given 
policy or act. One wishes, for instance, that the author had submitted 
more data to make clear President McKinley 's desire to avoid war with 
Spain in the spring of 1897. More use might have been made generally 
of the executive messages and state papers; the work also reflects the 
difficulty common to all writing of contemporary history, namely, that 
of securing access to the more private and intimate kinds of source mate- 
rial such as win be absolutely necessary to an adequate understanding 
of the field surveyed. The author contents himself with the platforms 
of parties whereas the future historian will look for private correspond- 
ence, diaries, and such materials of a confidential sort. The attempt was 
made to make the volume more useful in the campaign of 1916 by print- 
ing in an appendix the platforms and candidates of the various parties 
that were in the field. 

The most noteworthy sections of the volume are the chapter on * ' The 
era of 'progressive' insurgency," in which considerable insight into the 
forces at work in the pre-convention portion of the campaign of 1912 is 
displayed, and the interpretative analysis of the * ' Evolution of the pres- 

102 Reviews of Books m.v.h.k. 

ideney. ' ' The latter is by no means the contribution that might well be 
expected from a veteran author of such broad experience in historical 
writing but it serves the purpose of drawing together the scattered nar- 
rative items into a synthetic whole. 

Arthur C. Cole 

History and procedure of the house of representatives. By De Alva 
Stanwood Alexander, A.M., LL.D. (Boston and New York: Hough- 
ton Mifflin company, 1916. 435 p. $2.00 net) 

Mr. Alexander has written a book that is both useful and interesting. 
He has done more than present a technical account of the organization 
and rules of the house of representatives. He has also supplemented the 
formal facts with illustrative incidents and personal characteristics of 
speakei*s, floor leaders, and other prominent members of the house; and 
has presented this material in an attractive literary form. 

The subject is treated in an analytical rather than a chronological ar- 
rangement ; and the historical discussion appears in connection with each 
topic. This method has the effect of separating incidents closely related 
in time, and of taking up some recent events before others which serve 
to explain what came later. 

In the chapter on the roll of members elect, the influence of the clerk 
of the former house over the organization of a new house with a close 
party division in 1839 and 1855 are set forth. The narrow margin in 
the present congress should arouse interest in these earlier contests. 

A good deal of attention is naturally given to the power of the speaker 
and the rules of the house, including the exciting incidents connected 
wdth counting a quorum, the adoption of the ' ' Reed rules, ' ' and the more 
recent changes. Mr. Alexander does not hesitate to express his ap- 
proval of the changes brought about by Speaker Reed, in the interest of 
dispatching business; and while he admits that some of the more recent 
changes are useful or at most harmless, he considers the new methods of 
appointing committees a failure, and favors restoring this power to the 

In taking this position, the author fails to recognize that the respon- 
sibility for directing the work of the house according to the wishes of 
the majority may be concentrated in the floor leader, without incurring 
the risk of unfair treatment to the minority when these powers were 
added to those of the presiding officer. 

The disintegration of the control over finances by the distribution of 
authority among various committees is well told ; and it is of interest to 
note that Mr. Reed aided actively in this movement some years before 
he toc;k up the opposite task of centralizing control in the hands of the 

Vol. IV, No. 1 Mathews: American State Administration 103 

speaker. But the committee system as a whole is inadequately presented. 
There is no discussion of the functions of committees, nor of their meth- 
ods of procedure, nor of the system of subcommittees. 

A chapter on the president and the house notes the increasing influ- 
ence of the chief executive with some indications of distrust. The au- 
thor evidently does not see in this another phase of the same tendency 
towards concentrating responsibility which he approves in the case of 
the speaker. 

Nothing is said of the relations between the house and the senate, ex- 
cept in connection with impeachment pi-oceedings. An interesting study 
might be made of the comparative influence of the two branches of con- 
gress, and the connection between effective leadership and the hegemony 
of one or the other house. 

An appendix presents in tabular form the data as to apportionment, 

political divisions, presidents, speakers, clerks, and other officers, and the 

chairman of important standing committees. 

John A. Fairlie 

Principles of American state administration. By John Mabry Mathews, 
Ph.D., assistant professor of political science, university of Illinois. 
(New York and London: D. Appleton and company, 1917. 534 p. 
$2.50 net) 
Until very recently the framework and functions of state government 
in this country have had surprisingly little attention at the hands of text 
writers. Books relating to the government of the nation we have had by 
the score, and during the last decade there has been no dearth of volumes 
relating to the various aspects of municipal administration ; but the ma- 
chinery, methods, and problems of state government have been almost 
wholly neglected. During the last twelvemonth, however, two note- 
worthy volumes have appeared in this field, both of them excellent in 
quality and both entitled to a genuine welcome from students of public 
affairs. One is Mr. Holcombe's State government in the United States; 
the other is Mr. Mathews' volume. These books are akin in that both 
deal with the same general subject and both are a credit to their respec- 
tive authors. But there the parallel ends. If the two writers had pre- 
arranged to divide the field of statecraft between them they could hardly 
have better managed to keep from treading upon each other's ground. 
Mr. Holcombe has concerned himself with the foundations of state gov- 
ernment, with the major organs of executive and legislative power, like- 
wise with problems of governmental reorganization. Mr. Mathews, on 
the other hand, has given his special attention to the equally important 
task of showing what the various state departments have to do and 
what methods they pursue in doing it. 

104 Revietvs of Boohs m.v.h.e. 

The adiuinistrative work of the American commoiiwealth has enorm- 
ously increased in our day and with this increase in functions has come 
an appreciation of the need for greater efficiency. The time has gone by 
when the methods by which a department conducts its work, whether 
in nation, state, or city, can be regarded as matters of minor consequence 
to be left to the discretion of whomsoever happens to be for the moment 
at the head of a department. Today the method is as important as the 
man ; the system under which the public business is carried on ranks in 
importance with the personnel of government. That is why a careful 
study of principles and methods, such as this book contains, must neces- 
sarily be of service not only to students of administration but to the men 
who are actually engaged in administrative work and who wish to be 
guided by the best practice in carrying out their complicated tasks. 

The writer of a book on the subject of state administration runs the 
risk, however, of dropping into either of two pitfalls. He may err in 
giving us too little or in giving us too much. He may touch only the 
high points, thus impairing the value of his book to those who want to 
get a real grasp of the subject, or he may clutter his pages with so many 
details relating to the multifarious activities of the various state depart- 
ments that the average reader will get lost in the underbrush. Mr. 
Mathews has happily managed to steer a middle and proper course. His 
aim has been to select for description those functions of state adminis- 
tration which, either because of their outstanding importance or be- 
cause of their suitability as types will broadly suffice to show the man 
of average intelligence how the entire business of the state is carried on. 
The book is, accordingly, divided into two parts, one dealing with the 
way in which state administration is organized, the 'other with the 
methods by which the administrative organizations perform the func- 
tions allotted to them. In this latter section of the book the author's 
main attention is devoted to six far-reaching state services, namely, taxa- 
tion and finance, education, charities and corrections, public health, the 
enforcement of law", and the admimstration of justice. An admirable 
chapter, well-balanced and unbiased, on the reorganization of state 
administration completes the volume. 

From the friends of better state government in this country Mr. 
Mathews is entitled to both gratitude and congratulations, the one be- 
cause he has done a work which was so well worth doing and the other 
because he has done it so well. He has paid scrupulous heed to the 
canons of sound writing, avoiding rash generalizations and sticking close- 
ly to the main trails of discussion. He has not disdained to be accurate 
in details, a trait that is none the less benign because it passes among 
the unwashed a.s mere pedantry. At the end of each chapter there are 

Vol. IV, No. 1 Wyeth: Republican Principles and Policies 105 

some references for further study and the mechanism of the book, the 
presswork particularly, is unusually good. 

WILLIA3I Bennett Munro 

State socialism after the war. An exposition of complete state socialism, 
what it is, how it would work. By Thomas J. Hughes. (Philadel- 
phia: George W. Jacobs and company, 1916. 351 p. $1.50 net) 
This is not a historical work. The early chapters do recount develop- 
ments in England in the early years of the war which led to the intro- 
duction of various features of state socialism, but the author, in at- 
tempting to make use of the journalistic device of writing of coming 
events as if they had actually happened, falls into the error of assum- 
ing a cessation of hostilities in the great war at the intervention of the 
neutral powers under the leadership of the president of the United 
States. This forecast is carried on to cover the development of British 
East Africa under a complete system of state socialism, which is repre- 
sented as becoming infectious and resulting in a gradual world-wide 
adoption of the same system. The author uses this device to lead up to 
a detailed analysis of what a system of state socialism involves. This 
state socialism is considered by the author to be merely the practical 
application of the social gospel of Jesus. He closes with two chapters 
which explain its scriptural foundation and a concluding chapter show- 
ing the growth, expansion, and adaptability of modern business methods 
to the new social order. It should be noted that his scheme of state 
socialism involves government ownership, but not government conduct 
or control of industry. 

A. C. C. 

Republican principles and policies. A brief history of the republican 
national party. By Newton Wyeth. (Chicago: Republic press, 
1916. 256 p.) 
This is a book of small importance to the historian, written by a con- 
servative republican as a campaign document for 1916. While intended 
for campaign purposes, it reviews the history of parties from the estab- 
lishment of the constitution without undue stress of the later period, but 
the reconstruction period is slighted. The tariff is the main theme, and 
it will surprise many to learn that the democratic party has been con- 
sistent on that issue, or as much so as its imperfect nature permits. 
There are many such gems of political wisdom as the following: ''But 
as long as an old party is reasonably successful in administration, con- 
serves the public interests according to its course, and does not attempt 
the solution of new problems ahead of public interest, or if it makes the 

10(3 Reviews of Books m.v.h.e. 

attempt public judgment presently comes to its support, so long will the 
party command public respect and prevail as the dominant party" (p. 
7). As Mr. Wye til believes that the good republicans are more numer- 
ous than the less good democrats, he should be an optimist. 

Carl Russell Fish 

Guide to the materials for American history in Swiss and Aicstrian ar- 
chives. By Albert B. Faust, professor of German, Cornell univer- 
sity. [Carnegie institution of Washington, publication number 220. 
Papers of the department of historical research edited by J. Frank- 
lin Jameson] (Washington: Carnegie institution of Washington, 
1916. 299 p.) 
This book follows the model, already familiar to students, set by the 
Carnegie institution for its great series of guides to archive material on 
American history. It is of special interest in this connection to note 
that the study of the archives for the French cantons of Switzerland (pp. 
149-184) is by Mr. Jameson, general editor of the whole series, whose 
masterly direction of every branch of the work is known only to those 
who have participated in it. It need only be added with reference to 
its technical character that from the appropriate introductory material 
to the elaborate index, this volume conforms to the standards of excel- 
lence aimed at in the series as a whole. 

In Switzerland and Austria, as in Italy and Germany, the essential 
archives are widely scattered. Forty archives and six libraries were 
examined. The introductory material consists of a brief description of 
governmental systems, with the consequent archive arrangement, and a 
discussion of the main topics of importance. Then follow the descrip- 
tions of the several collections, with valuable bibliographical data. Space 
has permitted a greater freedom than in the case of some other volumes, 
for a concise calendaring of some of the documents, and for some signifi- 
cant quotations. 

The archive material begins about 1700, and is not generally open to 
inspection after 1848. In the case of the American legation at Berne, 
and some others, material of a later date is listed. 

The Austrian diplomatic material, besides its obvious importance, is 
interesting for the comment it gives on American conditions, for the 
ministers regularly wrote home news letters. Both the Swiss and Aus- 
trian archives have valuable material on American trade, particularly in 
the consular reports. The leading feature in the case of both countries, 
in fact the distinguishing contribution of this guide, is the material for a 
study of emigration. Mr. Faust has himself introduced the historical 
public to this field by his article in the American historical review for 

Vol. IV, No. 1 Adams: Birth of Mormonism 107 

October, 1916, on "Swiss emigration to the American colonies in the 
eighteenth century. ' ' American historians have long desired such mate- 
rial, but it has seemed a hopeless task, as it has indeed been a hopeless • 
task for the unassisted individual, to gather it. This guide reveals the 
fact that the archives with which it deals are unusually rich in just what 
we have required. It will undoubtedly prove the open sesame for many 
a scholar. 

Carl Russell Fish 

Birth of Mormonism. By John Quincy Adams, D.D. (Boston : Gorham 
press, Toronto : Copp Clark company, 1916. 106 p. $1.00 net) 
This slender volume, penned in moods similar to those enjoyed by a 
greater John Quincy Adams when he was berating his enemies in his 
Memoirs, is a religious tract the purpose of which is set forth in the 
preface as follows : " It is sent forth with the hope that it will help to 
arouse the American people to endeavor more energetically to remove 
the moral menace to and blot upon our country — the greatest religious 
fraud of the nineteenth century, if not of all time. ' ' Having proclaimed 
his thesis, the author selects topics for discussion: Joseph Smith, Jr., 
and his golden plates, the translation and publication of the Book of 
Mormon, the organization of the church, the witnesses, Oliver Cowdery, 
David Whitmer, and Martin Harris, and the contents and origin of the 
Book of Mormon and the doctrines and covenants. The last twenty 
pages of the book contain a bibliography, an extract from the Nawvoo 
Expositor, and a description of Joseph Smith, Jr., from the Saint Louis 
Weekly Gazette, of May 18, 1844. There is no index. 

The book will probably seem convincing to the audience for which it 
is intended, an audience incidentally which is already convinced, but 
by the historically minded the volume cannot be taken seriously. The 
author's temperament will not allow him to scan his subject with the 
coldness of a judge. To John Quincy Adams, D.D., the Smith family 
was a '^lazy, illiterate, drinking, shiftless, good-for-nothing lot, having 
no regular occupation, doing everything by turns, and nothing long, 
and living largely off their neighbors;" as to the Mormon leader, ''Joe, 
whose besetting sin, then (about 1830), as later, was lying, was consider- 
ed the most worthless of them all. ' ' This is not the frame of mind with 
which Hubert Howe Bancroft approached the same subject. Had the 
author perused Bancroft's History of Utah he would have found this 
statement (pp. 38-39) : "It is my purpose to treat the subject histori- 
cally, not as a social, political, or religious partisan, but historically to 
deal with the sect organized under the name of the Church of Jesus 
Christ of Latter-day Saints as I would deal with any other body of 

108 Revieivs of Books m.v.h.e. 

people. . . Whatever they may be, howsoever righteous or wicked, 
they are entitled at the hand of those desirous of truth to a dispassionate 
and respectful hearing, which they have never had." 

Unfortiuiately the author did not read Bancroft. Had he done so he 
probably would have been surprised at the mass of material which now 
reposes in the Bancroft library at the university of California. Instead 
of a scant list of thirteen authorities, he could have printed a bibliogra- 
phy about as large as his entire book. He would not have found it 
necessary to lament that the Nauvoo Expositor which he "was privi- 
leged to examine has since been lost." How careless! But there are 
places where rare old documents and, rare old newspapers are preserved, 
and sometimes used. One of these is the Bancroft library and there 
the Nauvoo Expositor is kept along with hundreds of other newspapers, 
pamphlets, books, and rare documents', which, it is hoped, the next writer 
on Mormonism will take the trouble to examine. 

Thomas Maitland Marshall 

Ethnohotony of the Tewa Indians. By Wilfred William Robbins, John 
Peabody Harrington, and Barbara Freire-Marreco. [Smithsonian 
institution, bureau of American ethnology, bulletin 55] (Washing- 
ton: Government printing office, 1916. 124 p.) 
Most primitive tribes display singular ingenuity in the utilization of 
the products of their environment, and this trait is nowhere more appar- 
ent than in the multitudinous purposes for which they employ the avail- 
able plant forms, whether wild or cultivated. In view of this fact, it 
seems strange that the subject of ethnobotany should have been so large- 
ly neglected by scientific investigators. The books listing the plants with 
which a certain tribe is familiar, and stating the uses to which they are 
put, can be counted on the fingers of one hand. The present work is of 
the greatest importance therefore, if only as an addition to our knowl- 
edge of aboriginal life. 

The authors have presented their results in excellent form, and have 
incorporated a good deal of material of interest to the lay reader. One 
very iateresting section deals with the Tewa ideas in regard to the func- 
tions of plant parts. We are told that they are quite ignorant of the 
modus operandi of fertilization, and can assign no use to com pollen, with 
which they are thoroughly familiar. The idea that thorns are developed 
for protection also seems never to have occurred to them. ''There is 
little evidence of philosophizing or of inquiry into the reasons for the 
existence of things and conditions." In the language plants are dis- 
tinjniished from animals and minerals grammatically, there being a 
special ''vegetal" gender. There are very few general or classificatory 

Vol. IV, No. 1 Eeport of Bureau of American Ethnology 109 

terms, but the different species are clearly distin^ished, the Tewa hav- 
ing separate names for each of the native conifers, all of which are called 
pines by the whites. 

In the case of plants used for food, the methods of preparation are 
described. There are also good accounts of Tewa agriculture, and the 
ceremonies associated with it are briefly described. An important sec- 
tion deals with the methods used by the authors in the collection of data, 
and this should prove invaluable to future investigators in this almost 
virgin field. 

Ralph Linton 

Twenty-ninth annual report of the bureau of American ethnology to the 
secretary of the Smithsonian institution. 1907-1908. (Washing- 
ton, D. C. : G^ovemment printing office, 1916. 636 p.) 
Thirtieth annual report of the bureau of American ethnology to the 
secretary of the Smithsonian institution. 1908-1909. Washington, 
D. C. : Grovemment printing office, 1915. 453 p.) 
The volume containing the twenty-ninth annual report of the bureau 
of ethnology has as a principal feature a very careful and exhaustive 
study of the ethnogeography of the Tewa Indians in New Mexico by John 
P. Harrington. This paper comprises some of the results of the joint 
researches of the Bureau of American ethnology and of the School of 
American archaeology of the Archaelogical institute of America. The 
results of these studies are of the highest scientific value as throwing 
light on the cosmography of primitive peoples, whether or not their 
environment is similar to that of the Tewa. To the sociologist as well or 
to the student of ethnology, the careful record of this mass of detailed 
information regarding a single tribe occupying a well defined area is of 
the very highest importance. It may well serve as a corrective to much 
that has been written of Indian habits and customs in the effort to gen- 
eralize from insufficient evidence. The list of place names which occu- 
pies a prominent place in the paper is of special interest to those stu- 
dents who have access to native groups still occupying approximately 
their ancient homes. This study of a single tribal unit may well serve 
as a model for similar researches in the almost unexplored field of Indian 

The principal contribution in the volume containing the last annual 
report of the bureau of ethnology consists of a most interesting study by 
Walter E. Roth on the animism and folk-lore of the Guiana Indians. 
Mr. Roth was for seven years commissioner of the Pomeroon district in 
British Guiana and the results of his careful studies among the natives 
of his province are presented in detail. His previous studies of the na- 

110 Reviews of Books m.v.h.e. 

tives iu North Queensland, Australia, had enabled him to work out the 
plan for the survey Avhicli he used in his South American study. He tells 
us in the preface how he came to extend his inquiries beyond his own dis- 
trict : "As the work progressed, I recognized that, for the proper com- 
prehension of my subject, it was necessary to make inquiry concerning 
the Indians of Venezuela, Surinam, and Cayenne, with the result that the 
area to be reviewed comprised practically that portion of the South 
American continent bounded, roughly speaking, by the Atlantic seaboard, 
the Orinoco, and the northern limits of the watershed of the Rio Negro 
and the lower Amazon." 

Besides this the report contains also a very suggestive and valuable 
contribution on tlie ethnobotany of the well known Zuiii Indians. Among 
the topics covered in this research are medicial practices and medicinal 
plants, edible plants, and the use of plants in weaving, dyeing, basketry, 
and potteiy decoration. Plant names in folk-lore and their use in clan 
names are also discussed. Recently the department of agriculturo sent 
out experts to investigate the subject of Indian corn raising. The re- 
port on the material gathered is being prepared as a contribution to sci- 
entific farming. Ethnobotany has, therefore, more than a purely scien- 
tific interest to the ethnologist and botanist. The pressing question of 
food production and the problem of adapting crops to soil rests funda- 
mentally upon such researches as are here presented in this remarkable 

This volume contains, in addition to these scientific papers, an admir- 
ably arranged bibliography of the publications of the bureau and a very 
complete topical index of the contents of previous volumes. 

Orin Gt. Libby 

Political debates between Abraham Lincoln and Stephen A. Douglas 
in the senatorial campaign of 1858 in Illinois together with certain 
preceding speeches of each at Chicago, Springfield, etc. With an 
introduction by George Haven Putnam, Litt.D. (New York and 
Boston: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1912. New edition, 1916. 284 p. 

The famous debate between Lincoln and Douglas during the senatorial 
campaign in Illinois in 1858 is of such permanent interest and value that 
the present work will be welcomed by a large and varied group of read- 
ers. In connection with the present state enterprise of writing a cen- 
tennial history of Illinois, it is very appropriate that just at this time a 
new edition of this debate should be prepared, commemorating as it does 
the rlefinite entrance of Illinois into a great national conflict at a critical 
moment for the American people. The services of Abraham Lincoln in 

Vol. IV, No. 1 Gregg: Founding of a Nation 111 

reshaping national aims and ideals have been but tardily recognized. 
But his example has been for many years passing permanently into the 
national subconsciousness to emerge in the concrete form of civic right- 
eousness. The story of his notable conflict with Senator Douglas has the 
ever recurrent interest attending a contest where vital moral issues are 
involved. The abiding interest of the nation in our long struggle for 
democracy gives Lincoln his place with Jefferson and Jackson as one of 
the very few greatest defenders of free government. This debate de- 
serves to become a classic as a characteristic piece of literature, typical 
of the middle west and distinctively American. In the present work 
great care has been exercised to produce a popular edition that com- 
presses the entire debate into a single volume but sacrifices nothing either 
in appearance or arrangement. In this form the debate is equally avail- 
able as an exercise book for public speaking or for general reference 

Founding of a nation. The story of the Pilgrim fathers, their voyage 
on the Mayflower, their early struggles, hardships, and dangers, 
and the beginnings of American democracy, as told in the journals 
of Francis Beaumont, cavalier. By Frank M. Gregg. In two 
volumes. (Cleveland: Arthur H. Clark company, 1915. 341; 346 
p. $7.50 net) 
The inquiring scholar who reads the somewhat lengthy title of this 
work, or whose eye falls on the bibliography at the close of the second 
volume, will perhaps proceed with serious interest to attempt to dis- 
cover the identity of the Francis Beaumont whose cavalier account of 
New Plymouth is the basis for these two handsome volumes. The 
*' Foreword, ^ ' however, and the advertisement on the paper wrappers in 
which the book is sold, will save him from this search, for he will learn 
that this is one of those works which weave a slender love story around 
a mass of historical facts. As no variety in size or color of type differ- 
entiates the fact from the fiction, the only guide to the uninitiated will 
be the author's warning: *' Wherever Beaumont speaks of himself and 
events which affect him alone, that part of the story is fiction ; but when- 
ever he associates himself with the acts of the colonists that part is in the 
main recorded history." A heroine, too, is invented for the story, in 
the person of Lora, a daughter of Elder William Brewster. This lady, 
in a discourse of several pages, enlightens her cavalier lover, and inci- 
dentally the unsuspecting reader, as to the early history of the separa- 

Of its kind this book is well done. The author claims chronological 
accuracy except with regard to the date of the first attempt to bring the 

112 Reviews of Books m.v.h.e. 

]\Iayflower into Plymoutli harbor. The difficulties of the voyage and of 
the struggle for existence at Plymouth are well portrayed. Whether, 
as literature, the book does not suffer from the effort to stick close to 
history, must be left to the literary critics to judge. To the present 
reviewer, the book of Mr. Gregg seems to possess the merits and the 
defects of the historical cinemas, to which, in design and in accomplish- 
ment, it is closely allied. 

St. George L. Sioussat 

With Americans of past and present days. By J. J. Jusserand, ambas- 
sador of France to the United States. (New York: Charles Scrib- 
ner's sons, 1916. 350 p. $1.50 net) 

Under the above title M. Jusserand presents the American public with 
a series of seven studies and addresses which are dedicated in graceful 
fashion to the thirteen original states. The reputation of the author as 
a scholar, a statesman, and a master of English style will ensure the 
volume careful attention, which will not be misplaced. Much new and 
interesting material has been here collected and interpreted by M. Jus- 
serand to whom the task has evidently been a labor of love. 

The first three sections, entitled ''Rochambeau in America," ''L 'En- 
fant and the federal city," and "Washington and the French," com- 
prise nearly four-fifths of the entire volume and are, as the author sug- 
gests, compilations of various speeches delivered at different times dur- 
ing the thirteen years of the ambassador's mission here. They deal with 
the history of the official French cooperation with the American forces 
during the concluding years of the revolution, with the attitude of 
Washington toward France and his personal friendships with the lead- 
ers and with some very interesting details connected with the estab- 
lishment of our national capital. The material is largely drawn from 
the store of Franco-American correspondence, published and unpub- 
lished, and from a number of works many of which are familiar only to 
historians of the period. M. Jusserand is explicit in his citations and 
one is much impressed with the fruitfulness of the field for further 

Americans generally do not feel that Rochambeau is as romantic a 
figure as the gallant Lafayette but in the first article we learn how ef- 
fective his force was in a military way to the final outcome because of 
the way it kept Clinton inactive in New York, preventing reinforce- 
ments to Comwallis, and because of the encouragement it gave to the 
Americans and by the part it played at Yorktown. Stress is laid upon 
the operations of the French fleet under De Grasse, who is noted as "the 
single one of the leaders to whom no memorial has been dedicated" (p. 

Vol. IV, No. 1 Jusserand: Americans of Past and Present Days 113 

60). Many other slightly known figures are done a tardy justice and 
we are given details as to the later years of the French commander. 

The space devoted to Major L 'Enfant contains much information that 
is valuable concerning the planning of the national capital. One sym- 
pathizes with the ambitions of the engineer, regrets the neglect which 
he suffered, due in part to his temperamental nature, and welcomes the 
vindication his ideas received at the hands of the committee of 1902 
which declared for a return in all respects to the original plan (p. 192). 

Washington is presented in a new light for the third section is cen- 
tered about his relations toward the French and his changes in view as 
time passed. From a distrust derived from his experiences in the colo- 
nial wars and a suspicion of French motives during the early years of the 
revolution, Washington seems to have come to a wholehearted accept- 
ance of his allies and a sincere friendship for their leaders which is 
manifest in his correspondence. Various instances of his keen political 
observation are quoted and much space is devoted to an account of 
French tributes at the time of Washington 's death. 

The fourth essay, devoted to Abraham Lincoln, aims to throw new 
light upon French public opinion during our civil war. While it con- 
tains a eulogy of Lincoln and reviews his life, the chief stress, is laid 
upon the real sympathy of the French people with the cause of the 
north, no matter what the attitude of Napoleon III may have been. M. 
Jusserand quotes among other things the letter of Gasparin to Lincoln 
(p. 289), the efforts of Frenchmen like the Comte de Paris, General de 
Trobriand and others (p. 291), the medal sent to Mrs. Lincoln and a 
host of tributes coming from all classes and factions to support his 
view. We must confess ignorance that such a feeling for Lincoln ex- 
isted among the French people. 

The last three portions are short addresses, given as delivered, upon 
accepting the Franklin medal, on Fumess, the Shakesperean scholar, 
and upon ''From war to peace." The last was delivered in 1910 and 
is almost prophetic in view of recent events. 

The purpose of the volume if we may hazard a guess, is to add to the 
keen sympathy felt in America for France by reminding us of her part 
in our history and by showing how her ideals correspond with our own. 
This thread pervades everything and, if it is a work of propaganda, it is 
distinguished by good taste and fortified by fact. The author is con- 
spicuously cordial toward England and the English leaders. He re- 
peatedly refers to the lack of national hostility (cf. pp. 90, 94, 132, etc.), 
and the friendship of Rochambeau and Comwallis (pp. 89 and 118). 
No Englishman comes in for criticism, not even the infamous Tarleton. 
Quite a contrary attitude is manifest in his reference to Frederick the 

114 Reviews of Books m.v.h.r. 

Great, wliose regard for Washington is frequently asserted (p. 212) ; he 
reminds us that Prussia refused us formal aid and he indulges in sar- 
casm at the expense of the Hessians. The object is apparently to show 
France, England, and America linked together by a common ideal. One 
cannot help wondering at the scant attention shown to Lafayette, prob- 
ably in order to bring Rochambeau into prominence. Well-written, in- 
teresting, accurate (save for the slight pro-English touch), the work 
of M. Jusserand cannot fail to stimulate American feeling for France. 

H. R. Brush 

Francis Ashiiry, the prophet of the long road. By Ezra Squier Tipple. 
(Methodist book concern, 1916. 333 p. $1.50 net) 

In the year 1771, Francis Asbury was sent out by John Wesley as a 
missionary to America. When the revolution broke out four years later, 
he refused to return to England, although all the other English Meth- 
odist preachers had returned, stating in his journal, ' * I can by no means 
agree to leave such a field for gathering souls to Christ as we have here 
iu America" (p. 126). During the course of the revolution, Asbury 
was continually under suspicion because he refused to identify himself 
with the patriot cause, and during two years remained in semi-retirement 
iQ the state of Delaware. At the close of the war, Mr. Wesley deter- 
mined to set the American Methodist societies apart, and form them 
into a separate church. Up to this time the American Methodists had 
considered themselves a part of the established church, and none of their 
preachers had administered the sacraments, but because so, many of the 
ministers of the Church of England had returned to England, the Meth- 
odists in America were practically without the sacraments. It was this 
situation which largely determined Mr. Wesley to establish a new church 
for America. Accordingly in 1784 he sent Dr. Coke and two others to 
America to oversee the establishment of the new church. The Methodist 
Episcopal church dates from what is known as the Christmas conference, 
which met in Baltimore, December 27, 1784. Here Francis Asbury was 
elected general superintendent for America, and it is from this confer- 
ence that the rapid extension of Methodism into all sections of the United 
States dates. 

During the past year, 1916, Methodists throughout the United States 
were celebrating the one hundredth anniversary of the death of Francis 
Anbury, to whom more than to any other is due the honor of being caUed 
the father of American Methodism. During the past year much has been 
written concerning Asbury, but by far the most important contribution 
is this volume by Mr. Tipple. There is no one better prepared to write 
about Francis Asbury than Mr. Tipple. Previously he has edited As- 

Vol. IV, No. 1 Tipple : Francis Ashury 115 

bury's journal, under the title. The heart of Ashury ^s journal, and in the 
preparation of the present volume he has had access to some valuable 
unpublished sources in the library of Drew theological seminary, known 
as the Emory collection. The critical historical student might take ex- 
ception to some of- the footnote references, especially to those found on. 
page 62, which refer to Ridpath 's History of the United States, but aside 
from these, I have found nothing but the best and most reliable authori- 
ties quoted. The author states that "this book is not so much a biogra- 
phy, as it is an estimate of the man ' ' and in the carrying out of this aim 
the book is eminently successful. 

When Mr. Asbury was appointed general superintendent of the newly 
created Methodist Episcopal church, his zeal seemed to be intensified. 
In his journal he speaks of himself as being "always on the wing" (p. 
159). He says "My horse trots stiff, and no wonder, when I have rid- 
den him upon an average five thousand miles a year for five years suc- 
cessively" (p. 164). And "where did Francis Asbury not go? In 
what place did he not lift up the cross? He literally went every- 
v^here. . . He went into New York state more than fifty times; New 
Jersey over sixty; Pennsylvania seventy-eight; Maryland eighty; North 
Carolina sixty- three; South Carolina forty-six; Virginia eighty-four; 
Tennessee and Georgia each twenty ; Massachusetts twenty- three ; and the 
other states and territories with corresponding frequency" (p. 162). 
No one knew the country or the people better than he. He crossed the 
AUeghenies eighteen times, and everywhere he went he stopped in the 
homes of the people. In one place in his journal he says, the people are 
among the kindest in the world, "but kindness will not make a crowded 
log cabin, twelve feet by ten, agreeable; without are cold and rain, and 
within six adults and as many children, one of which is all motion ; the 
dogs too must sometimes be admitted." Under these circumstances he 
longs for solitude, which is not to be had except in the woods. In cross- 
ing the mountains in 1803 he speaks of seeing "men, women, and chil- 
dren almost naked, paddling barefoot and barelegged along" making 
their way over the mountains, in search of new homes in the wilderness. 
His annual journeys took him more than six thousand miles a year. 

Asbury and his preachers brought a new gospel to the frontier. As 
opposed to the Baptists and the Presbyterians, they preached free grace 
and individual responsibility, and this doctrine fitted in admirably with 
the new type of democracy which was gaining headway in the west 
(Chapter ix, "The Methodist evangelism"). "He was on the watch every 
moment for a chance to preach. Preaching was his life. It mattered 
little whether there were many or few to hear him, he would deliver his 
soul and pass on. He preached to soldiers, "at the gallows to a vast 

IIG Reviews of Books m.v.h.e. 

multitude/' "at widow Bond's to black and white, rich and poor" (p. 
215-216). In his preaching he was always serious and impressive. He 
speaks of one of liis sermons as "long and perhaps terrible" (p. 218). 

But Francis Asbuiy's greatest work was not as a preacher, but as a 
superintendent. He was primarily an organizer. He was like John 
Wesley in this respect. ''He had a face of flint against disorder and 
irregularity," and it was through his tact and strict adherence to regu- 
larity, and his skill as an ecclesiastic, that the Methodist church was 
spared any serious schism during its earlier years. His genius for ad- 
ministration and his passion for order bore immediate fruit on the fron- 
tier, where the church he superintended was always an influence for 
order, even in the most disorderly of times. 

W. W. Sweet 

Life of John Marshall. By Albert J. Beveridge. In two volumes. 
Volume I, frontiersman, soldier, lawmaker, 1755-1788; volume II. 
politician, diplomatist, statesman, 1789-1801. (Boston and New 
York : Houghton Mifflin company, 1916. 506 ; 620 p. $8.00 net) 
The tall, angular, slouchily attired old man who carried the young 
fop 's turkey home for him and who turned out to be the chief justice of 
the United States has never been entirely lacking in ''human interest," 
but Mr. Beveridge is to be congratulated on his success in filling in the 
picture with many engaging details, drawn from a variety of sources, 
some of them new. No figure could be more attractive, more worthy of 
confidence than that which these volumes authenticate for history. The 
mature Marshall was a man of simple tastes and uncomplicated outlook 
upon life. Careless of dress, indolent of manner, actually a little lazy, 
and relying with well-warranted confidence upon the spontaneous pow- 
ers of the best organized mind of the generation rather than upon labori- 
ous study; fond of his friends, of the social glass, of quoits on the vil- 
lage green, of the whist table ; an acute politician, winning more votes by 
his personal presence than his opponents by their speeches; a moderate 
partisan, a federalist by principle, a democrat in his daily contacts; 
unswervingly loyal in his personal relations, a man with deeply burning 
inward fires kcf)t controlled and serviceable by a sound nature and a 
level head: such is the Marshall of Mr. Beveridge 's portrait, who in 
these two volumes is brought only to the threshhold of his real fame. 

A second task which Mr. Beveridge set himself was to trace to their 
source those fundamental convictions — or prejudices — which furnish 
''the inarticulate premises" of Marshall's great constitutional decisions, 
especially his intense nationalism, his equally intense belief in the sanc- 
tity of contracts, and his distrust of extreme democracy. So far as the 

Vol. IV, No. 1 Beveridge : Life of John Marshall 117 

source of these beliefs lay in Marshall's environment Mr. Beveridge has 
been eminently successful in his task of hunting them to earth. Where 
he has fallen short of success is in showing just how this environment 
impinged upon the character of his hero. This comes about because the 
work is too long — the first volume much too long. Environment and 
character are there, to be sure, but these two protagonists of the narra- 
tive frequently lose touch altogether. 

This fault of the work is intimately connected with another, namely, 
Mr. Beveridge 's anxiety as a novice to prove himself not inexpert in the 
accepted practices of historical scholarship. He is apt to out-Herod 
Herod in adducing proof for statements which no one would question 
and which moreover often have little direct bearing on his theme. Of a 
like motivation, I presume, is his elaborate reproduction in the text of 
his narrative of documents which had been better relegated to the foot- 
notes. Nor has he discovered that the reprinting of the mis-spellings 
and mis-punctuations of such documents envelopes their statements in 
an atmosphere of quaintness which is anything but historical. Finally, 
Mr. Beveridge betrays a rather nervous diffidence in the presence of 
that stem arbitress of recent historical scholarship — the so-called eco- 
nomic interpretation of history ; albeit he occasionally takes the bit in his 
teeth in this matter, and with refreshing results. Thus in a footnote 
(1 : 429), which contradicts the general tenor of his discussion in the text, 
he admits that 'Hhe economic problem'' occupied "small place" "in the 
minds of the foes of the Constitution" in Virginia, "in comparison with 
that of 'liberty' as endangered by a strong National Grovemment. " And 
his excellent account of the rise of parties in his second volume is com- 
mendably free of this contracting bias. 

Mr. Beveridge 's style is yet another hall-mark of his novitiate, being 
not infrequently redolent of its author's senatorial days. In the earlier 
chapters especially, fine writing is much too common, frankly imagina- 
tive pictures are introduced (see for example pp. 36, 37, and 89 of vol- 
ume i), young Marshall's full name is rolled out with tedious reitera- 
tion. The same striving after oratorical effect also discolors to a degree 
the chapters on the Virginia ratifying convention, where, it would seem, 
a devilish cleverness of management behind the scenes alternated regu- 
larly with godlike displays of eloquence on the floor. Happily, in vol- 
ume II this fault becomes comparatively negligible. Marshall is now 
large enough to fill the page ; and as the narrative becomes more closely 
knit and pertinent, manner gives way to matter. 

Volume II in fact is a real contribution. The account of Adams's first 
mission to France is the best we have; and almost as much may be said 
of the narrative of political developments between Marshall's return and 

118 Revieivs of Boohs m.v.h.b. 

the election of ISOO, while the chapter entitled ^'The man and the 
lawyer" is well stocked with new information. Nor is the portrait given 
of Marshall the only biographical asset of these pages: the gradually 
and skilfully filled-in picture of that curious compound of human nature 
which is known to history as Thomas Jefferson, though drawn with ob- 
vious effort at fairness, affords an excellent Lucifer for the federalist 
paradise. Also, the sketch given of the activities of Elbridge Gerry in 
France affords a diverting miniature of the most egregious ass of Amer- 
ican annals. The academic reader, too, can not but be charmed by the 
sincere enthusiasm that pervades Mr. Beveridge's volumes for intellect- 
ual promise and achievement as it was seen through contemporary eyes. 
''There were giants in those days." 

In short, while not free of faults, it is a work which, was well worth 
doing, conceived and executed on a broad scale, with fine enthusiasm 
for the subject and admirable devotion to the truth. The task of pub- 
lishers and printers has also been discharged in a most praiseworthy 
fashion. But three misprints have been noted: volume i, p. 257, foot- 
note 5, where "1875" should read 1785; 1:324, where ' ' Melancthon " 
appears without the ''h"; 2:357, line 3, where "objections" should 
probably read "obligations." The index is adequate. 

Edward F. Cobwin 

Autohiography of George Dewey. Admiral of the navy. (New York: 
Charles Scribner's Sons„ 1913. Popular edition, 1916. 337 p. 
$1.50 net) 

The post of admiral of the navy, created in 1899 for George Dewey, 
expired automatically upon his death this last winter, and with it 
vanished also a connecting l(ink which had for an unusual peiriod 
bound the present to the past. Under the terms of its creation its 
incumbent was to remain upon the active list for life; and it is said 
that from his desk in the navy department Admiral Dewey exercised 
continuously a moderating influence upon the impatience of officers, 
an educating influence upon the civilian head of the department, and 
a reassuring influence upon his fellow-countrymen. So long as Dewey 
insisted, as he did, that the navy was a credit to the United States, 
the public refused to take too seriously the noisy scolding and com- 
plaining of the critics of our naval establishment. 

The moderator is now gone, but this autobiography, although in 
form only a cheap reprint of the first edition, remains a monument to 
the sagacity and courage without which no man could have helped to 
bridge the gap between wooden sailing frigates and armored steel 
battleships. The author wisely passes over the unfortunate but unim- 

Vol. IV, No. 1 Autobiography of George Dewey 119 

portant aberration of judgment in 1900, when for a few days he 
imagined that he might be a presidential candidate, and has only a 
kind though regretful allusion to the shift in public opinion that fol- 
lowed the ovation that greeted him on his return from the orient in 
1899. ''Had I died on the way across the Atlantic," he says, ''there 
would have been an outpouring of subscriptions which would have 
promptly rebuilt the temporary arch ... in marble" (p. 289). 

The victory in Manila bay on May 1, 1899, upon which Dewey's 
naval fame is based, was a surprise in its completeness, but an accident 
only for those who were unaware of the changes that had crept over 
the navy in the last ten years. The oldest of the steel cruisers of the 
new navy had been in commission only since 1887, and the first of the 
battleships, the Indiana, since 1895. Captain Mahan's epochal work 
in the naval war college was still fresh in navy circles, and his tested 
theories were now inspiring the Spanish war operations from the naval 
strategy board. It was a surprise that the Spanish ships, fighting 
under their own forts, had no power of resistance; the Santiago fight 
contained a similar revelation, and only the final publication of the 
Spanish sources explained the causes of Spain's collapse. But it was 
no accident that Dewey's fleet did itself credit. For years he had 
been studying the field of his great success, and the reorganization of 
the naval establishment. And with the cooperation of Assistant-Secre- 
tary Roosevelt, who was responsible for his detail to the Asiatic station, 
he had at last a fleet well-armed, well-manned, and well-munitioned. 

Only in the initial battle of Manila bay did Farragut's "Damn the 
torpedoes" spirit get a chance to show itself in the Spanish war. 
Dewey's brief but comprehensive instructions "to see that the Spanish 
Squadron does not leave the Pacific Coast, and then [to carry on] of- 
fensive operations in Philippine Islands" (p. 179), left him wide dis- 
cretion as to ways and means. But so small a navy was not warranted 
in steaming into mined harbors controlled by permanent land fortifica- 
tions, and although the navy department openly congratulated Dewey 
after he had won success, it sent peremptory orders to the North Atlantic 
squadron, under Sampson, to refrain from risking the loss of any of its 
major units. Schley took no risks off Cienfuegos, nor did the united 
squadron try to force the Santiago channel. The whole Santiago cam- 
paign might have had a vastly different course had not a realization of 
what Dewey escaped served to tie the hands of his eastern colleagues. 

The simple narrative that Dewey gives of his relations with the Ger- 
man squadron during the blockade of Manila calls for a reading in the 
light thrown upon the situation by Thayer's Hay. For Dewey, the 
discussion was too unimportant to be stated in despatches, or brought 

120 Reviews of Books m.v.h.r. 

to woriy the eai* of President McKinley ; and we are still in ignorance, 
that can be relieved only by the uncovering of the German archive, as 
to what was the real intent of Admiral von Diedrichs. But there is 
some reason to believe that Dewey's assurance, fortified by the open 
cordiality of Captain Chichester, nipped in the beginning a none-too- 
diplomatic German iatrigue in the Philippines, with which Prince Henry 
of Prussia had clearly not been implicated a few months earlier. 

The book is entitled to a specially careful re-reading, in the light of 
present events. 

Frederic L. Paxson 

Life and times of Booker T. Washington. By B. F. Eiley, D.D., LL.D. 
Introduction by Edgar Y. Mullins, D.D., LL.D., president of South- 
ern Baptist theological seminary. (New York, Chicago, and To- 
ronto: Fleming H. Revell company, 1916. 301 p. $1.50 net) 

This volume sets forth the life work of Booker T. Washington in a 
clear and concise form. The reader of its pages will be led to under- 
stand the nature of the great task which Washington accomplished, the 
difficulties which he encountered, and the elements of character in the 
man which enabled him to rise through obstacles and adversities to the 
wonderful success which he attained. The pages of the book reflect to a 
degree, both, in the introduction and in the body of the volume, a spirit 
of patronage and condescension, which may be entirely unconscious on 
the part of the writers. For the most part, however, honor is given 
where honor is due, and the volume shows much sympathy and appre- 
ciation of the problems, character, and achievement of the negro race, 
and of its possibilities as exemplified in Washington's career. 

One does not find in the volume, as a matter of course, the vital inter- 
est imparted in Mr. Washington's autobiography, in his Up from 
slavery. No one should expect any biography to be so readable as a 
great man's own story of his life. The early chapters of Mr. Riley's 
volume give a valuable and somewhat philosophical discussion of the 
condition of the negro in the south in the decades immediately follow- 
ing the civil war — his poverty, his ignorance, his seemingly hopeless 
condition of friendlessness and debt. Young Washington represented 
what was quite common among his people, a condition of dire poverty 
and hardship. But under these hard conditions he showed a marvelous 
thirst for knowledge, an aspiration and ambition, and a persistency and 
perseverance in finding ways and means to satisfy his desires. Mr. 
Riley tells the story of Washington's pathway through tribulation to 
victory. Washington's early years in slavery, the devotion of his igno- 
rant mother, his hardships in the West Virginia mines, his first gleams 

Vol. IV, No. 1 Eiley: Life and Times of Booker T. Washington 121 

of knowledge and of the outside world, his hard journey to Hampton, 
the redeeming providence that came to him in the guidance and char- 
acter of General Armstrong; his early life as a teacher in his old home 
town of Maiden; his campaigning in West Virginia for the location of 
the capital at Charleston ; the year of his seminary life in Washington, 
D.C. ; his recall to speak and to teach at Hampton; his assignment to 
Tuskeegee and his beginning there ''with nothing" at the age of twenty- 
four (1881) against what seemed insuperable odds; how he met the 
''race problem" and his other difficulties; his growing success and his 
rise to national and world-wide fame, all these salient aspects of Mr. 
Washington's life are succinctly and forcibly related. The author meets 
the negro problem in a progressive spirit, openly combating the reaction- 
ary spirit that is still inclined to regard education as a bane to the negro 
race. "Nobody," says Mr. Riley, "ever saw a negro 'spoiled' by real 
mental development and genuine culture." The author candidly recog- 
nizes the lofty spirit and the great benefit brought to the south by a 
class of people who were met vnth cruel and unchristian ostracism in 
the south a generation ago, namely, the missionaries who came from 
the north to educate the negro after the civil war. But for them the 
work of Washington and Tuskeegee could not have existed. The liberal 
men of the south, like Mr. Riley, now recognize the obligation. The 
author boldly and honestly expresses his conviction that the line defin- 
ing the right of suffrage should not be one of race or color, but of char- 
acter. He clearly recognizes the wrongs done to the blacks in the south 
and speaJiS out manfully against them. But he believes vnth good 
reason that if Washington had made it his main purpose to speak and 
fight against these wrongs his work would have failed. Though Wash- 
ington did not "cry aloud and spare not" against these wrongs to his 
race, he nowhere and at no time endorsed them. 

The organizing, statesmanlike capacity of the great educator is recog- 
nised, as are also the v^de influences he wdelded in public speech, and the 
astuteness with which he met and did so much to overcome white preju- 
dice against his people. The author makes an unnecessary apology for 
the luncheon episode with President Roosevelt which is called a ' ' trifling 
incident" unworthy of so much ado. So it was, but it hardly seems 
necessary to make it appear that President Roosevelt did not intend to 
invite Mr. Washington for luncheon, but merely asked him to return to 
the president's office at the noon hour to talk over a matter of business, 
"and while the conversation was in progress the president's luncheon 
was brought to his office on a large waiter. Remarking that there was 
sufficient for both, Mr. Roosevelt offered to share with his caller, who 
could not have declined and be polite. While they went through the 

122 Reviews of Books m.v.h.r. 

business they ate the limited luncheon, after which Mr. Washington 

Mr. Riley's book is a valuable study of a great subject. It is read- 
able, suggestive, encouraging, productive of serious thought and purpose 
in meeting a serious problem. Like the faith and devotion of "Washing- 
ton himself this story of his wonderful life brings bright rays of hope 
into a social condition which, before the work of Washington and of the 
white men north and south who have sympathized with him and helped 
him, seemed hopelessly dark. 

James A. Woodburn 

Beginnings of Yale (1701-1726). By Edwin Oviatt. (New Haven: 
Yale university press, London: Humphrey Milford, Oxford univer- 
sity press, 1916. 456 p. $3.50 net) 

Mr. Oviatt has certainly succeeded in giving us '^something at least 
of that new realization of how Yale's beginnings came about which the 
author came to have in writing them." Using for the most part Mr. 
Dexter 's Documentary history^ he has supplemented this with research 
of his own and filled in the gaps with frank but plausible conjecture. 
An eye for local color and a keen sense of the humorous have made his 
narrative truly ''easy-going pages." 

Perhaps the most impressive feature of this story is the persistence 
of the idea that there should be a church college in New Haven. Con- 
ceived by John Davenport as an integral part of his church-state ex- 
periment, this idea gradually became dormant as the experiment failed 
and New Haven was merged into Connecticut. But as the result of *'a 
general situation, largely theological, that had been forming during the 
years after 1692," the ministers of the coast towns, apparently led by 
James Pierpont, of New Haven, bestirred themselves, probably "some- 
where between the years 1697 and 1700." The ''Collegiate school" and 
Yale college, its successor, resulted. Saybrook was the new institution's 
official site, but it actually began (with one student) at Clinton and for 
some years thereafter led a tri-partite existence. And not until the 
supporters of Hartford's claims had lost a gubernatorial campaign and 
the popular Elisha Williams had disbanded his Wethersfield branch was 
the ancient desire of New Haven, backed by a solid donation, gratified. 
But there was rarely any uncertainty as to the policy of the school. The 
miuisters who founded it became its first and self-perpetuating trustees. 
And though they sought and obtained aid both from the colony and 
from individuals of other faiths, notably Blihu Yale and Bishop Berke- 
ley, it remained throughout this period a Congregational church school. 

One gets the impression, too, that Yale's founders were rather aristo- 

Vol. IV, No. 1 Dexter: Documentary History of Yale University 123 

cratic. Davenport, Pierpont, and Jonathan Edwards, Samuel, Andrew, 
and Timothy Cutler, were connected by ties of blood or marriage; 
Elisha Williams came of the Cotton and Bradstreet families; and it is 
not improbable (though the author does not make the point) that some 
of ''Sir" Samuel Johnson's troubles may have been due to his more lowly 
origin. While these men were not given to luxury or display, they lived 
in very comfortable fashion. Rector Pierson being quite well-to-do and 
fond of an ''evening's sociability" over his home-made cider and to- 
bacco. And the control which congregations may have exercised over 
them as ministers did not extend to their collegiate activities. 

Few errors of fact have been noted. Of course (as has already been 
pointed out) Bolingbroke was not secretary of state under William and 
Mary, and the "French and Indian war" (p. 143) did not occur during 
this period. 

Mechanically, this book abundantly maintains the high standard of 
the Yale press. Its lettering is good, its margins are of agreeable width, 
and over four hundred reproductions of autographs, portraits, maps, 
buildings, and historic scenes successfully reinforce the historic interest 
of the narrative. 

C. C. Pearson 

Documentary history of Yale University. Under the original charter of 
the Collegiate school of Connecticut, 1701-1745. Edited by Frank- 
lin Bowditch Dexter, Litt.D. (New Haven: Yale university press, 
London: Humphrey Milford, Oxford university press, 1916. 382 
p. $4.00 net) 
The two-hundredth anniversary of the removal of Yale from Say- 
brook to New Haven, Connecticut, was the inspiration for two important 
contributions to the university's history. The volume under considera- 
tion is one. The other, issued from the same press and entitled The 
beginnings of Yale, 1701-1726, was written by Edwin Oviatt and was 
evidently intended as a companion work; at least, it supplies much 
which is not to be found in the source material furnished by the present 

No man could be better fitted than Mr. Dexter for the editing of this 
Documentary History. Bom in Maissachusetts, a graduate of Yale and 
connected with its faculty and library for half a century, he has de- 
voted a large part of his time to the preservation and study of its 
records. His Biographical sketches of graduates of Yale college, with 
annals of the college history, 1701-1816, in six volumes, is a most valu- 
able work. His Sketch of the history of Yale university is one of the 
best epitomes of its history. Besides, he has written noteworthy articles 

124 Revietvs of Books m.v.h.r. 

on the same subjects that have appeared in the reviews, particularly in 
those of the New Haven Colony historical society. In his latest under- 
taking, however, we confess to a feeling of disappointment, because it is 
nothing more than a compilation of documents covering the period be- 
tween 1701 and 1745, during which Yale was acting under the original 
charter of the collegiate school of Connecticut. 

The histories of Yale have always been fragmentary ; an unfortunate- 
ly small number of them are now read by or accessible to the general 
public. Many have grown out-of-date, or have disappeared from circu- 
lation by reason of their scarcity. But it seems to have been generally 
admitted by all the writers whose works we have been able to examine 
that the attempts to establish a college in New Haven began as early as 
1648. Hutchinson, in his History of New England, says that in 1647 the 
committee on distribution of home lots was requested ''to consider and 
resen^e what lot they shall see neat and most commodious for a college 
which they desire may be set up as soon as their ability will reach unto.'^' 
In 1652 we find an entry on the records of Guilford that "the matter 
about a college at New Haven was thought to be too great a charge for us 
of this jurisdiction to undergoe alone. ' ' Also we know that in 1654 at a 
town meeting in New Haven it was propounded to know the town's 
mind "concerning the setting up of a colledge." The foregoing refer- 
ences and others to the same effect have been collected by Mr. B. C. 
Steiner in his History of education in Connecticut, published by the 
United States bureau of education; and Mr. Charles Henry Smith of 
Yale has started from these earlier dates in his article on Yale univer- 
sity in Universities and their sons. Indeed, Mr. Dexter himself, in his 
Annals, has told us that ineffective steps towards establishing a college 
in New Haven were taken in 1648. 

Despite this fact, the editor in this work, while stating in his preface 
that he includes "the more important documents, known to be in exist- 
ence relating to the history of Yale University, of a date earlier than 
that of the present charter, of May, 1745," begins his work with pro- 
posals for a university, which are undated, but are supposed to have 
been written "perhaps in the spring or early summer of 1701." He 
does not appear to have thought it necessary to set forth the interesting 
efforts of John Davenport and other early settlers to found a college 
prior to 1701, many of which are evidenced by the town records. Mr. 
Oviatt in his book has given a full account of those proeeedings, and it 
is possible that Mr. Dexter expects his readers to search there for them, 
but it would have rendered his Documentary history more complete and 
enUirinmiYiff had such manuscripts, or extracts therefrom, been incor- 
porated into it. If this was not feasible, then a reference to the sources 

Vol. IV, No. 1 Birket: Some Cursory Remarks 125 

where they could be seen might have been printed in the appendix or 
elsewhere in the volume. 

Another feature of Mr. Dexter 's book which renders it less attractive 
to the reader is the comparative lack of editorial comment. Nearly all 
the characters mentioned in the documents were persons about whom 
explanatory notes would have proved most entertaining, and the editor 
was well qualified to have furnished them. He would have simply had 
to draw from the rich store of information already amassed by him in 
previous books. But, either because he has felt that such annotations 
would be useless repetition on his part, or because he has assumed too 
great a familiarity with the subject on the part of his readers, his ex- 
planations are remarkably few and short. Nor does the editor insert 
any considerable extraneous matter tending to throw light on different 
questions involved in the establishment of the college such, for instance, 
as the need for it, the reasons for its location, the conflict over a site 
and the Episcopalian irruption. He seems to have endeavored to pre- 
serve the skeleton framework formed by the principal records, without 
supplying the meat and blood of supplemental knowledge, which ren- 
ders a book of this sort entertaining to the average reader as well as 
valuable to the historian. Unless one has thoroughly familiarized him- 
self with the times and people, he is apt to find the text of the documents 
difficult to follow except in conjunction with other histories. 

To the student the book is useful for reference. It contains no illus- 
trations, but is printed on good paper, in clear type, and is attractively 
bound. The proof-reading has been carefully done and the index is 
fairly well prepared. To graduates of Yale, however, we suggest that 
they first read Mr. Oviatt's volume, or some other work, to acquaint 
themselves with general conditions surrounding the origin and early 
development of the college. This is probably what Mr. Dexter has in- 
tended that they shall do. 

Harry Brent Mackoy 

Some cursory remarks. Made by James Birket in his voyage to North 
America, 1750-1751. [Yale historical publications, manuscripts, and 
edited texts, iv, published under the direction of the department of 
history from the income of the Frederick John Kingsbury memorial 
fund] (New Haven: Yale university press, London: Humphrey 
Milford, Oxford university press, 1916. 74 p. $1.00 net) 
Birket sailed from St. John's Antiqua, July 26, 1750; landed at Ports- 
mouth, New Hampshire, the sixteenth of the following month ; and was 
entertained there by Mark Hunking Wentworth, a member of the most 
prominent family of the colony and himself one of the wealthiest mer- 

126 Revieivs of Books m.v.h.e. 

chants of New England, by Jotham Odiorne who was related by marriage 
to the Wentworths, and by Henry Sherburne, Greorge Jaffrey, and 
George Libby, all prominent in public life. On September 1 he set out 
by way of Hampton, Newbury, and Salem for Boston where he was at- 
tended chiefly by Henry Vassels, son-in-law of Acting-Governor Phips; 
and Vassels and his wife accompanied Birket to Providence, at which 
place he was the guest of William Ellery, the deputy governor of Rhode 
Island. He left Providence October 3 in company with George Miffllin 
and proceeded by way of New London, New Haven, Fairfield, Norwalk, 
Mamaroneck, and King's Bridge to New York, where he dined with 
Johu Fells and with other merchants and sea captains. From New 
York, the last day of October, he proceeded to Philadelphia by way of 
Brunswick, Princeton, and Trenton. Early in January, 1751, he vis- 
ited the iron works on the lower Susquehanna, and returning north- 
ward sailed from New York for Antiqua on March 16. Although enter- 
tained and attended during his itinerary by men of prominence not so 
much as one mention of his presence in the country has been found in 
any of the newspapers of the day. 

His observations were for the most part those of a merchant made at 
close range: qualities of the soil, its products, domestic animals, ship 
building, ship-building timber, trade, manufactures, taverns, churches, 
and the situation and appearance of towns. He was interested in both 
Harvard and Yale ; but in matters of history he wasi inaccurate ; in mat- 
ters of religious belief, tolerant or indifferent ; and in matters of govern- 
ment, silent. 

The diary is published with a brief preface signed by the well known 
initials ''C. A. M." but without any annotations whatever. Mark Hunt- 
ing Wentworth (p. 3) is printed for Mark Hunking Wentworth, Jotham 
Odiovne (pp. 3 and 4) for Jotham Odiorne, and Elisha Bond (p. 50) 
for Elijah Bond. 

N. D. Mereness 

Life and adventures of Colonel Daniel Boon, the first white settler of 
the state of Kentucky. Written by himself. To which is added a 
narration of his latter life until his death. Annexed is an eulogy 
by Lord Byron. (New York: Charles Fred. Heartman, 1916. 42 
p. $3.00) 
This work has been published in a very limited edition, in part for the 

Daniel Boone club, and in part for Heartman 's Historical series. The 

book is a reprint of a work published in 1823, but it is not stated which 

copy of this original edition has been used. 

The first part of the Life and adventures of Colonel Daniel Boon re- 

Vol. IV, No. 1 Carlton: The New Purchase 127 

veals a condensation of John Filson's The adventures of Colonel Daniel 
Boon, formerly a hunter^ etc., which, however, retains most of the im- 
portant statements of fact. Following this are first, an account of 
Boone 's later life, and secondly, the seven stanzas from the eighth canto 
of Don Juan (61-67), in which Lord Byron made Boone the text for a 
panegyric upon the ''unsighing people of the woods." The annexed 
account of Boone's later life exhibits two interesting variations from 
the usual story, stating that Boone on leaving Kentucky went to ''the 
Tennessee Country, then almost a perfect wilderness," and giving as 
the date of his death in one place June, 1821, and in another June, 1822. 
While the accepted aecount relates that Boone died at the house of his 
son, the story as given in this work — for which the compiler refers to 
'*a near relation of the Colonel (a resident of Cincinnati)" — tells of 
his death near his hunting traps. 

Mr. Heartman's reprint has forty-two pages of excellent press work 
and paper. A reproduction of an old print forms a frontispiece. 

St. George L. Sioussat 

The new purchase. Or seven and a half years in the far west. By Rob- 
ert Carlton, Esq. (Baynard Rush Hall) (Princeton: Princeton uni- 
versity press, London : Humphrey Milford, Oxford university press, 
1916. 522 p. $2.00 net) 

The region known as the ''new purchase" included approximately the 
tract between the Wabash river and the "ten o'clock line," or most of 
central Indiana; it was bought from the Indians in 1818 by the federal 
government. Baynard Rush Hall, who under the nom-de-plume of 
Robert Carlton has written this entertaining account of life in the new 
purchase, was well fitted for his task. A native of Philadelphia, and a 
graduate of Union college and Princeton theological seminary, Hall came 
to Indiana about 1821. He lived at Glenville near the southern boun- 
dary of the new purchase until 1823, when he was elected principal and 
sole teacher in the new Indiana seminary located nearby at Bloomington. 
Enthusiastically adapting himself to his new environment, Hall taught 
at the seminary, served as a Presbyterian minister, and engaged in 
numerous other activities. After about seven and a half years in 
Hoosierdom he returned to the east. 

In The new purchase Hall has presented a delightful narrative of his 
sojourn in what was then an American frontier. The first edition of 
his book in 1843, together with a reprint in 1855, has for a long time 
been out of print. In making possible the present reprint. Hall's alma 
mater has performed a distinct service for the early history of the 
central west. Mr. Woodbum is eminently fitted to edit this appropriate 

128 Reviews of Books m.v.h.r. 

contribution to the centennial of Indiana, for through lifelong associa- 
ti'^ns he is thoroughly conversant with the traditions of the region which. 
Hall has described. As editor he has added numerous and illuminating 
footnotes, and by a carefully worked out key to the different characters 
cind places mentioned in the text, he has greatly enhanced the local in- 
terest of the book. 

Intrinsically The new purchase has much literary merit and charm. 
A young and impressionable man, the author had all the keen apprecia- 
tion for his new frontier home of an easterner, lured by the ''land of 
\dsion.''' A lively sense of humor is seasoned with a dash of irony that 
lends a zest to the narrative. The characters are well drawn, the de- 
scriptions are vital, and nowhere does the story drag, except when the 
author indulges in an occasional theological propensity for sermonizing. 
The one real defect is the flood of satiric ridicule that is heaped upon 
the unfortunate beings who incurred Hall's wrath. But such outbursts 
are redeemed by frequent touches of a deep and understanding human 

The chief value of The new purchase arises from its descriptions of 
backwoods life, for it may w^ell be termed the epic of the land of the 
Hoosiers. The picture is one of a pioneer society, intensely democratic, 
opposed to " 'ristocraticul and powerful grand big-bug doins," and 
satiated with an overweening sense of the importance of the "peepul.'* 
The crudities of the times are depicted with a delightful sense of humor. 
The author also exhibits a keen appreciation of the good humor, the 
open-hearted hospitality, the sense of justice, and the human sympathy 
that underlay many a rough exterior. The resourcefulness and the 
courage of the backwoodsman are revealed in numerous thrilling epi- 
sodes. After perusing Hall's sprightly pages, the reader can readily 
account for the sturdy traits of the Hoosier character that have been 
handed down from pioneer days. 

There are numerous descriptions of daily life in the backwoods. The 
cabin with its one room, its puncheon floor, its great fireplace, and its 
wdndow usually innocent of glass, is vividly depicted. The difficulties 
of communication are evident in a country where the mails came every 
two weeks provided the water was not too high and the primitive ferries 
were in working order, and where the roads were mere cleared paths 
through the forest. The wolves, the serpents, and like inconvenient 
neighbors are noted along with the wonders and beauties of the primeval 
wilderness. Nor are the pleasures of frontier life omitted, such as the 
barbecue, the campmeeting, the wedding with its accompanying "shiver- 
ree," and the shooting contest. Then, too, there are frequent stories of 
adventure. Constantly one catches between the lines the reflection of a 

Vol. IV, No. 1 Transactions of Illinois Historical Society 129 

true American optimism and pluck which constantly made light of the 
discomforts of life in the backwoods. 

Of special interest are the sturdy characters, with the individualism of 
the frontier, that crowd these pages. Very sympathetic is the picture of 
Vulcanus Greatheart, "by birth a Virginian, by trade a blacksmith, by 
nature a gentleman, and by grace a Christian," whose skill in forging 
rifles and axes was equalled by his marksmanship. Another interesting 
character is Aunt Kitty, who was a "leetle too modest" for backwoods 
standards. Then there is Neighbour Ashford, the new purchase phil- 
osopher, who had proved to his own satisfaction that the earth is "as 
flat as a pancake," and the sun is nothing but "a great shine." Occa- 
sionally the author vents his personal spleen, as in the portraits of In- 
sidias Cutswell, Esq., and Dr. Bloduplex, but usually he is sympathetic. 

No less interesting are the accounts of journeys which Hall made 
through the Indiana wilderness. Among them is a trip to Vincennes 
across the "grassy lake of the prairie" and its "picturesque islets of 
timber." Another outing on horseback took him across the new pur- 
chase to the Tippecanoe battle field. There is an excellent description 
of the topography of the battle field and of the details of the combat. 
Equally well told are Hall's experiences as a "big bug" who endeavored 
to hold "young democrats" in a state school to scholastic standards. 
Ecclesiastical and political interference with the people ^s school is vig- 
orously set forth. The pluck of the frontier student is reflected in 
Henry, who worked for one week in order to earn the two dollars neces- 
sary to help pay his tuition. Hoosier perseverance is illustrated by 
George, who rewrote his "piece" for the school exhibition thirty-six times. 

To the general reader, as well as the student of early western history. 
The new purchase will prove of absorbing interest. Especially should 
the book find a place in the school library, for like Cooper ^s novels, it 
will awaken an interest that may be directed toward the more serious, 
and, it must be confessed, more prosaic historians. 

Beverley W. Bond, Jr. 

Transactions of the Illinois state historical society for the years 1914 
and 1915. Fifteenth and sixteenth annual meetings of the society, 
Springfield, IlHnois, May 7-8, 1914, and May 13-14, 1915. [Publi- 
cation numbers twenty, and twenty-one, Illinois state historical li- 
brary] ( Springfield : Board of trustees of the Illinois state historical 
library, 1915, 1916. 214; 211 p.) 
These volumes contain the usual matters of infonnation relating to 
the society, the list of officers, the constitution, official proceedings, ap- 
peal to the public, and the secretary's report. Mrs. Jessie Palmer 

130 Reviews of Books m.v.h.r. 

Weber, the secretary, summarizes the account of each year's work and 
presents an encouraging outlook. In point of numbers Illinois claims 
the largest state historical society in the United States. The annual ad- 
dress for 1914 was given by Justice Orrin N. Carter, of the state supreme 
court, on ''The early courts of Cook county." Henry A. Converse of 
the Sangamon county bar, has a paper on ' ' The life and services of Shel- 
by ^I. Cullom," and there are several brief and eloquent memorial ad- 
dresses on Cullom, delivered on the occasion of his funeral services. 
"W. W. Sweet, of De Pauw university, has a paper on ''The Methodist 
Episcopal church and reconstruction," in which it is stated "without 
hesitancy that the Methodist Episcopal church in the South was one of 
the strong factors in organizing the Republican party there and is there- 
fore, partly responsible for perpetrating carpet bag government and 
negro rule upon the prostrate South." J. H. Bumham tells of "The 
destruction of Kaskaskia by the Mississippi river;" John H. Hauberg 
of "Black Hawk's home country;" George W. Young of "The William- 
son county vendetta;" W. H. Jenkins of "The thirty-ninth Illinois vol- 
unteers;" and the "Great whig convention of Illinois in 1840" is con- 
sidered in three papers by Edith P. Kelly, Martha M. Davidson, and 
Isabel Jamison, in which the contributions of northern and southern Illi- 
nois to the whig "hullabaloo" campaign and the convention itself are 
presented. There are also papers on Fox Indians and the Seventh Il- 
linois infantry by John F. Steward and Robert W. Campbell. 

These papers contain valuable features of Illinois history. Any stu- 
dent interested in political and party history would be interested and 
well repaid by reading the papers on the whigs of Illinois in 1840'. The 
list of delegates to the state convention is valuable and suggestive. 

The Transactions of 1915 contain a paper on Adlai E. Stevenson, a 
paper on General James Shields by Francis O 'Shaughnessy ; and an- 
other on "The banker-farmer movement," by B. F. Harris, while there 
are a number of other contributions of more distinctly local interest 
relating to Illinois Indians, and to some patriotic societies and family 
histories, such as the "Warrens of Warrenville. " The experiences of 
such pioneer families as the Warrens are typical of many and they 
throw light upon the times and conditions under which the west was 
settled. Early conditions in Quiucy, 1822-1830, are also portrayed un- 
der the caption of "Historical papers, 1912," apparently contributed by 
Polly Sumner chapter, Daughters of the American Revolution. 

Each of the two volumes is illustrated and contains a full index. The 
Illinois society shows vigorous life and public spirit in these worthy 

J. A. W. 

Vol. IV, No. 1 Alvord: Mississippi Valley in British Politics 131 

The Mississippi valley in British politics. A study of the trade, land 
speculation, and experiments in imperialism culminating in the 
American revolution. By Clarence Walworth Alvord. In two vol- 
umes. (Cleveland : Arthur H. Clark company, 1917. 358 p. ; 396 p. 
The appearance of this work marks the close of a piece of research that 
has occupied the author's attention for a number of years past and that 
has resulted in the production of a very valuable series of publications. 
The general subject that has been worked out in its various aspects is the 
old French settlement in the Illinois country. The present work at- 
tempts something considerably more ambitious and decidedly more sig- 
nificant. The scope of the author ^s earlier studies has been widened so 
as to include the entire frontier of the English colonies as well as Nova 
Scotia, Quebec, and the great lakes region. The imperial aspects of this 
great west, with all its potentialities but half guessed by the generation 
responsible for the outcome, are admirably presented in the two volumes 
on the Mississippi valley in British politics. Thanks to the author's 
painstaking research we are enabled to get a clear picture of the British 
government in the process of evolving a colonial policy during the decade 
preceding the American revolution. The picture presented by the actual 
governmental conditions in England and by the petty cabinet jealousies 
and the ignoble squabbles for place and preferment forms a striking back- 
ground for the course of events in America. 

Mr. Alvord has been completely successful in maintaining his thesis 
that the Mississippi valley at a critical period in our history was again 
and again a determining factor in British politics. The part played by 
William Pitt, George III, Lord North, Shelbume, Hillsborough, Dart- 
mouth, and a host of lesser lights is carefully dissected out of the tangle 
of intrigue centering at the court and we are able to pass judgment crit- 
ically upon their respective contributions. Here, too, we meet among the 
large group of Americans the familiar figures of Washington, Sir Wil- 
liam Johnson, Franklin, Jefferson, and Patrick Henry, playing their char- 
acteristic parts in the colonial struggle. The separate topics dealt with 
have more than once been presented in detail by various writers but no- 
where have they been combined in a single treatment so as to bring out 
their relative importance in the whole scheme of colonial policy. The 
story of our early western land grants is somewhat familiar but here it is 
presented as a factor in precipitating certain cabinet crises and as an 
ever present element in the intrigues at the court of George III. The 
rather obscure schemes for land speculation have a new meaning when 
viewed as a part of an undeveloped colonial policy. In this connection 

132 Reviews of Books m.v.h.b. 

the proclamation of 1763 and the Quebec act of 1774 take on a signifi- 
cance quite apart from their bearing on the impending war. 

One of the most striking features of the work is its clear demonstra- 
tion of the inherent weakness of the imperial policy of England, arising 
from lack of political perspective on the part of her leaders and from 
the uncertain tenure of the cabinet positions. While it is pointed out 
that neither the king nor the cabinet were lacking in insight into certain 
aspects of colonial needs, and that the theories of many of the ministers 
were excellent, and their plans well laid, yet again and again some court 
intrigue or mere personal jealousy among colleagues would intervene to 
bring everything to naught and postpone indefinitely the solution of 
pressing problems. 

While Mr. Alvord has given us not a little that is absolutely new, un- 
doubtedly his greatest service consists in his rearrangement along new 
and original lines of the material that has long been passing current in 
the field of western history. An excellent illustration of this is to be 
seen in the treatment of Pontiac's war, in which it is easy to note what 
has been added to Parkman's account of the same period. But more 
than this, the whole subject of British colonial policy and the winning 
of American independence is presented from a new angle, with a very 
considerable improvement in the point of view as a consequence. It is 
clear, also, that there is in this work a distinct contribution to genuine 
national history. We have not been so far entirely successful in writing 
history that is above sectional narrowness. Too many of our historians 
have been circumscribed by their environment or by their opportunities 
and have failed to catch the larger vision of America's unique experi- 
ment at nation making. In attempting the problem of the western 
frontier in its relation to English control, Mr. Alvord was fortunate 
enough at the outset to discover in his own state a mass of source material 
that helped to reveal to him the larger aspects of the history of that oldest 
culture point in the middle west, the Illinois country. From this vantage 
ground he has thus been able to estimate properly the national signifi- 
cance of that mounting tide of frontier population that by 1763 had al- 
ready begun to break over the crest of the AUeghenies and to flood into 
the plains beyond. Through the conflicting claims of the Iroquois and 
the southern Indians in the Ohio valley he was able to include within the 
scope of his investigations the work of Sir William Johnson and his 
southern colleag-ues in the same department of service. Besides this 
there were the complex frontier problems created by the fur trade rival- 
ries arising from the conflict of interests between the Hudson's Bay 
monopoly and the free traders from Montreal and Quebec, later combin- 
ing into the Northwest and XY companies. While, therefore, he has not 

Vol. IV, No. 1 Wisconsin Losses in the Civil War 133 

exhausted the materials immediately at hand, Mr. Alvord has been able 
to draw to a focus a number of divergent lines of research so as to throw 
new and unexpected light on many obscure portions of our middle west 

Two related fields now lie open to the student who is to follow up what 
has been gained by still further investigation. One of these lines of 
inquiry may be found in the Appalachian area, where since the begin- 
ning of the eighteenth century a famous group of pioneers and Indian 
fighters had been gradually mustering their numbers for an advance 
upon the fertile areas at the west. We know relatively little of the 
origins or of the nature of the migration into this plateau and mountain 
wilderness on our colonial frontier, or of the causes that so long post- 
poned its advance into the Ohio valley. But the method of research 
presented in this work and the results that have been accomplished have 
gone far to clear the way for such a study. The second task that seem- 
ingly lies before the student of western history is bound up with the 
evolution of that early trading center and frontier post of St. Louis 
into the metropolis of later years. These chapters in our national his- 
tory that seem to follow naturally on the appearance of the present work 
will in turn become the starting points for other and later studies that 
for the most part have hardly yet been projected. 

Western historians are certainly under a considerable obligation to 
Mr. Alvord for his present contribution. The clear-cut and incisive 
manner in which he has handled a difficult subject marks his initial ven- 
ture into an unexplored territory as a distinct advance in the field of 
national history. 

0. G. LiBBY 

Wisconsin losses in the civil war. A list of names of Wisconsin soldiers 
killed in action, mortally wounded or dying from other causes in 
the civil war, arranged according to organization, and also in a sep- 
arate alphabetical list. Edited by Charles E. Estabrook; Duncan 
McGregor and Orlando Hoi way, associate commissioners. (Madi- 
son: Printed by the state, 1915. 343 p.) 
This compilation is an addition to the body of information published 
by state and patriotic societies which, if accurately and exhaustively 
done, is valuable both to students of civil war military statistics, and to 
the officials of the war department and the pensions bureau in supple- 
menting their records. 

The list of losses is arranged according to organization, is grouped 
according to the cause within each regiment or battery, and gives the 
name, rank, and place and date of death in each case, as it is found in 
the report of adjutant general of Wisconsin for 1865, supplemented by 

134 Reviews of Books m.v.h.r. 

''such other names as the records show should have been included" 
(Preface). It is not stated what these records are, or how many cor- 
rections or additions have been made, except as indicated in three foot- 
notes which refer to a circular of inquiry of the department of interior, 
June 7, 1866 (p. 210) ; a muster roll (p. 220) and a statement that the 
report of one death is ''unofficial" (p. 124). 

A table at the end of each regimental or battery list, shows how many 
were killed in action, and the number of deaths due to wounds, dis- 
ease, or accident. Other causes, occasionally indicated in footnotes, are 
always included in one of these four totals, but without any attempt at 
consistency. Accidental deaths are sometimes included in the "disease" 
total (pp. 32, 104). Drowning and suicide are usually accidents, some- 
times diseases (pp. 41, 57, 98, 115, 151 et passim). 

The total losses by each of the four causes, as the tables stand without 
correction, show that about 20% were killed in action, 11% died of dis- 
ease, 68% died of wounds, and 2% died of accident or other causes. 
These results, however, are to be obtained only at the expense of consid- 
erable labor in computation, for no statement of totals is given except 
those for each organization. A table of the "Deaths in the United 
States army during the war of the rebellion," which is a "Copy of a 
circular compiled by the officials of the war department, U.S.A.," and 
which classifies deaths under thirteen instead of four causes, is in- 
serted at the end of the book under the title "Summary." A few well 
selected tables of results would greatly increase the value of the book. 
The number of officers killed can be found only by counting them up. 
There is no statement of the number who served in the Wisconsin forces 
during the war, and the percentage of deaths among them can be ob- 
tained only by comparison with other sources of information. 

Errors in proof reading are numerous throughout. The comparison 
of a hundred na.mes, selected at random from the alphabetical index 
with the regimental lists, disclosed ten discrepancies in spelling or ini- 
tials, and two names not included in the lists to which reference is made. 
References are not to pages, but to regiments, and the reader is left to 
locate the name somewhere in any one of four groups extending usually 
over several pages. 

On the whole it may be said that the Wisconsin losses in the civil war 
is an attempt to do a piece of work valuable to a limited and specialized 
body of students or officials who require accuracy as a prime essential, 
which is much marred by careless proof reading and editing, by failure 
to indicate sources of information, and by failure to tabulate and discuss 
the results. 

Donald L. McMurry 

Vol. IV, No. 1 Breasted-Huth-Harding: History Maps 135 

IntroducUmi to American history/. By James Albert Woodburn, pro- 
fessor of American history and politics, Indiana university, and 
Thomas Francis Moran, professor of history and economics, Purdue 
university. (New York: Longmans, Green, and company, 1916. 
308 p. $.72) 

This volume is intended for the sixth grade, and with the other texts 
by the same authors supplies a complete course through the high school. 
It conforms to the recommendations of the committee of eight, being a 
history of western Asia and Europe from the earliest times through the 
period of early colonization. Particular emphasis is laid upon such ele- 
ments as have affected American life most. The final chapters give an 
account of the European explorers in the new world. The general style 
suggests that considerable portions are based upon Meyer's General 
history. The anecdotal element is too pronoimced in some chapters and 
on the whole occupies more space than the historical value of such 
material warrants. Moral teaching is evident throughout the book and 
the ethical value of events is kept strongly in the foreground. 

The most serious omission is the absence of any account of the ex- 
ploration and settlement of South America. Surely some account of the 
important Latin civilizations to the south of us is as important as the 
story of the herald who was appointed to see that the Athenians were 
not forgotten, or that of the alleged whipping of the waters of the 

The pedagogical machinery is moderate in amount and excellent in 
quality. The spelling and pronouncing lists and the suggestions for 
teaching in connection with each chapter will prove most useful. Tests 
made in an average school indicate that the vocabulary is within the 
comprehension of sixth grade pupils and that they find the style inter- 


Ancient, miedieval, amd modern history maps. Breasted ancient series, 
by James H. Breasted, Ph.D., and Carl P. Huth, Jr., university of 
Chicago; Harding European series, by Samuel B. Harding, Ph.D., 
Indiana university. (Chicago: Denoyer-Geppert company, 1916. 
16 p. ; 23 p. $30.00 ; $40.00 for loose-leaf chart heads) 
This series by Messrs. Breasted and Huth comprises sixteen sheets of 
maps on ancient history to the barbaric invasion and twenty- three sheets 
covering medieval and modern history to the great war. Each sheet 
usually contains one or two large maps and one or two smaller insets. 
It is in the ancient history collection that a variation from older stand- 
ards is most apparent and most gratifying. In addition to maps show- 

136 Reviews of Books m.v.h.e. 

ing the ancient empires, there are maps showing the fertility areas of 
the ancient trade routes, lines of Greek, Aegean, and Phoenician com- 
merce from 1500 to 1000 B. C, and the contents of the Phoenician, Greek, 
and local civilizations throughout the Mediterranean world. There are 
also maps illustrating in their successive stages the contest between Rome 
and Carthage and the Roman conquest of the Mediterranean. Large 
sheet maps of Rome and Athens are included and the ancient series 
closes with a map of Gaul which in its delineations of Caesar's campaigns 
and battle grounds, and its diagrams of temporary and permanent Roman 
camps, and in the locations of tribes is reminiscent of academic studies 
in de Bello Gallico. 

The modem history series in its content is more inclined to the con- 
ventional in the choice of subjects. The map of the barbarism invasions 
which indicates the location of the various tribes of invaders by regular 
blocks of color in the older Roman provinces, is of course praiseworthy. 
It is difficult to see why some of the maps should have been included. 
One wishes that the map of England detailing the marches of Harold 
and William and that indicating without names the location of the Eng- 
lish monasteries had been replaced by maps of other European countries 
similar to the admirable ones of England in the eighteenth and nine- 
teenth centuries showing the distribution of population in relation to 
the location of industries, and the location of coal supplies. There are 
similar population maps for Germany and Italy and one wishes the in- 
dustrial features had been added there too. The proportion of nine- 
teenth and twentieth century maps of Europe and its colonies, — 9 sheets 
out of 23, — is unusually large and commendable. The execution of the 
series in general is fairly good, but in one or two cases, for instance the 
fertility map mentioned in the beginning, it is not easy to distinguish 
the variations and gradations of color. Some of the material on the maps 
is so minute as to seem useful for the teacher rather than the class. As 
a whole the series is excellent in a high degree. 


The tenth annual meeting of the Mississippi valley historical associa- 
tion, held in Chicago April 26-28, must be accounted a distinct success. 
The program announced by the committee under the chairmanship of 
Mr. Way of Beloit college, attracted an unusually large attendance, 
which as events proved was well deserved. The formal papers set a new 
standard of excellence and of interest ; they were most delightfully sup- 
plemented by a number of social affairs arranged by the Chicago his- 
torical society: a reception, a luncheon at the Congress hotel, and an 
automobile tour through the park boulevard system of Chicago. 

The business meeting showed that the association is at last well on its 
way to a really sound financial standing, while the list of officers elected 
gives ample evidence that the organization is enjoyiag the support and 
cooperation of the most prominent as well as the most promising his- 
torical scholars of the middle west. St. George L, Sioussat was chosen 
president for the coming year, and the faithful service of Mrs. Clara S. 
Paine as secretary-treasurer was recognized by her reelection to the same 
position. Isaac J. Cox was elected to serve another term on the editorial 
board; the other two vacancies occurring this year were filled by the 
election of Milo M. Quaife and Dan E. Clark. Orin G. Libby, Albert 
S. Sanford, and Homer C. Hockett are the new members of the executive 
committee; B. M. Tryon and Oscar H. Williams were chosen for the 
executive committee of the teachers' section. 

Two invitations were received for the next annual meeting, from the 
Minnesota historical society of St. Paul and from the chamber of com- 
merce of LaCrosse, Wisconsin. The Ohio valley historical association 
also iQvited the Mississippi valley association to attend its meeting at 
Pittsburgh November 30 and December 1, 1917. 

The Reviev^ takes pleasure in publishing a resolution passed by the 
association in commemoration of its first secretary-treasurer, Clarence S. 

Since the last annual meeting the association has lost by death its 
founder and best known member, Clarence S. Paine. In the fall of 1905 
it was at the call of Mr. Paine that representatives of various western 
historical agencies met at Lincoln, Nebraska, and started the movement 
which led to the formation of the Mississippi valley historical association. 
From that date until his death Mr. Paine was the secretary-treasurer 

138 News and Comments m.v.h.r. 

of the association and carried the burden of work upon his shoulders. 
He was more than an efficient official. His optimism and enthusiasm for 
the cause he had so much at heart inspired others and encouraged them 
to join their efforts with his. From the first Mr. Paine took his stand 
firmly for the highest ideals of scientific work, and it is his influence 
more than that of any other which has given the association the good 
reputation it enjoys today. Mr. Paine was a man of financial genius and 
for years he was the pilot who steered the association safely away from 
the rock of bankruptcy, which so frequently threatened it. During Our 
long association with him, we, the members of the Mississippi valley his- 
torical association, learned to admire his ability and to love his per- 
sonality; and at this first meeting since his death we take occasion to 
express to his wife, his family, and his state the deep sense of obligation 
which we owe to him, and to give voice to our sympathy in their loss 
which in a very particular manner we share with them. 

The Proceedings of the tenth annual meeting of the Ohio valley his- 
torical association contains a full report of all the papers presented at 
Indianapolis. Inasmuch as the Indiana historical commission and the 
Indiana historical society had featured the meeting of the association in 
the program of the Indiana state centennial celebration, the subjects dis- 
cussed were those relating to Indiana history. 

Among the articles in the Military historian and economist for April 
are: *'A prospective theory of the conduct of war,*' "England and 
neutral trade,'' and *' Tactical lessons of the battle of Jutland." 

The proceedings of the Virginia historical society are printed in the 
March number of the Virginia magazine of history and biography. 

The Americam> economdc review publishes the Papers and proceedings 
of the twenty-ninth annual meeting of the American economic associa- 
tion as a supplement to the March number. Among the articles in the 
Review, is the ''Theoretical issues in the single tax," by H. J. Davenport. 

The Proceedings of the American antiquarian society for 1916 con- 
tains the following contributions: ''The Mason title and its relations to 
New Hampshire and Massachusetts," by Otis G. Hammond; "The horn- 
book and its uses in America," by George A. Plimpton ; "The early press 
and printers of Jamaica," by Frank Cundall; "Bibliography of Amer- 
ican newspapers, 1690-1820," by Clarence S. Brigham. 

The two contributions to the April number of the Iowa journal of his- 

Vol. IV, No. 1 News and Comments 139 

tory and politics are an article, ' ' Executive veto in Iowa, ' ' by Jacob A. 
Swisher, and a translation by Thomas Teakle entitled the ''History and 
constitution of the Icarian community. ' ' The latter is composed chiefly 
of a translation of The history of the colony or republic of Icaria in the 
United States of America, by Etienne Cabet, with additional material 
sufficient for a necessary background to the history of the colony in Iowa. 

The two articles in the Tennessee historical magazine for March are 
St. George L. Sioussat 's ' ' Memphis as a gateway to the west : a study in 
the beginnings of railway transportation in the old southwest,'' and 
W. A. Provine's ''Lardner Clark, Nashville's first merchant and fore- 
most citizen." 

Mr. St. George L. Sioussat has resigned his position as professor of 
history in Vanderbilt university, Nashville, Tennessee, and has accepted 
the George L. Littlefield professorship of American history in Brown 

The Fifteenth report of the public archives commission of the Amer- 
ican historical association is now reprinted from the annual report of the 
association for 1914. To it are added as appendixes the "Proceedings 
of the sixth conference of archivists" and Herbert A. Kellar's "Prelim- 
inary survey of the more important archives of the territory and state 
of Minnesota." 

The "Journal of Samuel Rowland Fisher, of Philadelphia, 1779-1781," 
contributed by Anna Wharton Morris, appears in the Pennsylvania mag- 
azine of history and biography for April. 

The April number of the Southwestern historical quarterly contains 
the first installment of "The tariff history of the republic of Texas." 
The author is Asa Kyrus Christian, who submitted this paper in partial 
fulfillments for the M.A. degree at the university of Texas. Herbert 
Rook Edwards' article, with a bibliography, "Diplomatic relations be- 
tween France and the republic of Texas," is concluded in this issue. 

The Yale university press has recently issued a pamphlet entitled 
"The coming of Yale college to New Haven, an address delivered by 
Professor Williston Walker in commemoration of the two hundredth an- 
niversary of the removal of the Collegiate school of Connecticut to New 

140 News and Comments m.v.h.r. 

The November issue of the Minnesota history hvUetin is devoted chief- 
ly to ''Captain Potter's recollections of Minnesota experiences/ ^ The 
document was not written until nearly a half century after the events 
occurred but an attempt has been made to cite parallel accounts for the 
purpose of verifying the narrative. This number contains also an index 
to volume i of the Bulletin. 

Editor, The Mississippi Valley Historical Eevibw, 

Sir: — With the assent of a number of members of the executive 
committee of the association, I ask the assistance of the Review in 
bringing to the attention of the members of the association and of the 
readers of the Reviev^ generally the work of the National board for 
historical service, recently organized in Washington, D.C. 

I am sure that every worker in the field of history has felt a desire to 
do something to serve the nation in the present time of stress, and has 
wished that there might be some method of cooperation and some medium 
for the interchange of ideas, but has been puzzled how to proceed. 
It is the purpose of the national board to try to find out what historical 
workers can do and to furnish a means of intercommunication as to the 
best ways of doing it. 

While the suggestions thus far made are rather indefinite, the general 
purposes which the board has in mind have been stated in a circular 
which may be had of the secretary, Waldo Gr. Leland, 1133 Woodward 
building, Washington, D.C, and have been described with much force 
and interest in a letter by Mr. A. C. McLaughlin, which appeared in the 
Dial for May 17. In view of the lateness of this communication, writ- 
ten while the Review is in press, I shall not attempt here to restate the 
suggestions made by the board, but shall close with the remark that the 
board is a voluntary and unofficial body which will, I am sure, be glad 
to have the assistance and cooperation of all students of history. 

The following persons constitute the board: Victor S. Clark, Robert 
D. W. Connor, Carl R. Fish, Charles D. Hazen, Charles H. Hull, Gail- 
lard Hunt, Waldo G. Leland, James T. Shotwell, and Frederick J. 
Turner. James T. Shotwell is the chairman. 

Very respectfully, 

St. George L. Sioussat 


Vol. IV No 2 September, 1917 


No people has passed through greater changes in a single life- 
time than did Americans in the generation which saw the closing 
of the old frontier. Social groups that had been nearly homo- 
geneous were broken up, and out of them were selected and 
combed specialized industrial colonies to be moved to town and 
driven before the machinery of economic change. The fathers 
of this generation had been a sober lot, unable often to bend with- 
out a break, living a life of rigid and puritanical decorum, inter- 
spersed perhaps with disease and drunkenness but unenlivened, 
for most of them, by spontaneous play. When Barnum started 
upon his long career as showman in 1835 he introduced Joice 
Heth, ^ ^ nurse of General George Washington" and now ' ' arrived 
at the astonishing age of 161 years;" but he was careful to add 
that she had been ^^a member of the Baptist church for upwards 
of one hundred years" and took pleasure in the conversation of 
the clergy.^ Amusement was under suspicion of wickedness un- 
less disguised as instruction ; and sport was hard to find. 

^^I idled away the morning on Mr. Daniel Greenleaf 's wharf," 
wrote Charles Francis Adams in his diary in 1843, after 
playing with his boys for a few hours; *^ perhaps this con- 
sumption of time is scarcely justifiable ; but why not take some 
of life for simple enjoyments, provided that they interfere with 
no known duty?"^ A few years later the genial Autocrat 

1 New YorJc Transcript, August 8, 1835, advertisement, p. 3. The attempts to ex- 
pose this hoax are in the New YorTc Herald, September 8, 13, 1836, and are com- 
mented on in various editions of the Barnum autobiography. Phineas T. Barnum, 
Life of P. T. Barnum (New York, 1885); Struggles and triumphs (1873), 73. 

2 Charles Francis Adams, 1835-1915, an autoMography, with a memorial address 

144 Frederic L. Paxson M.v. h. R 

sookled at a portion of his fellow-countrymen: ^^I am satisfied 
that such a set of black-coated, stiff -jointed, soft-muscled, paste- 
complexioned youth as we can boast in our Atlantic cities never 
before sprang from loins of Anglo-Saxon lineage. . . We 
have a few good boatmen, no good horsemen that I hear of, 
nothing remarkable, I believe, in cricketing, and as for any 
great athletic feat performed by a gentleman in these latitudes, 
society would drop a man who should run around the Common 
in five minutes.'' ^ Farther south, or farther west, if an Adams 
had criticized himself or a Holmes his neighbour, the showing 
might, in spots, have been less doleful; but neither in east nor 
west did America esteem the human body.* ' ' The taste for 
athletic sports in America is not over fifteen years old,'' wrote a 
shrewd observer in 1869.^ In 1886 some of our journals could 
still find ''news" in Dr. Peabody's baccalaureate upon the text, 
' ' The temple of God is holy, which temple ye are. ' ' ^ But before 
the boys who heard this sermon reached middle life their world 
had changed. 

On the first of March, 1909, there gathered in the White House 
without rebuke — almost without comment — a group selected 
not for purposes of state but for play alone."^ An ambassador 
was there, a scout, a scientist, a soldier, and even a president 
of the United States, who addressed his guests as ''men with 
whom at tennis, or hunting, or riding, or walking, or boxing, I 
have played ; with whom I have been on the round-up, or in the 
mountains, or in the ranch country. ' ' Proctor's stealthy cougar, 
in bronze,^ that the "tennis cabinet"® left behind them for their 

delivered November 17, 1915, hy Henry Cabot Lodge (Boston and New York, 1916), 

3 Oliver W. Holmes in Atlantic monthly, May, 1858, p. 881. 

4 In Sports and pastimes, a magazine of amusements for all seasons (Boston, 
Aflams and company), croquet, ring toss, angling, embroidery, and card and ques- 
tion games are described in July, 1871; and in April, 1875, dialogues, cricket, pet 
rabbits, magnetism, and "Silent Sam, the conjuror." 

5 The Nation, September 2, 1869, p. 188, made this assertion while commenting 
upon the Harvard-Oxford boat race which had just been rowed. 

6 New York Tribune, June 21, 1886, p. 2. 

7 Ibid., March 2, 1909, p. 2. 

fi Theodore Roosevelt, an autobiography (New York, 1913), 48. 

f^ There is a photograph of the famous White House tennis court, in use, in Har- 
per's Weekly, March 6, 1909, p. 13; and another of the White House offices built on 
the same site by President Taft in ibid., November 27, 1909, p. 30. 

Vol. IV, No. 2 The Rise of Sport 145 

host, was a fair type of the new work and the newer play; of 
the art of Frederic Remington and the tales of Owen Wister, of 
a generation that had appraised the spiritual values of its play 
and that had settled itself into a new environment. Today a 
president dismisses an ambassador and goes off to golf, with all 

^^And, while studying closely his putts, to explore 
The obscurity shrouding the roots of the war. ' ' ^° 

So late as Arthur's day a vacation trip to the Rockies was a 
luxury, if not an indiscretion. 

The various stages in that disappearance of the frontier that 
brought one American cycle to an end have been portrayed by 
various scholars, and Mr. Turner's part in that portrayal is, 
perhaps, the most distinguished feat in American historical 
scholarship in the last half century. The free lands were used 
up. The cow country rose and fell. The social safety valve 
was screwed down. But the explosion did not come. The rea- 
son for continued bearable existence under the increasing pres- 
sure generated in industrial society cannot yet be seen from 
all its sides; but one side is already clear: a new safety valve 
was built upon the new society. The rumblings and premoni- 
tory tremblings were not followed by disaster. The strikes of 
1877 seemed to many to presage a revolution, and the anarchis- 
tic riots of 1886 appeared to be the first blow. But American 
society learned to give instead of crack. Perhaps its sense of 
humor helped to save. Puck began in 1877 its career as weekly 
emollient, cartoonists multiplied in every editorial shop, and 
Life in 1883 found it possible to combine knight-errantry and 
humor. Mark Twain was at his crest of popularity; not yet a 
sage, but always sane. Saved by its temper from immediate 
explosion, American society went to work to provide new out- 

Between the first race for the America's cup in 1851 and the 
first American aeroplane show of February last, the safety 
valve of sport was designed, built, and applied. Between the 
organization of the oldest of the major leagues — the National 
league of baseball clubs — in 1876, and the earliest golf tourna- 

io Punch, January 31, 1917, p. 75. 

146 Frederic L. Paocson m.v.h.r. 

ment in the United States, in 1894, the progress and develop- 
ment were rapid. Between the first meet of the League of 
American wheelmen in 1880, and the first national tournament 
of the United States lawn tennis association in 1881, on one 
hand, and the interdict launched in 1888 by the amateur athletic 
union against amateurs w^ho dared participate in unauthorized 
games or meets, the growing pains of a society which was enter- 
ing almost monthly upon a new pastime w^ere mingled with the 
soreness of its muscles as it undertook, on ever broader scale, 
baseball, cricket, bicycling, tennis, and roller skating; polo, 
racing, coaching, field sports, and canoeing; gymnastics, curling, 
boxing, hunting, and archery. To enumerate them all would 
take the space of a sporting cyclopedia; to describe them all 
would emphasize the fact that in nearly every one wholesale 
participation and adoption came between the years of the cen- 
tennial in Philadelphia and the world's fair in Chicago. ^^ To- 
gether they constitute the rise of sport. 

Spectators' sports found lodgment in American society earlier 
than did those in which participation is the price of enjoyment. 
Racing and boxing can be traced through the first years of the 
republic with a train of admirers behind each champion. In 
his old age Diomed, who had won the initial Derby at Epsom 
Downs, in 1780, came to America ^^ to breed a great family of 
racing horses on a Virginia stock farm ; other victors followed 
him to reinvigorate the strain, and from time to time Americans 
aroused one side of national pride as they endeavored to grasp 
the Derby stakes. Iroquois did this at last in 1881, for Pierre 
Lorillard,^^ his owner; and in 1907 Richard Croker's Kentucky 
bred Orby ^* did it again. Racing that could produce such finest 
flowers developed an American establishment that grew almost 
beyond control. 

The opening of the American jockey club^'^ at Jerome park, on 

11 Gladys Miller, Certain aspects of organized recreations in the United States, 
187 6- J 889 (Master's thesis, university of Wisconsin, 1916). 

12 Edward Spencer, ''The classic English Derby," in Outing, June, 1902, p. 292; 
Francis Trevelyan, ''Status of the American turf," in ibid., March, 1892, p. 469. 

^■i Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper, June 18, 1881, p. 263; July 9, pp. 319, 
.'52 1. 

14 Photographs of Orby, Bichard Crocker his owner, and "the foremost racing 
event of the world," in Outing, September, 1907, pp. 727-732. 

15 Francis Trevelyan, "The American turf. The race-courses of the east," in 
Outing, May, 1892, i>. 129. 

Vol. IV, No. 2 The Rise of Sport 147 

the old Bathgate farm at Fordham in 1866, was an epoch for 
the American turf.^^ Through the next decade it seemed as 
though the horse were coming to own America. Trotting for 
the humbler at the county fairs, and running races over the 
great courses near the cities, drew mighty audiences. But the 
spectators who had made possible this high exploitation killed 
it in the end. The gamblers and the cheap sports brought rac- 
ing into disrepute, and before the Coney Island jockey club"^^ 
held its inaugural meeting in 1879 the game was outlawed by 
conservative society. Yet its evil profits kept it alive during 
the eighties — through six hundred and one races run in the 
vicinity of New York in ninety-five days in 1888 ^^ — until at last 
the legislature and the constitution^® were invoked against it. 
But Maud S. and her successors,^^ and Nancy Hanks before her 
pneumatic-tired sulky,^"^ made a place in the American imagina- 
tion that called for something else to fill it when the race course 
had run through its day. 

Trotting and racing had gathered their crowds and stirred 
the blood, but they produced no sentimental symbol equal to the 
America's cup, with which, wrote Caspar Whitney, ''there is no 
trophy in all the world of sport to compare ... in point of 
age or distinction."^^ The American clipper ship knew no 
superior in the forties of the last century,^^ and one of its fleet 
took away the queen's cup from Cowes and the royal yacht 
squadron^* in the year of the London exposition, 1851.^^ This 

16 New York Herald, September 26, 1866, p. 7, devotes three columns to the 
opening of the club, comparing its equipment with that of Ascot, Epsom, and Long- 

'i^T Coney Island jockey club, 1S79 (pamphlet), gives an account of this new ven- 
ture. Coney Island had now become famous as a New York resort, having been 
''discovered" about 1874 by William A. Engeman. New York World, January 12, 
1884. The Ocean Parkway drive from Brooklyn was completed late in 1876. 

^^ Frank Leslie's Illustrated Neivspaper, October 27, 1888, p. 167. 

19 Betting rings were abolished by the New York constitution of 1894. 

20 E. T. Eiddick, ''Eobert Bonner's stock farm," in Harper's Weekly, July 23, 
1892, p. 709. 

21 There is a cut of this sulky in Outing, October, 1892, appendix 19. 

22 Outing, November, 1907, p. 237. 

23 A. J. Kenealy, ' ' The New York yacht club, a sea-dog 's yarn of fifty years, ' ' in 
Outing, August, 1894, p. 388. 

"^^New York Daily Tribune, September 8, 1851; New York Evening Post, Sep- 
tember 9, 1851. 

25 A. J. Kenealy, ''The racers for the America's cup," in Outing, August, 1893, 
p. 381. 

14S Frederic L. Paxson m.v.h.e. 

feat quickeued a nation's feelings on either side of the Atlantic, 
though no challenger came to America to take it back for nine- 
teen years. Then, with the Camhria in 1870 a series of adven- 
turers began to seek the trophy guarded by the New York yacht 
club, its custodian.'' On the eve of the great war, Sir Thomas 
Lipton was arranging for the fourth time to try to take the prize. 
Dunraven had preceded him; and him the Thistle (1887), and 
the Galatea (1886), and the Genesta (1885), and the Atlanta 
(1881), and the Countess of Dufferin (1876), and the Livonia 
(1871), in a gallant succession of vain attempts. Four times 
in the eighties and thrice each in the seventies and nineties did 
the autumn races off New York renew the interest, with an ever- 
widening circle acquainted with the skipper, learned on the 
points of sail and beam, and ready to debate measurement, cen- 
terboard, or keel. And in the intervals between the races they 
could turn to wrangle over the prospects for Eichard Fox's 
diamond belt. 

This diamond belt was designed to adorn the heavyweight 
champion of the world, and was the donation of Richard K. Fox, 
editor of the Police gazette. It followed a precedent that had, 
in another sport, uncovered the financial possibilities behind 
the promotion of great spectacles. All through the seventies 
there had been occasional matches between professional long- 
distance pedestrians; but these had grown into disrepute 
through the quarrels of promoters and the trials of referees, 
who fell foul of the question. What is a walk! In a single issue, 
in 1879, the New York Sun noted that Miss Lulu Loomer, clad 
in black silk tunic and sky blue hose, was walking 3000 quarter 
miles in 3000 quarter hours in a public hall ; that Van Ness and 
Belden were at work on a ^ix-days' race in the Fifth regiment 
armory ; and that in Cooper hall, Jersey City, a similar test was 
under way.'^ 

Sir John Astley had already tried to reduce pedestrian chaos 
to matters of record by offering, in 1878, a purse of £500 and a 
championship belt worth £100 more to the winner of a six-days' 

z" R. F. CoflSn, ''History of American yachting," in Outing, August, 1886, p. 
509. The New York yacht club was now established at CQifton, S. I., and was con- 
ducting regular regattas and fleet cruises in American waters. Ihid., p. 402. 

27 Nev) York Sun, February 10, 1879. 

Vol. IV, No. 2 J/^g Jlise ^f S^f^^i 149 

test, go-as-you-please. In the Agricultural hall at Islington 
this was first walked off and won by one O'Leary, a Chicago 
Irishman, already well-known, who now established a six-day 
record of five hundred and twenty miles.^^ The trophy was con- 
tested again in October, 1878, and three times in the following 
year. An English walker named Rowell captured it in March, 
1879; Edward Payson Weston, an American, took it from him 
in the following June, and defended it in Madison Square Grar- 
den for six days in the following September.^^ Weston had 
raised the record to five hundred and fifty miles, but Rowell won 
back the belt this time in a field of thirteen contestants. No 
new record was made, but for the whole week crowds gathered 
round the course to smoke and bet and encourage the various 
entries, and similar contests continued to draw their throngs 
for many years. Only recently Weston, hearty still on his 
seventy-first birthday,^^ walked from New York to San Fran- 
cisco in one hundred days, though the Astley belt has left the 
sporting recollection. 

The Fox diamond belt indicates a revival of the manly art 
after two decades of well-deserved oblivion. The last great 
fight that Americans of the centennial decade could remember 
was fought in a meadow at Famboro, near London, for thirty- 
six rounds, on April 17, 1860. Here Heenan, the American, and 
Sayers, the English champion, fought to a draw in a turf ring, 
with twenty-one London ^^ pugs'' as ring keepers, who let the ring 
break in before the American could knock out his opponent.^^ 

The recollection of the Heenan-Sayers fight endured through 
years when pugilists failed to hit each other, until a new slugger 
with a genius for advertising appeared within the ring. This 
was John L. Sullivan, born in Boston in 1858, who emerged as a 
driving fighter about 1881. In February, 1882, he won from 
Paddy Ryan the title of champion of America,^^ and for the next 

28 N&w YorTc Herald, March 18, 24, 1878, September 22, 1879. 

29 Chicago Inter-Ocean, September 22, 1879. 
50 Harper's WeeUy, March 27, 1909, p. 31. 

31 New YorTc Herald, April 29, 1860, describes this fight. 

32 The younger Bennett, consistently interested in racing, polo, yachting, and 
other sports, made the Neiv YorTc Herald the best source for sporting news in this 
period. Sketches of Sullivan are given in the issues for January 30 and February 
8, 1882, and July 9, 1889. 

148 Frederic L. Paxson m.v.h.e. 

feat quickened a nation's feelings on either side of the Atlantic, 
though no challenger came to America to take it back for nine- 
teen years. Then, with the Cambria in 1870 a series of adven- 
turers began to seek the trophy guarded by the New York yacht 
club, its custodian.^^ On the eve of the great war, Sir Thomas 
Lipton was arranging for the fourth time to try to take the prize. 
Dunraven had preceded him; and him the Thistle (1887), and 
the Galatea (1886), and the Genesta (1885), and the Atlanta 
(1881), and the Countess of Dufferin (1876), and the Livonia 
(1871), in a gallant succession of vain attempts. Four times 
in the eighties and thrice each in the seventies and nineties did 
the autumn races off New York renew the interest, with an ever- 
widening circle acquainted with the skipper, learned on the 
points of sail and beam, and ready to debate measurement, cen- 
terboard, or keel. And in the intervals between the races they 
could turn to wrangle over the prospects for Eichard Fox's 
diamond belt. 

This diamond belt was designed to adorn the heavyweight 
champion of the world, and was the donation of Richard K. Fox, 
editor of the Police gazette. It followed a precedent that had, 
in another sport, uncovered the financial possibilities behind 
the promotion of great spectacles. All through the seventies 
there had been occasional matches between professional long- 
distance pedestrians; but these had grown into disrepute 
through the quarrels of promoters and the trials of referees,^ 
who fell foul of the question. What is a walk I In a single issue, 
in 1879, the New YorJc Sun noted that Miss Lulu Loomer, clad 
in black silk tunic and sky blue hose, was walking 3000 quarter 
miles in 3000 quarter hours in a public hall ; that Van Ness and 
Belden were at work on a s-ix-days' race in the Fifth regiment 
armory ; and that in Cooper hall, Jersey City, a similar test was 
under way.^^ 

Sir John Astley had already tried to reduce pedestrian chaos 
to matters of record by offering, in 1878, a purse of £500 and a 
championship belt worth £100 more to the winner of a six-days' 

26 R. P. Coffin, ''History of American yachting," in Outing, August, 1886, p. 
509. The New York yacht club was now established at Clifton, S. I., and was con-^ 
ducting regular regattas and fleet cruises in American waters. lUd., p. 402. 

27 New York Sun, February 10, 1879. 

Vol. IV, No. 2 j/^g ;^i^Q ^1 ^^Q^i 149 

test, go-as-you-please. In the Agricultural hall at Islington 
this was first walked off and won by one O^Leary, a Chicago 
Irishman, already well-known, who now established a six-day 
record of f^YQ hundred and twenty miles.^® The trophy was con- 
tested again in October, 1878, and three times in the following 
year. An English walker named Eowell captured it in March, 
1879; Edward Payson Weston, an American, took it from him 
in the following June, and defended it in Madison Square Gar- 
den for six days in the following September.^^ Weston had 
raised the record to fiYQ hundred and fifty miles, but Howell won 
back the belt this time in a field of thirteen contestants. No 
new record was made, but for the whole week crowds gathered 
round the course to smoke and bet and encourage the various 
entries, and similar contests continued to draw their throngs 
for many years. Only recently Weston, hearty still on his 
seventy-first birthday,^^ walked from New York to San Fran- 
cisco in one hundred days, though the Astley belt has left the 
sporting recollection. 

The Fox diamond belt indicates a revival of the manly art 
after two decades of well-deserved oblivion. The last great 
fight that Americans of the centennial decade could remember 
was fought in a meadow at Famboro, near London, for thirty- 
six rounds, on April 17, 1860. Here Heenan, the American, and 
Sayers, the English champion, fought to a draw in a turf ring, 
with twenty-one London ** pugs'' as ring keepers, who let the ring 
break in before the American could knock out his opponent.^^ 

The recollection of the Heenan-Sayers fight endured through 
years when pugilists failed to hit each other, until a new slugger 
with a genius for advertising appeared within the ring. This 
was John L. Sullivan, born in Boston in 1858, who emerged as a 
driving fighter about 1881. In February, 1882, he won from 
Paddy Ryan the title of champion of America,^^ and for the next 

28 N&w YorTc Herald, March 18, 24, 1878, September 22, 1879. 

29 Chicago Inter-Ocean, September 22, 1879. 
^0 Harper's Weekly, March 27, 1909, p. 31. 

31 New YorTc Herald, April 29, 1860, describes this fight. 

32 The younger Bennett, consistently interested in racing, polo, yachting, and 
other sports, made the New YorTc Herald the best source for sporting news in this 
period. Sketches of Sullivan are given in the issues for January 30 and February 
8, 1882, and July 9, 1889. 

150 Frederic L, Paxson m.v.h.k. 

ten years was as popular a sporting character as the world pos- 
sessed. The leather football that Mike Donovan,^^ boxing in- 
stnictor of the New York athletic club, had adapted to new use 
as a punching bag spread its vogue once it had trained this 
champion.^* . Audiences repeatedly crowded Madison Square 
Garden when Sullivan w^as announced to box, and the paragraph- 
ers treasured his words uttered in his cups or sober. **The 
worship of brute force, '^ wailed Leslie's newspaper, had filled the 
boxing schools of New York. ^'Let prize-fighters be once more 
regarded as outlaws, and not as public ^entertainers,' ''^^ it 
urged; but when Sullivan went to England in 1887, he and 
Buffalo Bill and the Prince of Wales competed on easy terms 
for space. 

The reluctance of fighters to fight was well dispelled by 1887. 
In this year Jake Kilrain fought Jem Smith for one hundred 
and six rounds in France, but only to a draw w^hich left the own- 
ership of the new diamond belt in doubt, since this was offered 
for a finish fight.^^ Sullivan, who had been boxing to huge au- 
diences in the English music halls, and who had been received by 
the Prince of Wales,^'^ — much, it is said, to the mortification of 
the queen, then celebrating her jubilee, — trained now at Wind- 
sor, and in March, 1888, fought Charley Mitchell to a thirty-six 
round draw near Chantilly. It was a single-handed bout, for the 
American broke his right arm in the fifth round, and could only 
defend himself with his left for the rest of the fight.^^ *^ There 
is hardly a more disreputable ruffian now breathing than this 
same Sullivan,'' commented the New York Tribune, ^^but with 
all his brutality, his coarseness, and his vices, he certainly is not 

33 Mike Donovan, ' ^ How to punch the ball, ' ' in Outing, April, 1902, p. 54. 

34 A New York correspondent, after a visit to Sullivan 's training quarters, de- 
scribed the superiority of the ^Heather football" over the sand pillow formerly used. 
New Yorlc Herald, January 29, 1882, p. 13. 

^'^ Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper, March 31, 1883, p. 86; November 29, 
1884, p. 227. 

'•if' New Yorlc Herald, December 20, 1887; Neiv YorTc Tribune, December 20, 1887. 

?>7 New YorTc Hun, December 10, 1887; New Yorlc Tribune, December 26, 1887; 
New Yorlc Herald, .January 5, 1888. John Boyle O'Reilly asserted that ''skill in 
pugilism has always been coincident with political freedom*." New York Tribune, 
December 20, 1887. 

3«'Mohn L. Sullivan ... has faced his last opponent in the ring, and it is 
doubtful if he will ever again do the knocking out act. ' ' New York Herald, March 
12, 1888, p. 4. 

Vol. IV, No. 2 The Rise of Sport 151 

afraid of meeting any living man with bare fists. *'^^ Early in 
1889 he and Kilrain agreed to fight for $20,000, the title, and 
the belt ; and this time there was no draw, for Sullivan battered 
his way to a knockout at Richburg, Mississippi, on July 8.**^ 
They talked of running him for congress on the democratic 
ticket now; but he went on a boxing tour to Australia instead, 
and came back to lose his title to a new winner, James J. Cor- 
bett, in 1892. 

How Corbett's science won the title and maintained it until 
Robert Fitzsimmons ended his reign; how Fitzsimmons was 
finally worsted by Jim Jeffries; and he by Johnson, and he in 
turn by Willard would bring the boxing story down to date. 
But none of his successors has equalled Sullivan in his popular 
appeal, and it was his gold-mounted rabbit's foot, for luck, that 
Colonel Roosevelt carried through his African trip in 1909.*' 
Sport had a new appeal to the city crowds of the eighties, and 
the promoters catered to it. The periodic crises of the races 
and the fights w^ere interspersed by the meetings of the national 
game, baseball. 

The major leagiles and the shoal of minor leagues that today 
control the formal side of baseball, with permanent million dol- 
lar parks,*^ with a president of the United States to throw the 
first ball of a season, with over seven million paid admissions 
to the major leagues alone within a single year,*^ represent an 
institution that is far removed from the game of ball as it was 
played by a few private clubs after the Mexican war, and from 
the earliest of its organizations, the national association of base- 
ball players, of 1858.** It seems to have been the civil war that 
brought potential nines together and nationalized the game. 
Men who might have joined the militia regiments for exercise or 

39 December 30, 1887, p. 4. 

^(i Milwaukee Sentinel, January 8, 1889; Idaho Avalanche, July 13, 1889; Chicago 
Inter-Ocean, July 9, 1889. 

41 Theodore Eoosevelt, an autobiography, 46. 

42 Shibe Park, the home of the Athletics, and the grounds of the Pirates at Pitts- 
burgh, both opened in 1909, are good specimens of the modern equipment. Harper's 
WeeUy, May 1, 2, 1909. 

43 Arthur B. Eeeve, * ' What America spends for sport, ' ' in Outing, December, 
1910, p. 300. 

44 H. C. Palmer, J. A. Fynes, F. Eichter, and W. I. Harris, AtMetic sports in 
America, England, and Australia (1889), 26. 

152 Frederic L. Paxson m. y.h. k. 

recreation before tlie war played baseball around the cities, 
after it. Tiie Cincinnati Eed Stockings, a strictly professional 
team, discovered the financial possibilities of the game in 1869. 
A national association of professional baseball players emerged 
in 1871, but its base of organization was faulty, and no finan- 
cially successful scheme appeared for fiYQ years more/^ 

In February, 1876, William A. Hulbert of Chicago, and A. G. 
Spalding, a prominent professional of Boston, having signed 
up a strong team for the approaching season made a workable 
machine for the furtherance of their profits and the game. At 
the Grand Central hotel, in New York, they organized the Na- 
tional leagTie of baseball clubs, the parent league of today, with 
eight member teams : Boston, Hartford, Chicago, St. Louis, 
Louisville, Cincinnati, the Mutuals (New York), and the Ath- 
letics (Philadelphia).*'^ The transition from an association of 
players to a league or partnership of managers, gave a firm 
basis to the sport. It was, indeed, only a spectators' sport. 
With only changes in detail the scheme continues workable. A 
second league branched off in 1882 as the American association ; 
a Federal league and various brotherhoods or fraternities have 
followed it. But baseball as a producer's business in the larger 
cities has not been shaken. Spalding's Chicago team won the 
pennant year after year. The pitched ball changed from a toss 
to a throw, an arsenal of mitts, shields, and masks evolved, and 
in 1888-1889 Spalding's baseball tour around the world intro- 
duced the full-grown national game to other countries.*^ The 
umpire became a recognized butt for the comic papers. And at 
last the sedate editor of the Atlantic monthly almanac, confident 
that all his readers can understand the lingo, adorns the opening 
baseball date of 1917 with the alleged oriental maxim, ^' There 
are no fans in Hell." 

Baseball succeeded as an organized spectators' sport, but it 
did also what neither racing nor boxing could do in turning the 
city lot into a playground, and the small boy into an enthusiastic 

4-'3 Albert G. Spalding, America's national game ; historic facts concerning the he- 
ginning, evolution, development and popularity of hasehall, with personal remin- 
iscences of its vicissitudes, victories, and its votaries (New York, 1911), 64. 

4« The text of the call for this meeting, and an account of its transactions are in 
the Chicago Trilune, February 7, 1876. 

47 ''The return of the ball players," in Harper's Weelcly, April 6, 1889, p. 226. 

Vol. IV, No. 2 T^Q j^ise of Sport 153 

player. The cigarette pictures of leading players that small 
boys of the eighties collected by scores indicate at once their 
interests and their naughty habits. Like cricket in England, 
baseball became a game for everyone. 

Cricket, indeed, had been played around Boston and New 
York and chiefly Philadelphia, since the English factory hands 
had brought it to Kensington and Germantown in the middle 
forties. The late Dr. S. Weir Mitchell remembered to have 
played a full-fledged game in 1845;*^ and ever after this there 
was at least one Newhall to play in Philadelphia,*^ and a grow- 
ing list of cricket clubs. From time to time an inter-city game 
enlivened the mild sport; then a visit from Canadian players; 
then an imported English team that with eleven ordinary veter- 
ans could retire an American team of twenty-two without bat- 
ting out its second innings. But in September, 1885,^^ though 
cricket was ^^ still an exotic in the United States,'' a team of 
eleven Philadelphians beat eleven Britishers for the first time at 
their own game. The interest of the spectator was being trans- 
lated into proficiency in sport. 

Indoors and out-of-doors city growth and changing habits 
lured more men to exercise. The notion of participation for the 
fun there was in it, or for the physical advantage entailed, was 
more widely spread before the civil war than the existing rec- 
ords would indicate; but it was scant enough. The Young 
men's christian association, an importation of the early fifties, 
had begun to group its charges and to see the various sides of 
the new problem they raised. Their city buildings, undertaken 
in the later sixties, included room for gymnasiums ^^ as well as 
chapels and class rooms ; and their directors taught gymnastics, 
upon a basis resembling that of the Grerman immigrants, ex- 
hibited through their turner societies a dozen years before. 

Father Friedrich Ludwig Jahn and his gymnastic educational 

^^ Harper's WeeUy, September 22, 1894, p. 908. 

49 The numerous Newhall brothers, famous in cricket annals, are described in 
ibid., June 22, 1889, p. 495. 

50 Chicago Tribune, September 18-21, 1885. 

51 Physical education in the Young men 's christian associations of North America 
(1914), p. 5. An International training school for directors was organized in 
Springfield, Massachusetts, in 1885, while a series of annual conferences of the as- 
sociation of general secretaries was continuous from 1871. Louisville Commercial, 
May 6, 11, 1893. 

154 Frederic L, Paxson m.v.h.e. 

revival had done much for German nationalism and democracy 
before the revolutionary movements of 1848 brought it under 
suspicion and drove many of its leaders into more or less in- 
voluntary exile. Into America the Germans came with com- 
mon resentments and with familiarity with this bond that might 
hold them together and cheer their hearts as they struggled 
against nativistic critics in a strange land/^ Singing, playing, 
exercising, drinking their beer together on Sunday evenings, 
the}^ had immediately started turner societies and had formed a 
turnerbund with more than one hundred and fifty member so- 
cieties before the civil war.^^ Many of these societies marched 
to the front with ranks almost untouched by failure to enlist, 
and more than one German regiment paid for shelter and hos- 
pitality with all it had to give. In the winter of 1864-1865 the 
league reorganized as the Nordamerikanischer Turnerbund,^* 
and since that day its athletic festivals and congresses have at 
once broadened the influence of comradeship and kept the Ger- 
man-Americans in contact with their common past. A team 
of Milwaukee turners invaded the fatherland in 1880 and carried 
off the trophies of a general meet at Frankf ort-on-Main ; ^^ 
while the twenty-third festival at St. Louis ^^ opened the next 
year with 20,000 people on the fair ground. 

The growing wealth of cities, the appearance of a class of men 
with leisure, and the consequences of sedentary life could not 
have failed to develop organized provision for play nor to in- 
duce young men to start athletic clubs in increasing numbers. 
The greatest of the clubs was organized in 1868 in New York, 
and rented a field for athletic games that soon gave fame to 
Mott Haven, on the Harlem river. This was the New York 
athletic club," whose growth and expansion would alone illus- 
trate and typify nearly the whole of modern sport. For almost 

•'52 Marion D. Learned, The German- American turner lyric (Baltimore, 1897), 40. 

•'^Harper's Weekly, September 20, 1890, p. 734. 

54 Heinrich Metzner, GeschicMe des [NordameriJcanischen] Turner-Bunds (In- 
dianapolis, 1874), 85; New Yorlc Tribune, September 12, 16, 1864; New YorTc Her- 
ald, April 6, 1865. 

■'■' Chicafjo Tribune, MilwauTcee Sentinel, September 11, 1880. 

'^fi Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper, June 25, 1881, pp. 281, 283, gives sketches 
of the festival; Chicago Inter-Ocean, June 6, 1881. 

^'T Memorial history of New York, edited by J. G. Wilson, 4: 258; S. O. Foster, 
"The New York athletic club," in Outing, September, 1884, p. 403. 

Vol. IV, No. 2 The Rise of Sport 155 

twenty years it flourished on the stern diet of athletics, and only 
athletics. Its boathouse, its track, and its field became the 
center of general sport, while at its various annual games young 
athletes accumulated records that ought to have gladdened the 
heart of Dr. Holmes. 

In 1876, after the New York athletic club had held its own 
seventh annual spring meet, it devised a novelty and held the 
first open amateur handicap field meeting in America.^^ Al- 
ready the Intercollegiate athletic association had been organiz- 
ed to regulate the play of college boys, and had conducted its 
first games at Saratoga.^^ But the New York open games rep- 
resented a new principle possible only because sport was be- 
coming universal, and necessary because definitions and stand- 
ards were so unsettled as to imperil sport itself. Out of these 
open games there grew, under the patronage of the New York 
athletic club, the National association of amateur athletics of 
America, an organization without a plant of its own, and as- 
piring to govern sport. In 1888, after a dispute in this associa- 
tion,^^ from which the New York athletic club had withdrawn 
its countenance, and which the Intercollegiate athletic associa- 
tion was ready to desert,^^ the greatest of the Philadelphia clubs, 
the Athletic club of the Schuylkill navy, took steps to create the 
Amateur athletic union.^^ The new union held a first meet at 
Detroit in September, 1888,^^ and was a success from the begin- 
ning- In its first summer, August 25, 1888, it faced the country 
courageously, — insolently, some thought, — and resolved that 
any amateur participating in unauthorized games should there- 
by disqualify himself as entry in games controlled by the Ama- 
ss On July 29, 1876. New YorJc Herald, July 16, 30, 1876. 

59 Intercollegiate rowing, since the Harvard-Oxford race, had become a mild 
^' mania." Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper, July 15, 1876, p. 302. On the 
day after the annual Saratoga regatta, July 20, 1876, the Intercollegiate athletic 
association held its meet. New York Herald, June 17, July 21, 1876. 

60 The Manhattan athletic club organized as a rival to the New York athletic 
club in 1878, was special patron of the National association of amateur athletics of 
America in its later years, and occupied an imposing house at Madison avenue and 
Forty-fifth street between 1890 and 1893. New York Sun, February 19, 1893. 

61 The resolutions embodying this desertion are in Outing, April, 1889, appendix, 
1; June, 1889, appendix, 32. 

62 The details of the breach are in Outing, November, 1888, p. 168, January, 1889, 
p. 363. 

^3 New York Herald, September 20, 1888. 

156 Frederic L. Paxson m.v.h.e. 

teur athlotic uiiion.'^^ This union and other governing bodies 
are still defining the amateur and adjusting the terms of his 
competitions; but this interdict of the athletic protestant, — or 
infidel, — is a high mark in the rising tide. 

Long before the Amateur athletic union had been conceived, 
its parent outgrew its primitive athletic plant and, stimulated by 
its own needs and the rivalry of eager imitators, had come into 
town with a great athletic club house. In 1885, with William 
E. T ravers as president and Herman Oelrichs as financial back- 
er, the New York athletic club opened its own building at Sixth 
avenue and Fifty-fifth street; three years later it opened a 
country home on Travers Island ; and in 1896 it moved up Sixth 
avenue to a larger city palace on Fifty-ninth street.®^ Mean- 
while its development had been paralleled in Philadelphia by 
the Athletic club of the Schuylkill navy, whose rowing had grown 
into general athletics and produced the Arch street club house in 
1889.®^ In Boston the athletic club boasted among its members 
Henry L. Higginson and John Boyle 'Reilly, and opened mod- 
ern quarters in 1888.^^ In Chicago the building on Michigan 
avenue was regarded as the last word in athletic architecture 
when it opened in 1893.®^ In smaller towns and among poorer 
athletes, where marble palaces were out of question, where the 
Young men's christian association or the turnverein or the local 
school or college might be the agency, the athletic club was ex- 
tending its stimulation deep into the social body. 

The increasing organization of sport tells one side of the 
stor}^; the invention of new activities the other. The mechan- 
ical genius of one Plimpton, about 1863,*^^ made roller skating 
possible and bred a mania that first infected Australia, then 
Europe, then America, and that raged, an intermittent epidemic, 
for a generation. Tools of the game were cheap ; skill was not 
hard to acquire; but the rinks in which to skate controlled the 
sport. The Brooklyn rink, long to be famous as a political 

6* The meeting that passed this resolution was held in the house of the New Yor^ 
athletic club. Outing, October, 1888, p. 81. 

«5 M. W. Ford, ' ' The New York athletic club, ' ' in Outing, December, 1898, p. 247. 

«« New Yrjric Times, September 23, 1889. 

f'7 New York Herald, December 30, 1888. 

«% Chicago Inter-Ocean, July 16, 1893. 

("''•f AnnvMl cyclopaedia and register of important events of the year 18S4 (New 
York J, 737. 

Vol. IV, No. 2 j/^g nise of Sport 157 

meeting place, was opened in 1877. On the future site of the 
Auditorium hotel, Chicago had one in 1880 ; and A. G. Spalding 
opened another in the same city in 1884.^*^ There was a great 
Olympia rink in New York, on Fifty-third street, in 1885. At 
this time, according to one estimate, there was $20,000,000 of 
skating rink property in America,^' and the capacity of these 
was supplemented many fold by the new concrete sidewalks and 
the asphalt pavements that invited the small boy to ^4iitch 
behind '^ and risk his neck. A six-day skating race in New 
York in 1885 produced a record of 1,090 miles.^^ Women and 
girls adopted the pastime, while their elders ^^ viewed with 
alarm'' the demoralization of the growing generation. Box- 
wood, the material for skate wheels, in the preferable three-inch 
growth, rose from thirty-eight to one hundred and twenty dol- 
lars a ton under the demand of manufacturers, and far-off Per- 
sia and Turkey, where this wood grew, benefited by the craze.'^^ 
Nearly twenty years before skating thus literally carried its 
devotees off their feet, another epidemic had ^^ swept over our 
land," ^Hhe swiftest and most infectious" yet, croquet.^* To 
the rules and definitions of this game the Nation devoted a long 
article in 1866. In England three years later, writes Alfred 
Austin, it was ' ' in the heyday of its popularity. ' ' ^^ Like roller 
skating, its paraphernalia was simple and readily set up any- 
where, and as a courting game few have surpassed it. It pro- 
duced in time its experts who, in 1879, gathered in Chicago at 
*Hhe first national convention of croquet players ever held in 
this country,"^® to debate *^ loose" against ^Hight" methods 
and to formulate its laws. Such a useless gathering, regretted 
the Chicago Times, was a ** severe commentary upon our civili- 
zation;" but whether because of the prize tournament mallet 
offered by A. Gr. Spalding or because the game had merit of its 
own, croquet declined to disappear. At Norwich, Connecticut, 

^0 Spalding's manual of roller sTcating (1884), 78; Chicago Times, May 18, 1864, 
p. 7. 

T^FranTc Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper, April 18, 1885, p. 139. 

72 New YorTc Herald, March 8, 1885. 

73 Scientific American, March 28, 1885, p. 200. 

74 The Nation, August 9, 1866, p. 113. 

75 Alfred Austin, Autobiography of Alfred Austin, poet laureate, 1835-1910 
(London, 1911), 2: 1. 

76 Chicago Times, September 24, 1879, pp. 4, 8. 

158 Frederic L. Paxson m.v.h.e. 

the Xational croquet association built its tournament grounds, 
and here year after year a handful of persistent players re- 
duced the game to one of nice skill, similar to nothing less than 
bilhards.'" And everywhere croquet, like roller skates, became 
part of the education of the child. 

The wooden- wheeled, iron-tired '^ bone-shaker" bicycle of the 
civil war decade brought zest to life at yet another spot. Charles 
de Drais'^ had experimented with his ^'draisena" early in the 
century, and Pierre Lallement ^^ had built and ridden a bicycle 
in Paris in 1863. Thereafter where roads and nerve permitted 
the old high bicycle gained its advocates and, with velocipede 
and tricycle, tempted even an occasional girl to learn to ride. 
A clipping from a scrap book of 1869 celebrates the early sport- 
ing girl : 

But I am of the Yankee sort, 

A gutta-percha lady sport. 

Fair and tough, and fast and strong 

And hold to my paces all day long. . . 

Stir the dust and take the shoot, 

Pantalettes and gaiter-boot. 

Houp la ! houp la ! — needn 't try 

To find a lovelier wretch than I. 

As the seventies advanced the bicycle became a tool of delicate 
grace, with a fifty-one inch wheel weighing thirty pounds,^^ al- 
though the general public still found interest in articles telling 
how to pronounce the word.®^ Colonel A. A. Pope, of Hartford, 
imported several of the English machines in 1878 and then be- 
gan to build his own Columbia bicycles ;^^ and here and there 
enthusiasts began to organize clubs to ride together, and even 
held their race meets by 1879. Riding academies multiplied,^^ 
often using armories or skating rinks, and park commissioners 

77 E. S. Martin in The Nation, September 3, 1898, p. 862. 
7ft Wheelman, March, 1883, p. 460. 

79 Charles E, Pratt, "Pierre Lallement and his bicycle," in Outing and the 
wheelman, October, 1883, p. 4. 

so Scientific American, July 17, 1875, p. 39. 

81 Cincinnati Commercial, November 22, 1879. 

82 A. A. Pope, ''The wheel," in Wheelman, October, 1882, p. 69; an early Colum- 
bia advertisement, with cut, is in Christian union, February 12, 1879, p. 168. 

83 Nev) York Sun, January 2, 1880, p. 1, describes the opening of a new academy 
in the American ing(titute building. 

Vol. IV, No. 2 The Rise of Sport 159 

were exasperated by appeals to permit citizens astride their 
wheels to use the public drives. Horses started upon the long 
course of nervous education that the motor car has finished. 
And on May 31, 1880, there met at Newport delegates from 
twenty-nine bicycle clubs who there organized the League of 
American wheelmen and held their first parade.^* 

Bicycling is unique among the sports in the extent to which 
participation was on an individual basis and in the degree to 
which individuals joined in the national organization. The an- 
nual meets of the League of American wheelmen were of in- 
creasing interest for twenty years, both as sporting events with 
fast and furious racing, and as social gatherings to which mem- 
bers and their families went as for a sporting vacation. Wheel- 
ing, a monthly magazine, appeared as organ of the sport in 
1882, and still continues, with enlarged scope, as Outing. 
Thomas Stevens crossed the continent a-wheel in 1884,^^ and 
soon after made his memorable trip recorded in Around the 
world on a hicycle.^^ There were supposed to be thirty thou- 
sand bicycles in the United States in 1885 ^"^ and twelve thousand 
members of the league by 1889; and this while the old high 
wheel was the one most generally used. 

The safety bicycle — chain driven, with wheels of equal size — 
appeared in the catalogs of 1887, and with the pneumatic rub- 
ber tire ^^ that was soon devised, opened new worlds to be con- 
quered. By 1898 the league had over one hundred thousand 
paying members ^^ and women had taken their great step to- 
ward equal treatment by free participation with the men. Af- 
ter 1900 the league collapsed, but it had widened the effective 
radius of life, quickened sluggish blood for both sexes and all 
ages, and reawakened a love for out-of-doors that city dwellers 
had begun to lose. 

Contemporary with wheeling was lawn tennis, fit for both 

^'^New York Tribune, May 31, 1880; Frmik Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper, June 
19, 1880, p. 261. 

85 His itinerary, via Humboldt valley, Laramie City, and the old Platte trail is in 
Outing, May, 1887, p. 187. 

86 Before appearing in book form, his journal ran as serial in Outing, October, 
1885-June, 1888. 

^T Chicago Tribune, November 7, 1885, '* Wheeling as a sport." 

88 W. T. Farwell, ' ' The story of the tire, ' ' in Outing, January, 1913, p. 472. 

89 Outing, April, 1900, p. 95. 

160 Frederic L. Paxson m.v.h.e. 

sexes, ain"\vhere and at all ages, and invented at about the same 
time. In 1881 the United States lawn tennis association^^ was 
organized and held its first national tournament at Newport, 
under conditions resembling those which surrounded the Wim- 
bledon grounds of the All England lawn tennis club, then five 
years old. The game was first played in America not earlier 
than 1875,^^ but its conquest was sweeping and complete. On 
private lawns, in newly-organized clubs, on the commons by the 
countr}^ school house, even on the unused side of at least one 
bur^^ng ground, the nets were stretched and the game begun. 
By 1890 the women had a national championship tournament of 
their own°^ and in another decade an American girl invaded 
England and there held her own against all comers. Interna- 
tional matches were an annual feature of the game, and city, 
state, sectional, and national championships covered the country 
with their nets. Three hundred tournaments authorized ^^ for 
1916 by the United States lawn tennis association give a meas- 
ure for the most perfect of the participating sports. 

The love of outdoor sports, spreading each year into new 
regions and new classes worked on whatever materials it could 
find. Florida became a playground, opening its west coast to 
the rich in winter when the Plant system completed its line to 
Tampa in 1885.^* Theodore Eoosevelt, of an active family 
whose name is to be found in the initial lists of nearly every 
sport that I have seen, bought his ranch on the Little Missouri 
in the early eighties.®^ Here he rode the roundup and hunted 
outlaws, and less dangerous wild game, consciously building a 
frame to carry burdens. Here he saw the cow country in its 
final phase, and hence he went to write The winning of the west, 

90 Wright and Ditson 's Lawn tennis guide, 1897, p. 18 ; New York World, May 
22, 1881, p. 2. 

91 James Dwight, ''Lawn tennis in New England," in Outing, May, 1891, p. 157. 

92 Miss Ellen C. Roosevelt won the first national championship on the Philadelphia 
cricket club grounds at Wissahickon. According to Alice Barber Stephens, as well as 
the illustrator for styles, girls played tennis in 1891 in long skirts, long sleeves, high 
collars, and trimmed hats. Harper's bazaar, June 6, 1891, p. 443, July 18, 1891, pp. 
557, 559. 

93 Chicago Tribune, January 28, 1917, pt. 2, p. 1. 

94 With a connecting link in a steel steamer to run to Havana. Chicago Tribune, 
July 28, 1885; G. H. Smythe, Henry Bradley Plant (1898), 75. 

95 Theodore Eoosevelt, an autobiography, 94. 

Vol. IV, No. 2 The Rise of Sport 161 

In December, 1887, at a private dinner, he and his outdoor 
friends organized the Boone and Crockett club^^ for the study 
and conservation of big game, naming it for the great pathfind- 
ers for whom game was no luxury and hunting not a sport. The 
saving of the Yellowstone park ^^ was one of the early public ser- 
vices of this club, the founding of the New York zoological so- 
ciety was another. The love of open country for hunting, camp- 
ing, hiking, and the respect for common interests that all this 
entailed were not accidental products of our decade. They 
came directly from the swelling national interest. 

Not every American could take time to hunt big game, or 
watch it, or to commune with remote nature, but the opportu- 
nity for something out of doors was demanded and provided. 
The rise of the country club is a feature of the later eighties. 
The institutions that were competent to grow into the country 
club where the environment was right for evolution were al- 
ready provided. Here and there an older club could be made 
over. The old Staten Island cricket and baseball club built a 
new home with full outdoor equipment in 1886.®^ The Essex 
county hunt opened the Essex county country club in 1888.^® 
The New York athletic club, always partially out-of-doors, fin- 
ished its complete home and playground on Travers Island in 
the same year. A Boston country club, with grounyds near 
Brookline, emerged from a racing group in 1887. But the coun- 
try club that served as text for the most discussion was open- 
ed in 1886 on Pierre Lorillard's ancestral estate on Ramapo 
mountain under the control of the Tuxedo club.^^^ At Tuxedo 
was a resident suburban colony club, where members could build 
their own cottages and use a club house more elaborate than the 

96 George Bird Grinnell, Brief history of the Boone and Crockett club, with of- 
ficers, constitution, and list of members for the year 1910 (New York [1911?]), 3. 
QT Ibid., 10. 

98 E. day, ' ' Staten Island cricket and baseball club, ' ' in Outing, November, 
1887, p. 110 ; New York Times, July 5, 1886 ; New York Herald, July 6, 1886. 

99 At Hutton park on Orange mountain. New York Tribune, December 5, 1887, 
January 3, 1888; New York Sun, December 23, 1887; New York Herald, May 6, 
13, 1888, gives a description of country clubs near New York. 

100 B. L. E. Dana, ' * An original social experiment — Tuxedo, ' ' in Cosmopolitan, 
October, 1899, p. 547; J. N. Smith, "The Tuxedo club," in Munsey's, November, 
1891, p. 161; Harper's Weekly, December 18, 1886, p. 827; New York World, June 
2, 1886. 

162 Frederic L. Paxson m.v.h.e. 

old casino at Newport, and with ^'an aggressively English air^' 
that suggested the country life of a society that wealthy Amer- 
icans liked to imitate. It was socially exclusive and highly ex- 
pensive, and novel enough to furnish paragraphs for many 
years. It represented one of the three clear types toward which 
the country clubs tended to standardize for thirty years. 

''Fifteen years ago,'^ wrote Eobert Dunn in 1905, "country 
clubs seemed fads, were confined to the East, and associated 
with the somewhat un-American and unrelaxed atmosphere of 
what one hears called ' society, ^ " ^^i ^^^ ^^^j served a need too 
broad to be so circumscribed. Some were the country toys of 
city men, who hurried out of town when work was done, who 
often slept at the club house, and who were as nearly uncon- 
scious of the local world around the grounds as possible. Such 
was Travers Island for the New York athletic club. Others be- 
came the foci for suburban colonies. Like Tuxedo, and in sim- 
pler imitations of it, their members chose to live and rear their 
children within walking and driving distance of the playground ; 
and the ladies' club house and the junior annex became as im- 
portant as the club itself. Still others were acclimated in the 
countrj^ towns, used without pretense, recruited with little or 
no parade of society or exclusion, and became as true an organ 
of local life as the high school or the board of commerce. The 
community of 20,000 without a country club became an anomaly 
requiring explanation. 

The roots of country clubs sprang from the older games, and 
were strengthened by tennis and bicycling that widened their 
opportunity and their availability. But most of all they multi- 
plied from the impetus given by a new game that must be played 
over the open country if at all, the royal game of golf. 

The beginnings of the game of golf, with the leather ball^^^ 
stuffed with feathers, are doubtless based ''upon the desire of 
the Anglo-Saxon to arm himself with a stick and drive a small 
round body with it,''^^^ but they are lost in the antiquity that 
conceals, perhaps, the common parent of all games of ball. Old 
prints and casual references carry the game back for several 

• 101 ''The country club," in Outing, November, 1905, p. 165. 
102 ''The golf ball," in Harper's WeeJcly, April 8, 18, 89, p. 351. 
103 The Natifm, August 26, 1869, p. 168. 

Vol. IV, No. 2 j/^e nisf. of Sport 163 

centuries in England and Scotland/^* but Americans are not 
known to have played it in the United States before the later 
eighties. A writer in Harper's Weekly^ in 1891/^^ prophesied 
that it was likely to take foothold here, but had few facts of 
playing to produce. The nine hole course at Southampton, in 
the Shinnecock hills, was open to play in 1892,^^^ while Mr. H. C. 
Chatfield-Taylor remembers to have played a game over a prim- 
itive private course at Lake Forest in the same year.^^^ The 
attractions of the game distributed it from the cities out into 
the country, and middle age came into its own. The playing 
season of 1895 was memorable for the new courses over lumpy 
greens, and for the shoal of old clubs that added golf and new 
clubs that organized to play it. In Newport the casino acquired 
a healthy rival in the country club. Already, in 1894, five of 
the pioneer clubs had organized the United States golf asso- 
ciation,^^^ whose annual meetings and expanding membership 
brought the rules and players under firm control.^^® And the 
environs of the cities became embroidered with the turfs and 
costumes of the new adoption. 

It would be easy to overstate the significance and influence 
of single factors in the change that has altered the old American 
life beyond recovery or reconstruction, but not the change it- 
self. ^^The great development and wide diffusion and practice 
of athletic exercises among our people during the last quarter 
of a century (this diffusion taking place precisely among those 
classes where the need of it was greatest)," observed Colonel 
Eoosevelt in 1893, ^^has been a very distinct advantage to our 
national type. ' * ^^^ In proportion as inducement appeared for city 

104: Country life in America, May, 1902, p. 35; Andrew Lang discusses the history 
of the game in H. G. Hutchinson, Golf (Badminton library, 1902), 1. 

105 E. N. Lamont, ' ' The royal game of golf, ' ' September 12, 1891, p. 695. 

106 Harper's WeeTcly, August 27, 1892, p. 832; cf. Outing, September, 1894, ap- 
pendix, 173, October, 1894, appendix, 22, August 1898, p. 498. 

107 H. C. Ohatfield-Taylor, ' ' The development of golf in the west, ' ' in Outing, 
August, 1900, p. 531. 

108 The earliest American tournament was begun at St. Andrews, October 11, 
1894. New Yorlc Times, October 12, 1894; Outing, August, 1895, appendix, 11, 
February, 1897, p. 502. 

109 For the case of Francis Ouimet against the United States golf association, 
see Chicago Examiner, January 14, 1917. 

110 Theodore Eoosevelt, ''Value of an athletic training," in Harper's WeeMy, 
December 23, 1893, p. 1236. 

164 Frederic L. Paxson m.v.h.b. 

folk to go afield mecbanical devices speeded up tlieir going. One 
decade saw the opening of the Brooklyn bridge, and the begin- 
nings of the perennial fight for rapid transit; the next saw the 
electric trolley quicken the circulation on city streets and glad- 
den the hearts of promoters of suburban real estate additions; 
the third is memorable for the extended use of motor cars. 

Today there are a few of us who own no Ford, but all are 
rapidly forgetting the time two decades back when only experi- 
mental cars existed, when the debate between steam and gasoline 
was real, and when the horseless carriage was a carriage, not a 
car. In January, 1900, New York held its first American auto- 
mobile show, following the several years' precedent of the bi- 
cycle shows. And since that time the physical habits of society 
have undergone a revolution. Part of this change is chronicled 
and photographed in Country life in America, appearing first 
in 1901 ; more of it is still a part of our unrecorded recollection. 
The body of man has been freed from the restrictions of space 
and time; his soul has occupied new realms of nature and of 
play. No earlier president ^^^ than Colonel Eoosevelt would 
have denounced a tribe of *^ nature fakers,''"^ and no earlier 
generation w^ould have cared or even understood."^ Only the 
invention of a portable camera made it practicable for ordi- 
nary persons to see life as it really is."* 

111 Thomas Jefferson, indeed, while minister in France, had a costly private argu- 
ment with M. de Buffon over the characteristics of the moose. Jefferson to Eutledge, 
September 9, 1788, Writings of Thomas Jefferson (Monticello edition — Washington, 
1904), 7: 137. 

112 Edward B. Clark, "Eoosevelt on the nature fakirs," in Everyhody's magazine, 
June, 1907, p. 770. The immediate reply of W. J. Long is in Boston Evening Tran- 
script, May 23, 24, 1907 j he returned indirectly to the attack in ''The bull moose as 
a political totem,'' in Independent, July 11, 1912, p. 85. When Colonel Roose- 
velt walked through New Forest on June 9, 1910 with Sir Edward Grey, they iden- 
tified forty-one forest birds and heard the note of twenty-three. Theodore Boose- 
velt, an autobiography, 334. 

113 The struggles of Audubon to find subscribers for his Birds of America, and 
his final resort to a British publisher, give a measure for early American interest in 
natural science. Washington Irving to Martin Van Buren, October 19, 1836, in The 
life of John James Audubon, the naturalist, edited by his widow (New York, 1869), 

11* The followers of Daguerre made slow progress until, about 1878, the dry plate 
was perfected. Outing, December, 1889, p. 220. Immediately experimenters began 
to work towards series-photography and moving pictures. Sa/n Frandsco Chronicle 
in Cincinnati Commercial, August 21, 1879. Nine years later the Eastman company 


Vol. IV, No. 2 xhe Rise of Sport 165 

Such are the partial facts to illustrate the major currents in 
the rise of sport. They might be enlarged to include the college 
games, and football with its ups and downs. They might em- 
brace the timely subject of marksmanship, and relate the facts 
about the Creedmoor range and the local and international 
matches of the National rifle association, which opened there in 
1873.''^ They might tell of the coaching revival that paraded 
down Fifth avenue for the first time in 1876;^^® or of Bennett's 
introduction of polo"^ in the same year. They might mention 
the National archery association that tried to revive the Anglo- 
Saxon affection for the long bow, and that opened its series of 
national tournaments in Chicago, at the White Stockings park, 
before ** quite a large and certainly a very select audience'' in 
1879.^^® They might recall the gathering of campers who had 
learned the charms of the Indian canoe, and formed the Ameri- 
can canoe association at Lake George in 1880,^^^ and continued 
for years, in camping meets, to profit by and popularize all 
water sports. 

brought out its roll-film cameras and began to advertise "You press the button, we 
do the rest." Harper's WeeJcly, July 20, 1889, p. 583; Harper's bazaar, May 23, 
1891, p. 407; Encyclopaedia Britannica (eleventh edition), 21: 503. A photogra- 
phers' association of America completed its organization and held its first national 
convention in Chicago in 1880. Chicago Tribune, August 24-27, 1880. Portraits of 
living game were shown at the fourth annual sportsmen's show. Harper's Weekly, 
January 22, 1898, p. 101. And a little later A. E. Dugmore could describe ''A 
revolution in nature pictures," in World's work, November, 1900, p. 83. 

115 "The American Wimbledon," New York Tribune, June 23, 1873. General 
Greorge W. Wingate, captain of the first international team, participated in the 
formation of a gigantic public schools athletic league in 1903. Outing, September, 
1901, p. 616, May, 1908, p. 166. Luther H. Gulick, famous in Y. M. C. A. activities, 
and associate of General Wingate, became president in 1906 of the new Playground 
association of America, with Colonel Eoosevelt and Jacob A. Riis as honorary offi- 
cials. Playground, April, 1907, p. 7. 

116 Colonel De Lancay Lane expected to start his daily coach to Pelham Bridge on 
May 1, 1876. New York Herald, March 18, 1876. 

117 His Westchester polo club built a house at Jerome Park, and played inside the 
track. "Polo in America," in Wildwood's magazine, November, 1888, p. 10; Frank 
Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper, June 24, 1876, p. 261; New York Herald, May 12, 
June 2, 1876. 

'^'^^ Chicago Tribune, August 14, 1879; Maurice Thompson, "Bow-shooting," in 
Scribner's magazine, July, 1877, p. 273. 

ii9JVei/; York Herald, August 5, 1880. Judge Nicholas Longworth, of Cincin- 
nati, first vice-commodore, offered a tournament cup to the Western canoe associa- 
tion a few years later. Western canoe association, Seventh annual yearbook (1891), 

166 Frederic L, Paxson m.v.h.e. 

They might from a different angle reeord the interests of 
collectors and owners that turned the successive buildings at 
Madison Square Grarden into the custody of sporting shows and 
gave to St. Gaudens's gold Diana on the tower a real signifi- 
cance as goddess of the newer chase. In 1895 a series of an- 
nual sportsmen's expositions was begun, to amuse the crowds 
and display the dealers' wares.^^^ Already other shows had 
prepared the way for this. Greatest of all was the horse show, 
that began in 1883 to aid in defining classes and improving 
breeds of horses, and that took at least a decade to teach exhibi- 
tors and judges genuine types.^^^ There had been a dog show 
— first of a long series — by the Westminster kennel club in 
-j^gyy 122 Q^ whose benches the uninspiring pug gave way to the 
terriers and collies ^^^ of later preference, and in whose cham- 
bers exhibitors debated the merits of ^'bat" and ^^ rose-bud'' 
ears.^^* A poultry show appeared in these same precincts in 
1887,^^^ with a toy dog show in an annex ; ^^^ and a cat show in 
the spring of 1895 was ^^an epoch in the history of the cat in 
America. ' ' ^^^ 

There can be no question as to there having been this rise of 

120 George Bird GrinneU, editor of Forest and stream, and an active member of 
the Boone and Crockett club, was connected with the management of the first ex- 
position, May 13-18, 1895. New YorTc Times, December 16, 1894, p. 20. Subse- 
quent expositions became, to a great extent, dealers' sporting goods exhibits. Har- 
per's WeeJcly, January 29, 1898, p. 100; March 18, 1899, p. 276. 

121 TopeJca Commonwealth, October 23, 1883 ; New Yorl; Sun, October 23, 1883. 
Alexander J. Cassatt, later president of the Pennsylvania railroad, but now gentle- 
man-farmer at Haverford, exhibited one of the first hackneys seen in America, a 
"general purpose" type whose period lies between the rise of the modern macadam 
road and the advent of the automobile. Harper's Weekly, April 9, 1892, p. 348; 
World's work, July, 1901, p. 973; Country life in America, December, 1901, p. 41. 

122 The first dog show opened Tuesday, May 8, 1877, at the Hippodrome with some 
1,300 dogs on exhibition. New York Times, May 8, 1877; Frank Leslie's Illustrated 
Newspaper, May 26, 1877, p. 203. In later years Madison Square Garden was util- 

123 J. p. Morgan 's collies, American-bred at his Oragston kennels, won the honors 
of 1894. Harper's Weekly, March 3, 1894, p. 215. 

124 The introduction of the French bull-dog about 1897 raised the debate over the 
shape to which the ears should conform. Harper's Weekly, February 26, 1898, p. 

^2^>Nev) YorTc Tribune, December 15, 22, 1887. 

1 20 The American toy dog club was organized to conduct this show. New York 
Tribune, November 17, 1887, p. 5; New York Herald, May 26, 1888, p. 3. 

127 Harper's bazaar, May 11, 1895, p. 380; New York World, May 12, 1895. 

Vol. IV, No. 2 xhe Rise of Sport 167 

sport. It obtrudes from the sources of the eighties, and had 
created in the daily press the clean-cut sporting page before 
1890, giving sharp contrast to the papers of the seventies where 
sport was only general news, and thin at that. In nearly every 
game we play today there is evidence that between 1876 and 
1893 playing expanded on a widening scale, and organization 
made its government quasi-national. A new generation ap- 
peared taking all this for granted, and living the rounded life 
unconscious of a change. 

It was the open frontier that kept America young during its 
first century of national existence. Year after year the con- 
tinuous pressure from the newer states, noisy, ill-informed, but 
irrepressible, had driven congress and the nation along the path 
of liberalism. The free ballot, the public school, the state uni- 
versity had kept America the land of opportunity ; and however 
men despaired in their public utterances, their inner souls were 
conscious of this spark of youth and life. When the frontier 
closed in the eighties the habit of an open life was too strong 
to be changed offhand. The search for sport revealed a partial 
substitute for pioneer life. City congestion stimulated the 
need at this immediate moment, but without the cities the transi- 
tion must any way have occurred. Baseball was already adopt- 
ed in the small towns ; the country club has produced its most 
numerous and typical examples away from the large cities and 
even in the remoter west whence the frontier has barely disap- 

But the causes of the rise of sport, whether in the needs of 
city life, or in the automatic adaptation of a society whose old 
safety-valve, free land, was closing down, or in the aptitudes 
of a community inured to frontier conditions and now deprived 
of them, are of slighter consequence than its results upon Amer- 
ica. No one can probe national character, personal conduct, 
public opinion of today without bringing out their difference 
from that which formerly prevailed. The hysteria of the 
period of the Spanish war and of Cleveland's Venezuela episode 
has sobered into better deliberation and balance, far enough 
from the ideal, but notably of higher tone. The moral indiffer- 
ence to methods of achievement, bred somewhat in our own 

168 Frederic L, Paxson m.v.h.k. 

great war and dominant when men smiled at the cipher despatch- 
es or the star ronte frauds; or printed in their advertising 
pages the Ij^ng romances of quack doctors and patent medicines, 
is giving way to a real concern for honest methods; and those 
who would not of themselves reform are being squeezed by 
sheer force of public disapproval into a reluctant degree of 
compliance with the rules. Personal behavior, too has changed. 
A cleaner living and a lessened indulgence in strong drink come 
with the sharpened intellect and the acuter soul. We know that 
we shall live to see a dry America, and one of equal rights for 
all. And who shall say that when our women took up tennis 
and the bicycle they did not as well make the great stride to- 
wards real emancipation; or that the quickened pulse, the 
healthy glow, the honest self-respect of honest sport have not 
served in part to steady and inspire a new Americanism for a 
new century? 

Fkederic L. Paxson 
University of Wisconsin 





The upper Mississippi river lead and zinc mining region (fig- 
ure 1) in the driftless area is a small geographic unit with a 
variety of internal and external relations, and therefore the 


Stephenson! «^ 
Carroll 1 "^'® 

Figure 1. Map showing the position of Jo Daviess county in the lead 
and zinc district of the upper Mississippi river 

region has afforded the setting for several eras of life develop- 
ment. It is the purpose of this paper briefly to sketch the en- 
vironment and the life of these eras as being mutually interde- 

1 The above article, which is published by permission of the Illinois state geolog- 
ical survey, is based in part upon six weeks of field work in the region discussed 
and upon a master 's thesis : ' ' Settlement and development of Jo Daviess county, ' ' 

170 B. H, SchocJcel m.v.h.r. 

pendent and to emphasize some of the geographical influences 
which have affected the history of the region. The story will be 
confined largely to Jo Daviess county, Illinois, since this district 
has been studied in detail as being typical of the region as a 

Scarcely anything in detail is known concerning the life in 
the region before the coming of man, and little during the era 
of Indian supremacy. Later, in the beginning of the nineteenth 
century, the lead mineral attracted the whites from great dis- 
tances, thus initiating the present era which has had three peri- 
ods of development. The result was an early settlement of the 
region by a heterogeneous population, whose first interest was 
mining. During this mining period, intercourse was chiefly with 
the south because the country was located on the Mississippi 
river; hence its early population and institutions show a strong 
southern influence. But after 1832 the Hudson river, the Erie 
canal, and the great lakes directed eastern and New England 
emigrant farmers into the region, and it passed into its mining- 
farming period. The inrush of farmers was followed by a grad- 
ual and substantial development in agriculture. The immigrants 
impressed upon the region eastern and New England institutions, 
which were modified, however, by the new conditions. After 
1845 the lead-mining activities of the region began to decline. 
This decline brought about the farming-mining period, which has 

written by the author for the university of Chicago, 1913. In addition the follow- 
ing sources have been used: Niles' Weekly Eegister; Merchants' magaslne and 
commercial review; DeBow's review; Galena GaBette, Galena Advertiser, Miners' 
Journal; Chicago Daily Journal; United States geological survey, Publications; Il- 
linois state geological survey, Publications; United States Census reports; State 
historical society of Wisconsin, Collections; Wisconsin academy of sciences, arts and 
letters. Transactions; George W. Hawes, Illinois state gazetteer and business direc- 
tory for 1858 and 1859 (Cliicago, 1858) ; John M. Peck, Gazetteer of Illinois (Jack- 
sonville, 111., 1834); [Samuel A. Mitchell], Illinois in 1837 (Philadelphia, 1837); 
History of Jo Daviess county, Illinois (Chicago, 1878) ; William J. Johnston, 
Sketches of the history of Stephenson county, III., and incidents connected with the 
early settlement of the northwest (Freeport, 111., 1854) ; Sidney Breese, The early 
history of Illinois, from its discovery by the French, in 1673, until its cession to 
Great Britain in 1763 (Chicago, 1884) ; Alexander Davidson and Bernard Stuve, 
Complete history of Illinois from 1673 to 1884 (Springfield, 111., 1884); William V. 
Pooley, The settlement of Illinois from 1830 to 1850 (Madison, Wis., 1908) ; Harlan 
H. Barrows, Geography of the middle Illinois valley (Urbana, 111., 1910); Donald 
McLeod, History of Wisconsin from its first discovery to the present period (Buffalo, 
1846); Augustus L. Chetlain, Recollections of seventy years (Galena, 111., 1899). 


Vol. IV, No. 2 j/^g 2iea(^ at^(^ Zmc Mining Region 171 

continued to the present. The opening of the great lakes and 
Erie canal routes in the thirties and the advent of the railroad 
into the county in the fifties caused the Mississippi river traffic 
of the region to decline, and thereafter intercourse was chiefly 
with the east. Then followed, as a result, a few decades in 
which the population increased. But since 1880 the county has 
suffered a slow decrease in numbers, largely owing to a further 
decline in its lead mining, to the rugged topography of the drift- 
less area, and to the increasing competition of newer and better 
agricultural regions. Now, the county is seeking a new adjust- 
ment in American life, and this adjustment promises to be more 
permanent than the preceding ones. The future economic de- 
velopment of the region depends chiefly on its agricultural re- 
sources, and subordinately upon the development of its zinc 

Although excavations in ancient mounds found in the county 
south of the Galena river on the bluffs of the Mississippi have 
brought to light evidences of a prehistoric race, possibly the 
mound builders, little can be said about their life and culture, 
and it is necessary to pass at once to the Indian era. 

Although the history of the Indians in the region is shadowy, 
it lends support to the theory that the Mississippi valley was too 
open to migrations of the tribes to favor the development of a 
high type of civilization. The vulnerable nature of the area is 
shown by the succession of contending human forces that have 
swept across the stage with almost kaleidoscopic effect. The 
French found easy access into the upper Mississippi by w^ay of 
the great lakes and the rivers. They found that the county was 
a part of the land of the Illinois Indians, whose domain extended 
roughly from the Fox to the Mississippi rivers in southern Wis- 
consin and northern Illinois. These Indians were a tribe of the 
Algonquian family, whose territory, under an incoherent sway, 
extended from the east shore of Newfoundland to the Rocky 
mountains and from Churchill river to Pamlico sound, except 
that in the eastern part of this area, along the Mohawk river, 
there was a region occupied by the Iroquoian tribes. Presently 
the latter, issuing from their base, which was physically a strate- 
gic one, drove the Algonkins from Ohio and Indiana, w^here the 
open nature of the land afforded little means of defense, and 

172 B.E.SclwcUl M.V.H.E. 

pursued them westward, until, protected in the rear by the Mis- 
sissippi river a^id aided by the French, on their left flank, the 
Algonkins held firm. In this general withdrawal the Fox and 
the Sauk Algonquian tribes deserted their old forested home, 
which was probably located about Saginaw bay, and established 
themselves in the region about the Fox river and lake Winne- 
bago. There presently they obtained control of the important 
Fox- Wisconsin portage trade route by means of forts, which 
were advantageously located on escarpments caused by outcrops 
of Niagara limestone over Hudson river shale. 

In their newly occupied territory the Foxes, by exacting tolls 
from Indian and French traders, and by other objectionable 
acts, incurred new hostility. Finally, they and their Sauk allies 
were severely defeated by their enemies on the north and east, 
and both tribes retreated westward, retiring into the domains of 
the Illinois. Presently they encountered and defeated the Illi- 
nois, and occupied a large part of their land, including what is 
now Jo Daviess county. The Illinois had also suffered from the 
Sioux and other tribes to the north of them. Following the 
ejection of the Illinois, the Fox and Sauk shared with the French 
in ruling over the lead and zinc mining region. Presently, in 
the struggle between France and England for dominion in Amer- 
ica, the British won the region from the French, only to lose it 
in turn to the colonies in the revolutionary war. Not until the 
war of 1812, however, were the British definitely driven out by 
the Americans. In 1804 a band of the Sauk, without consulting 
their allies, ceded a portion of the mineral lands to the United 
States government. As a result of the friction which arose 
from this transaction, some of the Sauk and Foxes moved west- 
ward. Then part of the Winnebago, from near Green bay, 
squatted on the mineral lands. Later American aggression in 
the region resulted in the Winnebago war of 1827 and the Black 
Hawk war of 1832, which forced all the Indians in the region to 
retire west of the Mississippi. From this summary of race 
movements it is clear that the area was greatly influenced by its 
central position and lack of natural protective boundaries. 

Jo Daviess county, in the Indian era, lay in the southern 
part of the driftless area, but its eastern margin had a fringe of 

Vol. IV, No. 2 xhe Lead and Zinc Mining Region 173 

glacial drift. The rocks were sedimentary and dipped generally 
and gently to the southwest, in which general direction also the 
surface sloped gradually. Loosely speaking, Galena limestone 
was the dominant outcropping rock in the northern part, Ma- 
quoketa shale in the middle, and Niagara limestone in the south. 
Stratigraphically the Maquoketa shale lay between the other 
formations and was ahove the Galena limestone. 

The topography was that of a maturely-dissected upland plain, 
probably a southern extension of the Lancaster peneplain of 
Wisconsin, but possibly a structural plain composed of the sur- 
face of the resistant Galena limestone and overlain in part by 
remnants of shale. Above this plain, a series of flat-topped and 
steep-sided mounds and ridges known as the Niagara escarp- 
ment rose 60 to 200 feet, and below this plain stream valleys had 
been cut to a depth of 60 to 225 feet, with flood plains 500 to 
1500 feet wide. The relief of almost every square mile was 100 
feet. The northern part of the plain was young. 

The soil on the Niagara limestone mounds was residual, thin, 
and cherty ; that on the Galena limestone surfaces, less thin and 
less cherty; and that on the limestone escarpments, very thin. 
The slopes of the Maquoketa shale, being gentle, had the thickest 
residual soil of the region. The flood plains enjoyed a fertile, 
alluvial loam. Near the Mississippi front the soil was sandy 
and wind-blown. 

The climatic environment is summarized briefly. The mean 
temperature for the winter was 21 degrees Fahrenheit; for 
spring, 48; for summer, 72; for autumn, 51; for the year, 48. 
The maximum range of temperature was likely to be from 106 
degrees to minus 32 degrees. The mean precipitation for the 
winter was 4.5 inches ; for the spring, 9.5 ; for summer, 12.3 ; for 
autumn, 8.7 ; for the year, 35.0. The average number of inches 
of snow for the winter was 27.1 ; for spring, 9.3 ; for summer, ; 
for autumn, 2.7 ; for the year, 39.1. Not more than 12 inches of 
snow were likely to fall within twenty-four hours. The average 
relative humidity for winter was 80.5 per cent ; for spring, 71.5 ; 
for summer, 71 ; for autumn, 75.5 ; for the year, 75. During the 
winter 53 per cent of the total amount of sunshine possible in 
the latitude of the county was received; in spring, 57; in sum- 
mer, ^Q ; in autumn, 55 ; throughout the year, 55. The direction 

174 B.H.Schockel m.v.h.e. 

of the prevailing wind was northwest. It was frequently inter- 
rupted by cyclonic storms. 

The drainage was adequate and dendritic. In general, the 
stream valleys were in a stage of youth (narrow and deep), or 
maturity (broader). Springs were plentiful at the contact of 
the impervious Maquoketa shale below the porous Galena 
limestone ; and in general there was a plentiful supply of water 
except on the top of the Niagara escarpments. The Mississippi 
river and the Galena river, together with its larger tributaries, 
were navigable for the Indian canoe. 

The natural resources available to the Indians were somewhat 
varied. Lead occurred near the top of the Galena limestone, 
and zinc 240 feet below, near the base of the formation. Since 
the rock dips to the southwest, the zinc was therefore exposed 
at or near the surface in the northern part of the mining area, 
and the lead in much the same way in the northern part of the 
county. But the lead was overlaid by a varying amount of 
eroded Maquoketa shale in the middle portions of the county 
(except where exposed by stream erosion), and by the Niagara 
mounds as well in the south. Traces of silver occurred with the 
lead. Early descriptions of the flora of the region speak of 
abundant plant life. A hardwood forest, covering from one- 
tenth to one-fifth of the area, was located chiefly on the mounds, 
the steep slopes, and along stream courses. The rest of the 
area was chiefly in ^^oak openings'' and more extensive prairie 
tracts. According to early descriptions, from one-third to one- 
half of the land was fit for some sort of agriculture. Early 
writers speak of a fair abundance of fish, but omit much detail 
concerning the animal life of the country. 

Amidst such scenes lived the Indians. Their numbers and 
distribution cannot be stated accurately. The population of all 
the Illinois was estimated in 1750 to be between 1,500 and 2,000. 
But by 1775 they had been almost exterminated. In 1650 the 
Foxes were thought to total about 3,000 ; but by 1805 they were 
reduced to about 1,200. The Sauk were somewhat more nu- 
merous. The Winnebago were reported to number 1,800 in 
1750. Some idea of the distribution of the Indians of the region 
can be obtained from figure 3. In general the Fox tribe occu- 

Vol. IV, No. 2 j/jg 2^g^^ ^^^ ^^^^ Mining Region 175 

pied the Rock river area. It has been stated for Wisconsin that 
^^considerations of food supply, means of transportation, and of 
defense in time of war, caused the principal Indian villages to 
be located at such key points as portages, the mouths of rivers, 
and on important lakes and bays." 

The material culture of the Sauk, Foxes, and Winnebago has 
been described as being typical of the woodlands, with some in- 
trusive features from the plains. Probably this fusion was a 
result of their change in abode from the wooded region about 
the great lakes to the semi-prairie lands of the mineral country. 
In summer they lived in permanent villages, and cared for their 
crops; in winter they lived a semi-nomadic life, hunting wild 

The presence of lead was long known to them and it is esti- 
mated that they did some mining a century before the arrival of 
the Europeans. But there is little evidence concerning their 
use of it, until the introduction of firearms by the French. The 
latter learned of the deposits probably as early as 1658. The 
position of the lead near the surface of the ground and near the 
top of the Galena limestone made shallow mining possible over 
large areasj and thus permitted Indian operations. The ab- 
origines skimmed only the surface as a rule, loading the ore at 
the bottom of the inclined shafts into deerskin bags and hoisting 
or dragging it to the surface by means of thongs of hide. The 
lower work was performed almost entirely by old men and 
squaws. With the coming of the French, the new use of the 
mineral by the savages in warfare and hunting, both for bullets 
and as currency, gave the lead an increased value to the Indians. 
Moreover, the whites taught them less crude methods of mining, 
and bought mineral of them. Under the direction of the Euro- 
peans, therefore, mining by the Indians developed more rapidly ; 
in 1810, for example, they produced 400,000 pounds of lead. In 
the war of 1812 they aided the British by mining lead for them. 
There is even an official statement of 1811 to the eifect that the 
Foxes, Sauk, and Iowa of the mining region had largely aban- 
doned the chase in favor of mining. But in the aggregate, the 
production of lead by the Indians always remained small. It 
should be kept in mind, however, that although the Indians made 
but small use of the mineral quantitatively, its presence was 

176 B.H.Schockel - m.v.h.k. 

fatally important to them in that it hastened their expulsion 
from their land by the covetous whites. 

Prior to the coming of the whites, hunting and fishing were 
the chief economic activities of the Indians, especially the Sauk 
and Foxes, who came from the woodlands of the east. They 
must be credited with having made considerable use of the soil, 
however, for agriculture was followed actively and was second 
only to the chase. In 1634 Nicolet found the Indians in Wis- 
consin cultivating large fields. The Sauk and Foxes had large 
farms along the Wisconsin, especially in the fertile Sauk prairie 
(Prairie du Sac), while the Winnebago tilled the land along the 
Fox river and lake Winnebago, cultivating some 3,000 acres, for 
example, near one village of 500 inhabitants. Later, these tribes 
cultivated some of the land within Jo Daviess county. The 
chief crops consisted of com, tobacco, melons, pumpkins, beans, 
and squashes; wild rice was also important, and wild fruit. 
Horses and cattle were unknown; but the buffalo was a source 
of food. 

Manufacturing by the Indians was of the home type. Wliile 
in the eastern wooded area, they had used canoes and dugouts, 
but they learned to make the bull-boat on coming out upon the 
plains. They made their own clothing, tools, and arms. But 
they soon learned to get many of these things, including mining 
equipment, from the whites. In 1815 there were twenty Indian 
furnaces near Galena. 

Their commerce was extensive, because of the network of 
waterways available, but not bulky, because they had nothing 
but man power for transportation. Their trade consisted chiefly 
of furs, lead, and tribal specialties. The chief routes were the 
Mississippi, the Fox- Wisconsin waterway, and the great lakes. 
Well-known rendezvous were Prairie du Chien, Mackinac, and 
Green Bay. Early in the eighteenth century lead became a reg- 
ular article of commerce between the Indians and the French 
and Canadian trappers and traders. A peck of ore was worth 
a peck of corn in Indian trade. Presently Galena became the 
permanent trading post within the region, since it was located 
near the head of the navigation of the Galena (Fever) river, the 
principal tributary to the Mississippi from the mining region. 
The earliest route of export for the lead was northeast to Mont- 

Vol. IV, No. 2 2^/16 Lead and Zinc Mining Region 


real and Quebec, so long as the French controlled the region. 
After the French and Indian war, the product was shipped down 
the Mississippi. 

In the interaction between the Indians and their environment, 
it is to be noted that the savages affected their surroundings 
but little ; they took meager toll, and they gave little in return. 

Figure 2. Graph showing the comparative growth in population of Ga- 
lena, Jo Daviess county, and Stephenson county. 

With the advent of the whites there came pronounced changes 
in the life scenes of the region and their physical setting. The 
new culture displaced the older, and modified the bio-geography 
and physiography of the region, as well as itself being modified 
by all three. On the basis of the use made of the natural re- 
sources there have been three periods in the era of development 
of the region by the whites. While the lead was essentially the 
sole resource being exploited, there was a period of typical min- 
ing life (1800-1832). Presently, agricultural and other resources 
were tapped; although the lure of the mineral wealth remained 
dominant, agricultural and manufacturing activities began to 
compete with the purely mining interests. This stage consti- 
tuted the mining-farming period (1832-1850). Finally, the agri- 
cultural resources became the most valuable, so that the county 
came to be a region of farmers, with a sprinkling of miners, 
manufacturers, and others. Thus began the farming-mining 
period, which has continued to the present time. 

ITS B.E.Schochel m.v.h.e. 

The minerals were the natural resource which first attracted 
the whites to the region. A Frenchman, Nicholas Perrot, was 
probably the first white man actually to see the lead mines about 
Galena, in 1690, and he may be considered as their European 
discoverer. During the next fifty years a number of French ex- 
peditions were sent into the area to explore for precious metals, 
rumored to be abundant along the Mississippi river; but none 
were found. Hence the European commercial world lost inter- 
est in these attempts, and in the region. One prospector, how- 
ever, presently attained success, namely Julien Dubuque, a 
French-Canadian, who somehow maintained friendly relations 
with the Indians and mined profitably in the lead mines of the 
neighboring Iowa district about the site of present-day Dubuque. 
But after Julien Dubuque 's death in 1810 the Indians obliterated 
all marks of his operations. On the whole, little mining was 
done in the region by either the French or the English. 

Both the French-Canadians and the Indians were hostile to 
the early American prospectors: the French because they de- 
sired to maintain the monopoly of the lead trade, and the In- 
dians because the Americans were aggressive and threatened to 
dispossess them of the region. But geographic conditions fa- 
vored the Americans, for the Mississippi route, used by the 
Americans, was more direct than the French-Canadian route by 
way of the great lakes, and the Americans were the more nu- 
merous. Following the government purchase of part of the 
Galena mining region in 1804, many prospectors came to the dis- 
trict. The close of the exploring epoch and the beginning of 
active, systematic mining on a large scale was marked by the ar- 
rival of Colonel James Johnson early in 1823, who came with 
soldiers, supplies, competent miners, and 150 slaves. 

The mining period had now been launched, and in a few years 
^'this sequestered spot literally swarmed with (10,000) miners, 
smelters, merchants, speculators, and gamblers of every descrip- 
tion.'' They came from all over the United States, especially 
from the south, and from Europe. The growth in population 
of Jo Daviess county (established in 1827) is shown in figure 2; 
the distribution of the early settlers is shown in figure 3. 

The new inhabitants made greater use than had their prede- 
cessors of the natural resources, especially of the lead. Figure 

Vol. IV, No. 2 xhe Lead and Zinc Mining Region 




t futnacej or Jmel/ing -p 
Zead Ore 

Figure 3. Map of the United States lead mines on the upper Mississippi 
river, 1829, based upon a map in State historical society of Wisconsin, 
Collections, 11 : 400. 

4 gives the output of the lead in the whole mining region, of 
which area by far the most productive part was the district be- 
tween Dubuque, Galena, and Schullsburg. At times as much, as 
nine-tenths of the lead mined in Illinois came from an area en- 
closed in a circle having a radius of four miles, with its center 
a littl-e northeast of Galena. The value of the lead taken from 


B. H. Schockel 


the mines of the upper Mississippi between 1821 and 1865 was 
estimated at $40,000. Since the mineral was near the sur- 
face, sinking the shallow shafts was ''as simple a process as the 
method of digging wells,'' and therefore mining was carried on 
by individuals rather than by companies. The miners drew 
heavily upon the timber to aid their operations. They also en- 

Lead produced by the ni'mes 
of the upper Mississippi 
in Ynillions of pounds. 

U.S. lead production in 
thousands of tons. 



Fi^re 4. Graph showing the comparative production of lead in the 
United States and in the upper Mississippi district. The broken Hne 
indicates uncertain data. 

Vol. IV, No. 2 xhe Lead and Zinc Mining Region 181 

couraged farmers to settle in the region to ensure a sufficient 
food supply, but in this they were at first only partly successful. 
Smelting was the only important industrial occupation. 

The possession of mineral wealth made the securing of trans- 
portation especially important for the Galena district. The ore 
was taken to the smelting centers, and the lead hauled to Galena 
over steep, winding roads to be exported. Efforts to reach the 
outside world overland began in 1825, when Kellog made his 
trail from Peoria to Galena. Presently wagon roads were also 
opened to Chicago and Milwaukee. But owing to the high cost 
of land transportation, and the advantages of the Galena- 
Mississippi waterway, these land routes were far inferior 
to the Galena and Mississippi rivers. Therefore the region 
faced south commercially. The first steamboat came to Galena 
in 1822, and regular steamboat traffic was established in 1827. 

Lead was the chief commodity of export, and food and manu- 
factured goods constituted the leading imports. The natural 
advantages which had made Galena an important Indian trading 
post now caused it to become the emporium of the region. 

During this period the environment was fully as important in 
affecting the life of the region as in Indian days. For example, 
the number and movements of the heterogeneous, adventurous, 
mining population fluctuated with the varying successes in the 
< < diggings. ' ' Led on by his passion, the hopeful miner, digging 
in his dark, crooked hole, was always sure that ^^he was nearing 
it now/' that the *4ucky day'' was not far off. The seasons 
also had a direct effect in that during the winter the population 
of Galena was increased considerably by restless, unemployed 
rivermen who engaged in steamboating during the summer. 
Another influence was the nature of the topography of the site 
of Galena. The foot of the town was located on an alluvial ter- 
race, the rest along the bluffs of the caverned Galena limestone. 
As a result, the streets were in contour, and the shifting inhab- 
itants were crowded into narrow quarters. Therefore many of 
them lived in clefts and caves in the rock. Again, since nearly 
all the imports had to come up the river from St. Louis, house- 
hold and personal effects were reduced to those of the most es- 
sential nature. The isolation of the region rendered federal 
authority weak ; hence social and political relations were primi- 
tive, gambling was common, and the ^^aw of honor" prevailed. 

182 B. H. Schockel m.v.h.k. 

But locally organized justice, though rude, was quick, so that 
claim jumping was infrequent and unruly characters were often 
expelled roughly from the town. It is further important to note 
that the settlers were isolated among the Indians, and conse- 
quently were in constant danger of sudden attack. Its excep- 
tional resources gave the region at times international impor- 
tance, and hestow^ed upon it for a considerable period great local 
importance in the west; its exceptional opportunities attracted 
many desirable men: bankers, merchants, politicians, and law- 
yers ; but they also invited adventurers from far and near. Three 
incidents are chosen to illustrate the heterogeneity of the popu- 
lation. In 1829, a minister, Erastus Kent, asked to be sent to a 
place ^ ^ so hard that no one would take it, ' ' and was sent to Ga- 
lena. Yet in this frontier district, Greek and Latin were being 
taught in Gratiot's Grove; and the wife of Alexander Hamilton 
came to visit her son, a common miner who like the rest was 
wont, in the spring months, to wade knee deep in mud on the 
clay streets of Galena. As has already been suggested, how- 
ever, the predominant characteristics of the institutions and of 
the people were southern, as might be expected in view of the 
fact that the economic relations of the region were chiefly with 
the south. 

The white inhabitants influenced their environment more than 
the savages did. For example, they greatly changed the bio- 
geography by reducing the forests, by exploiting the fish and 

Fiffura 5. Sketch of a scene in early days of Jo Daviess county: lead- 
bearing rocks and furnace near Galena. 

Vol. IV, No. 2 j<}iQ Lead and Zinc Mining Region 183 

game, and by introducing domestic animals and plants. Their 
numerous shallow diggings affected appreciably the topography 
and the drainage of the land. Furthermore, their own presence, 
as a group, constituted an important new factor in the environ- 
ment of the region. 

But a change presently took place in the life of the region, for 
farmers came in large numbers to settle and possess the land. 
A quarter of a century was to pass, however, before they could 
dominate the region. As early as 1828, farmers were daily 
settling in the vicinity of Galena, and before the Black Hawk 
war a few people had settled in secluded ravines along the 
Chicago-Galena route. After the close of this war, which adver- 
tised the region and resulted in the removal of the Indians, the 
immigration of the farmers assumed large proportions. The 
magnitude and rate of the inflow is suggested by figure 2. Be- 
tween 1830 and 1860, except during a lull brought about by the 
panic of 1837, farmers came pouring in ; for instance, in the year 
1839, they paid from $300,000 to $400,000 in ''proving up'' their 
preemption rights. The majority of the newcomers were not 
from the south, as had been the early miners, but came rather 
from the middle and eastern states, especially from New Eng- 
land and New York. 

Even though the mineral products continued to outvalue all 
others during this period, our interest now shifts to agriculture, 
since it was destined to dominate the region eventually, and since 
it marked the advent of a closer relation between life and en- 
vironment than in the case of the mining industry, which was 
merely extractive. During this time a description of the coun- 
try states that the western and northwestern townships were 
''generally timbered, hilly, rocky, and even bluffy;" that the 
eastern and northeastern ones were "generally prairie with 
rich, warm, deep soil,'' though towards the center and south 
there was undulating country with scrubby timber ; that the cen- 
tral townships were "generally uneven and partly timbered;" 
and that the southern tier was "uneven with some prairies." 
In 1850 (near the close of the period) some 198,150 acres within 
the county, out of a total area of 398,720 acres, were classed as 
farm land. Of these 60,311 acres, or thirty per cent, were 

IS-i B,H,Sc}iockel m.v.h.b. 

classed as improved. Agriculture first became important in the 
region in 1829. By 1840, there were 876 farmers in the county 
as compared to 617 miners. In 1842 the region began to export 
breadstuffs. Products of the farm outvalued the mineral pro- 
duced in the county certainly as early as 1860, probably as early 
as 1855, possibly even earlier. Corn and wheat were the chief 
crops ; the other common products were hay, potatoes, oats, rye, 
barley, and flax. The rugged topography encouraged cattle 
raising, which soon became important. In the early days the 
prairie portions were avoided by the settlers. 

The new culture introduced manufacturing on a small scale 
into the region to meet the most pressing needs of the pioneer 
settlers, in particular wood and flour. The first sawmill in the 
county was established in 1827, and the first gristmill a year 
later. Fortunately there was an abujidance of small water 
power sites for these small establishments. Figure 3 gives the 
location of the early smelters and mills. Although manufac- 
turing in the county had the advantage of an early start, it did 
not develop steadily in early times, and was essentially local, in- 
volving (1) commodities which, because of the expense or other 
difficulties of transportation, could not be brought profitably 
into the district, but for the making of which raw materials were 
at hand, and (2) commodities for which the raw materials were 
in excess in the region. Manufacturing was handicapped in 
several ways. Capital and labor for such purposes were scarce, 
being attracted chiefly to agriculture and mining. There was 
also a lack of adequate power; the water power sites were small, 
coal was not readily accessible, and timber fuel soon was prac- 
tically exhausted, so that it was being imported as early as 1842. 
Another influence against industrial development was the fact 
that the processes of manufacturing lead were not well known 
in the region, so that the finished product was not much less 
bulky than the metal, the market for either of which was far to 
the east. The region, further, was shortsighted in depending 
entirely on wholesale trade. The following summary shows the 
modest rank of manufacturing in the county for 1860. By 1858 
Galena had become the chief manufacturing center of the county, 
owing to its population, and its commercial and mining impor- 

Vol. IV, No. 2 j'/ie Lead and Zinc Mining Region 185 

Manufactures of Jo Daviess county in 1860 

Number of Hands Value of 

Products establishments employed products 

Flour and meat 11 27 $272,979 

Lead smelting 5 39 254,900 

Agricultural implements 4 41 55,710 

Carriages 9 32 41,515 

Clothing 2 45 37,000 

Provisions, pork, etc 2 11 35,711 

As in the mining period, the commercial intercourse of the 
region continued to be largely with the south, with the same re- 
sults. The scale was merely larger. This period formed the 
epoch of the supremacy of the steamboat on the Galena river, 
1835 to 1855 ; the decade 1840 to 1850 marked the climax, when 
boats from Galena touched at all important points between St. 
Paul and New Orleans. The following table summarizes the 
history of the steamboat in the county. 

Arrivals of steamJ)oais at Galena, 1823-1848 

Year 1828 1830 1835 1836 1837 1838 1839 1840 1841 1842 1848 
Arrivals 99 50 153 182 350 308 275 300 350 350 268 


Since this decade marked the zenith of lead production within 
the region, it also marked the zenith of its external commerce, 
and therefore the climax in the history of its principal city, 
Galena. In 1840-1850 the ^^Lead Mine City'' was held to be the 
most important metropolis of the northwest. Often as many as 
twelve or fifteen steamboats were seen at her wharves at one 

Environment played an important role in the life of this pio- 
neer period. (1) It had much to do with the distribution of the 
people. The outcrops of impervious Maquoketa shale under 
porous Galena limestone determined a horizon of springs. This 
horizon in many instances can now be traced by the location of 
the abandoned pioneer cabins, which were distributed near the 
springs. Other important factors which influenced the distribu- 
tion of the people were the lead, the terraces, streams, produc- 
tive soil, and existing towns. (2) Isolation decreed that the set- 
tlers should have only the bare necessities of life. Eude huts of 
rough-hewn logs were the rule. Clapboard doors, clay chim- 
neys, and puncheon floors were in harmony with the homespun 

1S6 B. H, SchocJcel m.v.h.e. 

garments. (3) Though the county was still isolated to a large 
extent there were movements on foot to bring it into contact 
with and under the influence of an ever widening environment. 
The extensive lead trade, connecting Galena with St. Louis, 
New Orleans, and New York, tended to bring the conveniences 
of civilization into the region at a relatively early stage. (4) The 
county was experiencing the influence of both the north and the 
south. The northern strip of Illinois had been taken from Wis- 
consin and added to the former state to make it a *' northern'' 
state, with a frontage on lake Michigan. Roads were being 
pushed westward from Chicago in 1829, and from Milwaukee in 
1839, and were endeavoring to dispute the commercial supremacy 
of the Mississippi river route. The Illinois-Michigan canal di- 
verted eastward some of the lead trade. The vote of the lead 
townships ordinarily was that of the south, of the non-lead com- 
munities that of the north, thus indicating the principal source 
of the miners and the farmers, and the influence of the mother 
land. (5) Within the region the rough topography was exact- 
ing a heavy toll in time, toil, and money, from the farmer, the 
miner, and the trader. (6) The greater rise in population oc- 
curred in the lead townships. (7) The miners refused to sell 
their lead for paper money during the early mining period, and 
as a result, English gold flowed into the region. Therefore, it is 
said, the panics of 1837 and 1857 were felt less severely here 
than in many other places. On the other hand, the element of 
chance in mining increased the evils of speculation to an even 
greater degree than elsewhere along the American frontier. 

Not only did the environment affect the life of the pioneers; 
in turn the mining-farming life reacted upon its surroundings 
more effectively than had any previous life in the region. For 
example, the virgin land was transformed into farms. A gov- 
ernment report for 1844 states that the forests of the county had 
been badly damaged by fire, that the uplands had largely been 
cleared for agriculture, but that the bottoms had so improved in 
timber growth that there was perhaps more timber in the county 
than ever before. No reforestation was then in progress. 
Further, careless and ignorant methods of agriculture on the 
steep slopes initiated soil wash, floods, and the silting of the 
Galena river. Again, there was a great waste in mining, esti- 

Vol. IV, No. 2 j/jg jr g^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ Mining Region 187 

mated at $50,000. Chiefly because of the activity of this region, 
the United States began to export lead in 1841, and ranked first 
in its production in 1845. Finally, within the region there was 
coming about a blending of northern and southern influences, 
and the production of a new type of social environment. 

But now changes of great importance for the region were at 
hand. The lead mines became somewhat exhausted; further- 
more, the Galena and Chicago Northwestern railroad (note the 
relative importance of Gralena and Chicago as shown in the posi- 
tion of the two words) reached Galena in 1855, and was extended 
northwestward; other lines followed soon. There were three main 
results : there was a final, complete settlement of the county ; the 
region came to face east commercially and no longer south ; and 
the area no longer stood out as an isolated unit, but became ab- 
sorbed in the quickening life of the Mississippi valley and of the 
nation. The farming-mining period had arrived. 

With this rapid settling of the upper Mississippi valley, the 
establishment of intimate communication between Jo Daviess 
county and its wider environment, and the waning mining for- 
tunes, there followed in the county a brief epoch of rapid in- 
crease in population, then an epoch in which the numbers re- 
mained essentially stationary, and lastly the present epoch in 
which the population has been slowly decreasing as the county 
adjusts itself to its wider environment. 

Since 1860 the mining industry in the county, though fluctu- 
ating, has been declining in relative importance. This has been 
due largely to the exhaustion of the lead mines in the driftless 
area, to competition of greater mining sections without this 
area, to speculation, and to the fact that in the county the zinc 
ore is deep beneath the surface. Mining has now sunk to a posi- 
tion third in importance, ranking below agriculture and manu- 
facturing. Recently the zinc industry in the driftless area has 
been improving in a measure, but the area of noted improvement 
is farther north than Jo Daviess county, for north of the county 
the zinc is near the surface, whereas within the county it is 
deeply buried and beneath the ground water level. 

Agriculture has ranked first in the county since the beginning 
of the farming-mining period. In general the crops are those of 
pioneer days, produced on a larger scale. Owing to poor crop 

188 B.H.Schockel m.v.h.r. 

rotation and the competition of the wheat fields of the north and 
west, wheat has dechned relatively. As agriculture in the re- 
gion gradually adapts itself to the ruggedness of the topography 
and the pressure of better endowed competing cereal lands, for- 
age crops and animal industries, particularly dairying, are gain- 
ing in importance. 

That the physiographic characteristics of the driftless area 
are still a potent economic factor is indicated by the following 
comparison. Jo Daviess county is essentially a region of stream 
erosion. Stephenson county, adjoining on the east, is similar, 
except that its pre-glacial topography is masked by glacial de- 
posits. Stephenson county has had a greater amount of im- 
proved, but a smaller amount of unimproved farm land per 
square mile ; a greater value for its agricultural machinery per 
farm acre; higher priced land; and a greater variety of crops; 
and it has produced more per farm acre than Jo Daviess county. 
Furthermore, the population of Stephenson county has con- 
tinued to increase, while that of her neighbor has been decreas- 
ing for more than thirty years. These figures imply that Ste- 
phenson county has been able to sustain a larger population than 
Jo Daviess county, and that as a whole, Stephenson county is 
the richer economically. But it does not follow that some of the 
better farms of the former have not been as productive as those 
of the latter. Nor does it follow that Stephenson county is the 
happier economically for the individual. 

The influence of topography, soil, and accessibility to market 
on the economic life of the region is reflected in the present value 
of land in various parts of the county. In the vicinity of Eliza^ 
beth and Galena, where the maturely dissected, resistant Galena 
limestone presents a rough topography, land sometimes sells as 
low as forty dollars per acre, a price which also is characteristic 
of the broken upland of the Niagara limestone in the south and 
southeast parts of the county. Some of the bluffs and the sandy 
bottoms along the Mississippi river have sold recently for 
twenty-five to thirty dollars per acre. Near Stockton, a thriv- 
ing city, the rough Niagara limestone ridges are said to com- 
mand sixty to seventy dollars per acre, whereas the gentler Ma- 
quoketa slopes are worth one hundred dollars. In this vicinity 
one hundred sixty dollars per acre is paid for farms on the flat 

Vol. IV, No. 2 T^^Q 2^g^4 ^^^ Zinc Mining Region 189 

upland covered by glacial deposits. One parcel of this land is 
said to have sold for three hundred dollars per acre. Factors 
other than those named help to determine land values in the 
county ; but in a general way the preceding figures illustrate the 
variations which are found in different geographic divisions of 
the region. 

The general development of manufactures within the county 
during the period is summarized in the table below. Flour and 
gristmill products, largely for home use, have been most impor- 
tant. The meat packing industry, stimulated by the growth of 
animal industries in the region, once led; but that business has 
now been absorbed by Chicago and other centers. The outlook 
for extensive manufacturing is not good. 

Growth of 

manufacturing in 

Jo Daviess county 

Number of 


Wage earners 


Gross value 





of products 




$ 620,860 




$ 830,375 

















. The greatest factor in the economic history of the county for 
the period has been the commercial change. When the county 
had exhausted its special endowment of lead and when good rail- 
road communications had been established between it and sur- 
rounding regions now well settled, it began to face the crucial 
test of mobile commerce, which tends to bring out the truth con- 
cerning the natural endowment of a region and the capacity of 
its people. Facilities for communication tend to unmask the 
true nature of a region somewhat as intimate acquaintance re- 
veals the individual, and somewhat as the city tests the immi- 
grant from the country. Along the more important economic 
results of this change brought about by the railroads were the 
following: (1) This region as a part of the northwest, became 
at last bound firmly to the eastern and northeastern states com- 
mercially; these trade relations were cemented more closely be- 
cause the railroad facilitated the immigration of easterners. In 
commerce the region now faced east instead of south. (2) Ag- 
riculture was helped by the better facilities for transportation, 

190 B.H.Schockel m.v.h.k. 

and this in turn reacted favorably upon the other industries of 
the region. But on the other hand the agriculture and other in- 
dustries of the region had to face the keen competition of other 
regions in many respects better endowed economically. The 
cheaper the transportation, the closer the competition. There- 
fore presently the county had to retrench and readapt itself. 
(3) The decline in the river transportation, for which Galena 
was peculiarly well situated, together with the falling off in the 
production of lead, initiated the slow decline of that city; this 
is shown in a general way by figure 2. As the emporium of the 
region. Galena had depended almost entirely upon her wholesale 
trade. Freeport, Warren, Apple River, Scales Mound, and Min- 
eral Point were now situated almost as advantageously, with 
reference to the railroad, as was Galena, and all absorbed some 
of her trade, as did Chicago and Milwaukee. As a result Galena 
came out of the financial depression of 1857 no longer the me- 
tropolis of the northwestern part of the state and much of the 
driftless area, but merely as the leading city of Jo Daviess 
county. The decline in the importance of Galena also tended to 
decrease the importance of Jo Daviess county as the center of 
mining activities. (4) On the other hand Galena and the whole 
region began economically to grow more varied and symmetri- 
cal, and less provincial, than before. 

The economic response of the region to what may be termed 
its broader hinterland environment is seen in the history of 
land values. In 1850 farm land in Jo Daviess county was worth 
$6.60 per acre. With the steady rise in land values in the 
United States land values in the county have risen, the figures 
being $34.00 in 1900 and $55.29 in 1910. 

Finally, in considering the reaction of the environment upon 
the work-a-day life of the people, it is significant that the min- 
ing townships are now economically inferior to the others no- 
tably in general land values, and in per capita personal property 
and real estate. 

Only a few of the social and political aspects of this period 
can be noted here. As a consequence of the strengthening of its 
rcilations with the east and the north and of the immigration 
from those regions, the county, like the state of Illinois, cast its 
fate with the north during the civil war. This helped the north- 

Vol. IV, No. 2 xhe Lead and Zinc Mining Region 191 

west to send a vast amount of foodstuffs to the eastern states 
during the war, and to receive manufactures from the eastern 

In response to the economic changes which have been dis- 
cussed, and also as a result of the fact that one man with im- 
proved farm implements can now cultivate more acres than 
formerly, there has been a decline in the population of the 
county, especially in the rural districts. It is instructive to note 
that the greatest decline has been in the lead producing town- 

It is pointed out by some that the inhabitants of the lead 
townships have been slow to adjust themselves to changing con- 
ditions, and that ^ ' the greater the importance of lead mining in 
the early days, the more marked the decline and stagnation of 
the later periods. ' ' It would be difficult to say to just what ex- 
tent the results noted are due to the former presence of the ore, 
and to what extent they should be attributed to the rugged 
topography of the lead region with its underlying Galena lime- 
stone. But the mellow spirit of Galena with its gray bluffs, 
terrace-like streets, quaint stone houses, and old men meditating 
upon the glories of the past, is in striking contrast to the mod- 
em, mercenary atmosphere of active Stockton, which is not in 
the mineral region. It is interesting to note incidentally that 
there are more foreign born in the lead townships than in the 

The present culture has affected its environment more than 
did any of the preceding stages. Figure 2 shows the change 
which has come about in the population. In 1850, some fifty per 
cent of all the land was in farms and about fifteen per cent of all 
the land was improved; in 1910, the respective figures were 
ninety and four-tenths and sixty-four percent. The average 
size of the farms has been increasing, and tenant-farming has 
become more general. The value of farm machinery per farm 
acre in 1850 was forty-eight cents; in 1910, one dollar eighty- 
four cents. The number of domestic animals, and the variety 
of domestic plants, has been steadily increasing. 

Probably the most striking effects of the present culture upon 
the environment are seen in the deterioration of the soil, in- 
creased erosion, silting of the water courses, and the neglect of 

192 B.H.Schockel m.v.h.r. 

forestry. AVithin recent times, efforts have been made to better 
these conditions, but thus far these efforts have been only partly 

The social institutions and conditions now differ from those 
introduced by the immigrants who came in turn from the south, 
the east, and the north. Each group has been modified by ad- 
justment to its physical and social surroundings and by changes 
within itself. 


IxDLixA State Normal School 
Teree Haute 



Once in possession of the French posts of the northwest at the 
close of the French and Indian war, British authorities sought 
to extend their supremacy over the entire Mississippi valley. 
To accomplish this, Spanish influence had to be overcome. The 
trade of the Missouri river centered at St. Louis. Notwith- 
standing the protests of English officials and the decrees of 
Spanish governors, traders from that post pushed their way up 
the Ohio, the Wabash, and the Illinois and trafficked with the 
Indians of the Wisconsin and the Fox rivers. French traders from 
the Illinois posts carried their packs of furs across the river to 
trade with their friends in St. Louis or transported them down 
the river, a trip of twelve days by flatboat, to the New Orleans 
market. Even British traders from Fort Pitt and West Florida 
were drawn to New Orleans owing to the better prices paid 
there for furs than in the regular English markets. It was esti- 
mated in 1771, that peltries worth between seventy-five and one 
hundred pounds sterling were exported annually from that port 
chiefly to France. 

At the time, this trade was the one important factor in the de- 
velopment of the west. A British officer, in a report of 1768, 
declared that a settlement *^will never happen with any advan- 
tage to England until we can procure the Ideal Island of Or- 
leans. . . Could we find passage for even small craft to go 
to the sea, the country of the Illinois would be worthy of atten- 
tion, but had we the Island of Orleans, that country would in a 
very short time I believe be equal to any of our colonies. ^' ^ But 
even with this obstacle to the establishment of English com- 
mercial supremacy, the decade preceding the outbreak of the 

1 Read at the joint meeting of the American historical association and the Mis- 
sissippi valley historical association, Cincinnati, Ohio, December 29, 1916. 

2 Clarence E. Carter, Great Britain and the Illinois country, 1763-1764 (Washing- 
ton, 1908), 141, note. 

194 James A, James m.v.h.r. 

revoliitiou were critical years for Spanish influence in the Mis- 
sissippi valley. 

Plans for the capture of these Spanish possessions in the 
event of war were fully discussed by British authorities. The 
two countries seemed on the verge of war in 1770 on account of 
the dispute over the Falkland islands, and General Gage, com- 
mander of the British forces in America, was ordered to take 
steps preparatory to an attack on New Orleans.^ With the ulti- 
mate capture of the entire province of Louisiana in mind, mo- 
bilization of troops at New York was begun early in 1771. But 
the king of Spain, before hostilities were actually opened, ac- 
quiesced to the terms submitted by Great Britain. 

The contest for the commercial control of Louisiana grew 
more intense in the years directly preceding the opening of the 
revolution, with the odds greatly in favor of British traders. 
According to the report of a Spanish officer, in 1776, the com- 
merce of the colony amounted to six hundred thousand dollars 
annually.* Only some fifteen thousand dollars of this amount 
represented the commerce of the six or eight vessels operated 
by royal permission. In spite of the vigilance of the governor, 
Spanish planters secured their necessities from the ** floating 
stores*' and the other ten or twelve English boats continuously 
on the Mississippi. Influenced by this trade and by the coming 
of the tories, driven from the colonies, Manchac and Baton 
Rouge developed with such rapidity that they threatened to 
overshadow New Orleans and become a menace to Mexico. In 
order to offset this influence, it was advised that Spanish mer- 
chants should be granted freedom of trade as at an earlier 
period ; that an army should be maintained which would be ade- 
quate not only to defend Louisiana but in case of necessity fur- 

3 Arthur Hassall, The balance of power, 1715-1789 (New York, 1896), 327, 328. 
These islands were seized by the British in 1766. In 1770, a Spanish force expelled 
the small English garrison and took possession of Port Egmont. The downfall of 
Choiseul dissipated any hope of French aid. King Charles III agreed to restore the 
British garrison but he still clung to the claim of sovereignty over the islands., 
Secret dispatch of Lord Hillsborough to General Gage and reply thereto, in Carter, 
Great Britain and the Illimois country, 1763-1764, 182-184. 

4 Don Francisco Bouligny 's memoir on the commerce and population of New Or- 
leans and Spanish Louisiana, in Aloee Fortier, History of Louisiana (New York, 
1904), 2:24-47. 

Vol. IV, No. 2 Spanish Influence in the West 195 

nish reinforcements for Mexico and Havana; and that forts 
should be built on Spanish territory opposite the mouths of the 
rivers flowing into the Mississippi. The positive advantages 
accruing to Spain from the completion of these projects would 
be : the control of the navigation of the Mississippi ; the securing 
possession of Mobile and Pensacola which were dependent on 
the returns from illicit commerce ; and the consequent increase 
of income for the royal treasury. 

The appeal for assistance in a letter of May, 1776, from Gen- 
eral Charles Lee who spoke for the Virginia committee of safety 
was, therefore, not unwelcome to Unzaga, the governor of Louis- 
iana. The arguments presented were well calculated also to 
win favor from King Charles III and his advisers for the cause 
of America.^ Should Great Britain succeed in subjugating the 
colonies, Lee wrote, her army and navy would be free at any mo- 
ment to take possession of Mexico and Cuba. With America 
independent, Spanish possessions, it was maintained, need not 
fear attack. Great Britain, alone, would be incapable of raising 
sufficient troops for attempting such a conquest, and the superi- 
ority of her fleet would soon be reduced by the loss of America. 
Great Britain reunited to America would be more dangerous to 
Spain than one of the two if they remained separated. ^^Nor 
need there be any apprehension that the colonies having once 
established their independence would molest any other power for 
the genius of the people, their situation, and their circumstances 
engage them rather in agriculture and a free commerce which 
are more important to their interests and to their inclination.'* 
The articles which it was hoped would be supplied by Spain 
were guns, blankets, and medicinal drugs, especially quinine. 

A plan to secure gunpowder from New Orleans was conceived 
by Captain George Gibson of the Virginia line. Bearer of the 
letter from General Lee, Captain Gibson accompanied by Lieu- 
tenant William Linn and fifteen other men in the guise of traders 
set out from Fort Pitt July 19, 1776. Arriving at New Orleans, 
their letter was entrusted to Oliver Pollock, who, acting as the 
agent of Virginia, succeeded in concealing their identity from 

5 This letter of General Lee accompanied one sent by the governor, dated Septem- 
ber 7, 1776. Archivo general de Indias, Seville, Estcmte 87, cajdn 1, legajo 6. 

196 James A, James m.v.h.r. 

the immerons British spies. To no other man could this mission 
have been entrusted with greater promise of success. As a 
trader in Havana for ^yq years, he had become proficient in the 
use of Spanish and won the friendship of the leading officials, 
among them Don Alexander 'Reilly, governor general of Cuba. 
During the year 1768, Pollock located in New Orleans. On 
Aug-ust 17 of the following year, Greneral O^Eeilly, with three 
thousand troops, appeared before the city and demanded that 
the command should be surrendered by the French governor. 
The formal surrender took place the next day. To capture a 
town of three thousand with an overwhelming force proved an 
easier task than it was to supply the troops with necessary pro- 
visions. Flour quickly rose to twenty dollars a barrel and was 
obtained with difficulty at that price. At the time. Pollock pos- 
sessed a boatload of flour which he proffered to the general on 
his own terms. Pollock was paid fifteen dollars a barrel for his 
flour, and for his act of generosity he was granted freedom of 
trade in Louisiana as long as he desired. 

In April, 1776, Pollock's efforts with Grovernor Unzaga to se- 
cure Spanish protection for some American vessels against their 
seizure by a British sloop of war on the plea that they were in a 
neutral port proved unavailing. To what extent the governor 
was influenced by the contents of General Lee's letter can only 
be conjectured but he finally permitted the sale of ten thousand 
pounds of powder to Pollock.^ Pollock himself believed this 
changed attitude to be, in part, a result of the declaration of 

Lieutenant Linn, with forty-three men, set out from New 
Orleans September 22, with a cargo of ninety-eight kegs of 
powder, nine thousand pounds, in barges. The expedition 
reached Wheeling the following May, at a time when that post 
and Fort Pitt greatly needed the powder for protection and to 
further their dealings with the Indians.^ In October, Captain 
Gibson, who had been imprisoned by decree of the governor, in 
order to quiet the suspicions of the British consul, was permitted 
to embark for Philadelphia on a vessel despatched by Pollock. 

*'' Eighteen hundred dollars were paid for the powder. 

7 Papers of the continental congress, 50 : 51 ff., under date October 10, 1776. 
» One means of gaining the friendship of the Indians was through the distribution 
of powder. They had been told by the British that the colonists had none. 

Vol. IV, No. 2 Spanish Influence in the West 197 

He took with him the remainder of the powder in carefully con- 
cealed packages. 

Don Bernardo de Galvez, who succeeded to the government of 
Louisiana in January, 1777, belonged to an influential Spanish 
family.^ He was twenty-nine years of age and was noted for his 
energy and ambition. Governor Unzaga presented Pollock to 
his successor as a ^ ^faithful and zealous American in whom he 
might repose implicit confidence. ' ' ^^ Governor Galvez at once 
tendered his services to Pollock and assured him that he would 
go every possible length for the interests of congress. He de- 
clared that the port of New Orleans would be open and free to 
American commerce and to the admission and sale of prizes 
made by American cruisers.^^ American trading vessels upon 
arrival at the mouth of the river were seized as Spanish prop- 
erty in order to protect them against British vessels of war. 
Seizure of an American schooner provoked an order for the cap- 
ture and confiscation of all British vessels between the Balize 
and Manchac. Aid to American troops, in goods and money, 
was tendered in the event of an expedition for the capture of 
Pensacola and the British posts on the Mississippi. Pollock 
urged action by the American government and suggested that 
blank commissions should be sent for enlisting troops in New 

Governor Galvez refused the demand made by the governor of 
Pensacola for the surrender of Pollock. He hastened to begin 
correspondence with Colonel George Morgan who was stationed 
at Fort Pitt. Morgan had already submitted to Galvez a plan 
for the conduct of the war in the west, should France and Spain 

9 His father was viceroy of Mexico and his uncle, Jos^ de Galvez, was secretary of 
state and president of the council of the Indies. 

10 Oliver Pollock to the president of congress, September 18, 1782. Pollock papers, 
library of congress. 

11 By an order of the king of Spain, in spite of the suggestion that treatingt 
Americans as rebel subjects of a friendly power would be pleasing to the English 
king, American vessels were permitted to enter the ports of Spain. ' ' These same 
Americans will be admitted to the ports of Spain although they present themselves 
with their own banner, distinct from that of Britain." This was based on a royal 
order of September 20, 1776. By a royal order of October 23, 1776, American pri- 
vateers were permitted, in ease of necessity, to bring their Portuguese prizes to 
New Oreans, but no other trading was to be allowed. Bernardo de Galvez to Jos^ 
de Galvez, March 21, 1777. ArcJiivo general de Indias. Transcript in Ayer collec- 
tion, Newberry library, Chicago. 

198 James A. James m.v.h.e. 

make commou cause against Great Britain and Portugal; his 
scheme comprised the capture of Niagara and Detroit and the 
seizure of Mobile and Pensacola/^ 

It was clear to Galvez, as it had been to his predecessor, that 
British plans contemplated an attack on Louisiana, and one of 
his earliest communications urged as a means of defense that the 
Indians should be won over to the side of Spain ; this plan could, 
he thought, be easily accomplished because of the Indians^ for- 
mer subjection to France.^^ By means of gifts, friendly visits, 
and promises, rapid progress was made towards the accomplish- 
ment of this object. Shortly after, he requested that two frig- 
ates should be sent at once to defend the Spanish possessions 
against British aggression, which had reached **a point of in- 
tolerable insolence difficult to be borne by a man of honor. "^* 
Among the "infinity'' of insults which could not be recounted, he 
specified the following : that the English had plundered Spanish 
dwellings along the river and fired on the inhabitants; that a 
Spanish and a French vessel had been fired on and after capture 
were detained for periods of thirty and twenty-four hours, the 
communications under the seal of the governor having been 
read ; and that boats loaded with pitch at New Orleans had been 
seized as contraband. 

In meeting the demands of the inhabitants for reprisal, Gal- 
vez ordered the capture of vessels engaged in carrying on illicit 
commerce, and eleven were seized in one night.^^ British armed 
vessels appeared at New Orleans with the demand that the cap- 
tured vessels and crews should be released. Hostilities seemed 
about to open but the British withdrew when Galvez showed no 
disposition to yield.^^ Two of the vessels interned were owned 

12 George Morgan to the governor of Louisiana, April 22, 1777. Copy in Illinois 
state historical library. 

13 Galvez to Jos6 de Galvez, January 28, 1777. Archivo general de Indias, Se- 
ville. A year earlier. Governor Unzaga had been directed to specify to the Spanish 
court what were his means of defense against an attack. In reply, he showed how 
inadequately Spanish possessions were protected by troops and fortifications and 
submitted evidence which seemed to point to a design on the part of the British to 
seize Louisiana. Charles Gayarre, History of Louisiana (New Orleans, 1903), 3: 101, 

14 Galvez to Jose de Galvez, May 6, 1777. Archivo general de Indias. Transcript 
in Ayer collection. 

1"' Galvez to Torre, captain general of Cuba, May 6, 1777. Ibid. 
i«"I received them with match-rope in hand in order to prevent any violence. *' 

Vol. IV, No. 2 Spanish Influence in the West 199 

by Americans but they were released secretly upon the request 
of Oliver Pollock. The nine others were confiscated and their 
cargoes were sold as contraband. At that time, owing to a 
shortage in food, there was considerable sickness at Pensacola. 
Galvez sent a gift of one hundred and fifty barrels of flour to re- 
lieve the distress and this act of generosity settled the con- 

Although the immediate cause for dispute was adjusted, Gal- 
vez continued to call for armed vessels and means for strength- 
ening the fortifications at New Orleans. Other causes for 
strained relations continued to develop. The English governor 
at Pensacola protested against the sending of arms and ammuni- 
tion up the river under the protection of the Spanish flag.^^ A 
Spanish mail boat was attacked while ascending the river, pre- 
sumably by a British armed sloop; English subjects were for- 
bidden to transact any business within the Spanish colonies 
while French commercial relations were extended so much that 
two French commissioners stationed at New Orleans in com- 
menting on the concessions declared that *^the whole trade of 
the Mississippi is now in our hands.'' ^^ 

Meanwhile, Major Cruzat at St. Louis was directed to carry 
out the decree of the king whereby British influence might be 
overcome through inducing Canadian families and other immi- 
grants to found towns in Louisiana. To each of these families 
was to be assigned a small plot of ground, the necessary utensils 
for tilling it, and supplies for the first year at the expense of the 
royal treasury, forty thousand dollars having been appropriated 
for these purposes. As an added inducement to agricultural 
colonists, the Spanish government agreed to purchase their en- 
tire crop of tobacco. By thus fostering the growth of tobacco, 
the government hoped to accomplish two objects : revenue could 
be secured through the duty imposed on the sale of this product 
in the Mexican provinces; and the monopoly of the tobacco trade 
held by the English and the Dutch in the French markets could 
be overcome.^® 

By July, 1777, the request embodied in the letter of General 

17 Galvez to Jose de Galvez, September 15, 1777; December 30, 1777. Hid. 

18 Governor Peter Chester to Galvez, March 7, 1777. Ihid. 

19 These commissioners were Villars and Favre d'Aunoy. Gayarre, History of 
Louisiana, 3: 118. 

20 Hid,, 3 : 107. 

'200 James A. James m.v.h.r. 

Charles Lee bore finiit and there were deposited at New Orleans, 
subject to the order of Virginia, two thousand barrels of gun- 
powder, a quantity of lead, and a large amount of clothing.^^ A 
year earlier the Duke de Grimaldi, Spanish prime minister, 
under the influence of Vergennes, induced Charles III to du- 
plicate the secret loan of one million livres made by France to 
America. A continuation of the war would enable Spain, it was 
believed, to attack Portugal while Great Britain was unable to 
come to the rescue.^^ She awaited the opportunity, also, to take 
Gibraltar. The efforts of Benjamin Franklin won the favor of 
Count d'Aranda, Spanish ambassador at Versailles; but King 
Charles III refused to declare openly for the American cause. 
On January 2, 1777, the committee of secret correspondence noti- 
fied Franklin of his appointment as commissioner, by congress, 
to negotiate a treaty of friendship and commerce with Spain.^^ 
Some days earlier, congress had instructed Franklin that the 
United States was prepared to assist Spain in an attack on Pen- 
sacola providing that port and the Mississippi river should be 
open to the Americans. 

Before receiving these messages, however, the American com- 
missioners in Paris had authorized Arthur Lee to go to Madrid 
to solicit an alliance with Spain.^* Although the gift of one mil- 
lion livres was unknown to the commissioners, the Spanish court 
had in other ways shown a spirit of friendliness. American ves- 
sels were permitted to enter Spanish ports for supplies and re- 
pairs and American privateers were free to dispose of their 
prizes in certain Spanish ports. ^° 

On February 18, Grimaldi had been succeeded as Spanish 

21 Dr. Bancroft to Paul Wentworth, May, 1777, in Benjamin F. Stevens, Facsim- 
iJes of manuscripts in European archives relating to America, 1773-1783 (London, 
1889-1898), 151. 

22 Francis Wharton, The revolutionary diplomatic correspondence of the United 
States (Washington, 1889), 2: 282. 

23 Secret journals of the acts and proceedings of congress from the first meeting 
thereof to the dissolution of the confederation l)y the adoption of the constitution of 
the United States (Boston, 1820), 2: 42. 

24 Franklin was unable, because of his age, to undertake the journey. A. Lee to 
Richard Henry Lee, October 4, 1777, in Stevens, Facsimiles of manuscripts in Eu- 
ropean archives relating to America, 269; Franklin's Writings, edited by A. H^ 
Smyth (New York, 1905-1907), 7: 32. 

2^' Wharton, The revolutionary diplomatic correspondence of the United States, 
2 : 295. 

Vol. IV, No. 2 Spanish Influence in the West 201 

prime minister by the Count de Florida Blanca. With his ad- 
vancement, the outlook for open aid to America by Spain was 
greatly lessened. To the new minister, it was evident that 
should Spain assist in securing independence for the British 
colonies, Spanish rule in America would be likewise endangered. 
Spanish domination of trade with her colonies would be impos- 
sible with a vigorous nation developing as their neighbor. More- 
over, alliance with America would mean war with Great Britain 
and the Spanish navy, army, and treasury were in no condition 
to offer adequate defense against an attack by the greatest mari- 
time power of the day. Assurances were given the British au- 
thorities that no American representative would be received in 
Madrid. In keeping with his promise, Arthur Lee, before his 
arrival at the Spanish border, received a message to the effect 
that he should not proceed to Madrid but that a conference 
would be granted him at Burgos.^^ Here, on March 4, Lee was 
met by Grrimaldi and was informed that the Americans would 
find deposited at New Orleans and at Havana stores of clothing 
and powder which their ships might secure, that supplies were 
also being collected at Bilboa for shipment to America." In 
vain Lee argued that the time was opportune for the immediate 
interposition of Spain and France, for if Great Britain should 
again be united to America by conquest or conciliation, he said, 
she ** would reign the irresistible though hated arbiter of Eu- 
rope.^' The reply setting forth the reasons for delay seemed 
satisfactory to Lee for he returned to Paris convinced of the sin- 
cerity and good wishes of the Spanish government.^^ 

Aid continued to be given surreptitiously to the Americans by 
the Spanish government. The firm of Joseph Gardoqui and 
sons, operating at Bilboa, served as the chief agents for assist- 
ing America. Funds were collected at Madrid by Diego Gar- 
doqui and forwarded to Arthur Lee who, in turn, gave his orders 

26 Jared Sparks, The diplomatic correspondence of the American revolution (Bos- 
ton, 1829-1830), 1:400. 

27 Wharton, The revolutionary diplomatic correspondence of the United States, 

28 Grimaldi said to Lee : ' ' You have considered your own situation and not ours. 
The moment is not yet come for us. The war with Portugal — France being un- 
prepared, and our treasure from South America not being arrived — makes it im- 
proper for us to declare immediately. These reasons then will probably cease within 
a year, and then will be the moment. ' ' Ihid., 2 : 282, 283. 

'20'2 James A, James ^- ^'- h. R. 

for goods to the firm at Bilboa. Transactions were on a cash 
basis for the Gardoquis drew on Lee's bankers for payment.^^ 
During the year 1778, America secured in this way 18,000 blan- 
kets, 11,000 pairs of shoes, 41,000 pairs of stockings, and shirt- 
ings, tent cloth, and medicines in great quantities.^'^ Besides, an 
extensive private commerce was carried on by American mer- 
chants in Spanish ports. British representatives strove unsuc- 
cessfully to prevent this trade. 

The fate of the west was largely dependent on the generosity 
of Governor Galvez and the liberality of Oliver Pollock. By the 
end of the year 1777, Galvez had aided the Americans by sending 
arms, ammunition, and provisions to the Mississippi posts and 
the frontiers of Pennsylvania and Virginia to the amount of 
seventy thousand dollars.^^ Early in 1778, without direct sanc- 
tion from his government, he determined to grant financial as- 
sistance to America.^^ There can be no doubt that Spanish 
officials w^ere prompted to this seemingly generous conduct 
through the hope of ultimate gain for Spain. Patrick Henry, 
then governor of Virginia, well understood what arguments 
would be most forceful. As the price of assistance, he presented 
to the governor of New Orleans the advantages which would 
accrue to Spain through the control of the trade of the southern 
states and the deprivation of their ^'ancient and natural Enemy 
the English of all those vast supplies of naval Stores and Many 
other Articles which have enabled them to become so powerful 
on the Seas.*' Again in possession of Pensacola and St. Augus- 
tine they would be able, he thought, to enjoy a great part of the 
trade of our northern states. To facilitate intercourse by way 
of the Mississippi, he proposed to establish a post at the mouth 
of the Ohio. 

In acknowledging the aid already received. Governor Henry 
also pleaded with the governor of Cuba for further assistance.^^ 
*^We are well acquainted,'' he wrote, ''with the Honour, Spirit, 
and Generosity of the Spanish nation and should therefore glory 

29 Wharton, The revolutionary diplomatic correspondence of the United States\, 
2 : 308. 

30 Edward Channing, History of the United States (New York, 1912), 3: 284. 

31 Gayarre, Hi^ory of Lovisiana, 3 : 113. 

32 May 6, 1778. Royal approval was granted. Galvez to Jos6 de Galvez, August 
25, 1778. Archivo general de Indian, Seville. 

83 Letter of Patrick Henry, October 18, 1777. Copy in the Virginia state library. 

Vol. IV, No. 2 Spanish Influence in the West 203 

in an intimate Connection with it — For I suppose, I need not in- 
form your Excellency, that these States are now free and Inde- 
pendent, capable of forming Alliances and making Treaties. I 
think the Connection might be mutually beneficial, for indepen- 
dent of the Beef, Pork, live Stock, Flour, Stores, Shingles and 
several other articles with which we could supply your Islands, 
we have vast quantities of Skins, Furs, Hemp, and Flax which 
we could, by an easy inland navigation bring down the Missis- 
sippi to New Orleans from our back country, in exchange for 
your Woolens, Linens, Wines, Military Stores, etc.'' 

Colonel George Morgan suggested to Governor Galvez that he 
should grant permission to use New Orleans as a base from 
which an attack might be made on Mobile and Pensacola.^* The 
effects of the conquest by the Americans of the British posts 
east of the Mississippi river had already been considered by the 
Spanish government and secret royal orders were sent to Galvez 
which bore marks of the *^ generosity'' of that court.^^ In case the 
Americans seized these possessions, and desired to deliver them 
to his majesty, Galvez was instructed to receive them in trust. 
English officials were to be assured that they would be more se- 
cure under Spanish control than ^* under their enemies risen in 
rebellion. " It is probable that Florida Blanca in this way hoped 
to complete the plan which was more definitely defined by him in 
his offer the following February, to serve as mediator. The 
United States was to be confined to the Atlantic seacoast. Great 
Britain was to be given the valley of the St. Lawrence, and Spain 
was to retain the Mississippi valley as far east as the Alleghany 

As a promise for the fulfillment of this scheme, the attitude of 
Governor Henry must have been satisfying to Spanish officials. 
**And were you once restored to the possessions," he wrote, 
**you held in the Floridas (which I sincerely wish to see, and 
which I make no Doubt these States would cheerfully contribute 

34 Greorge Morgan to the governor of Louisiana, April 22, 1777. This was for- 
warded to Spain along with a letter from the governor, dated August 9. Copy in 
the Illinois state historical library. 

35 Orders of August 15, 1777. Galvez to Jose de Galvez, December 30, 1777. 
Archivo general de Indias. Transcript in Ayer collection. 

36 Florida Blanca to Grantham, British minister to Madrid, February, 1778; 
Wharton, The revolutionary diplomatic correspondence of the United States, intro- 
duction, 1: 87. 

204 James A. James m.v.h.e. 

to aecomplisli) the advantage to us both in a Commercial View 
would be greatly increased. The English, indeed insinuate that 
it would be impolitic in your nation to assist us in our present 
Situation, but you are too wise not to perceive how much it is 
their Interest that you Should be imposed upon by this Doctrine 
and how much more formidable they must be to you with the as- 
sistance of America than without it ; and you must be too well 
acquainted with the Nature of our States to Entertain any Jeal- 
ousy of their becoming Your Eivals in Trade, or, overstocked as 
they are with vast tracts of Land, that they should ever think of 
extending their Territory. ' ' ^'^ 

Three months later, however, in making application for a loan 
of 150.000 pistoles, Henry suggested that West Florida should 
be annexed to the United State s.^^ Such a cession, he argued, 
would be the means of cutting off the supplies of lumber and 
provisions procured from the Mississippi region by the British 
West India settlements and thus would prevent the progress of 
their rivalry to the Spanish colonies. These proposals were re- 
ceived with favor by Galvez who submitted them to his govern- 
ment.^® It cannot be stated definitely that Governor Henry con- 
templated carrying out this project through the expedition under 
George Eogers Clark but it is certain Clark thought of it as an 
object to be accomplished.*^ The special messenger by whom 
Henry forwarded this letter to New Orleans confirmed his view. 
Congress should send a force, three hundred men being sufficient, 
to capture Natchez and Manchac for in the event of war between 
Spain and England the Spaniards would immediately take pos- 
session of these posts.*^ An expedition sent to take possession 
*^of that immense County" had been recommended some months 
earlier by Oliver Pollock.*^ This could be accomplished by a 

37 Patrick Henry to the governor of Cuba, October 18, 1777. Copy in the Vir- 
ginia state library. 

38 January 14, 1778. Draper manuscripts, 60 J 363, 364. 
^^Ihid., 58 J 103-112. 

40 Oliver Pollock urged on Clark the necessity for opening the communication by 
the Mississippi and taking possession of the country before war should be declared 
between Great Britain and Spain, ''by which the latter will save us that trouble and 
in Consequence we will loose a valuable conquest which might now be easely Ob- 
tained." August 20, 1778. Ibid., 48 J 34. 

41 David Itogers to Patrick Henry, October 4, 1778. Copy in the Illinois state 
historical library. 

42 The suggestion was made in May, 1778. 

Vol. IV, No. 2 Spanish Influence in the West 205 

small force aided secretly by Governor Galvez and by a great 
many loyal Americans of that region. 

During the spring Galvez sent a special commissioner to Pen- 
sacola to demand prompt redress for the depredations which 
British raiders were making on the Mississippi. He welcomed, 
therefore, the arrival of Captain James Willing at New Orleans, 
who came with a force of fifty Americans. Willing was com- 
missioned to procure the supplies deposited at New Orleans and 
bring them up the river to Fort Pitt.*^ With an increased force 
of men and assisted by other leaders, secured by Oliver Pollock, 
a number of British vessels in the river were seized and trans- 
ferred to the American service and Natchez and Manchac were 
captured.** The crops and stock of British planters were de- 
stroyed, houses burned and slaves carried away.*^ Most of the 
planters crossed the river and took refuge under the protection 
of the Spanish flag but some of them were taken and held as 
prisoners of war. This stroke cut off the supplies of lumber and 
provisions which had formerly been shipped from these posts to 
Jamaica and Pensacola. 

Galvez was satisfied that he had performed his full duty as a 
representative of a neutral power in issuing a proclamation 
granting protection to the refugees. Towards the close of April, 
three British armed sloops appeared before New Orleans and 
threatened to make reprisals on the town unless the prizes and 
all Americans were delivered to them. Certain of the inhab- 
itants were warned by their friends in Pensacola to quit the col- 
ony in order to escape the storm which was about to break.*^ 
Galvez replied to their demands that he could only refer the re- 
quest to his court.*^ While the evidence that the British were 
maturing plans to attack him was becoming more certain, Galvez 
learned of the success of George Rogers Clark. This, he de- 

43 John Hancock, president of congress, to Galvez, October 24, 1777. Papers of 
the continental congress. Willing also brought the commission by which Oliver 
Pollock was appointed agent of congress. 

44 The prizes were estimated to be worth £40,000. Oliver Pollock to a special com- 
mittee of congress, April 1, 1778. Pollock papers. 

45 One hundred slaves were taken and sold by Oliver Pollock for £140. 

46 April 27, 1778. 

47 Galvez to Jose de Galvez, March 24, 1778. Archivo general de Indias. ''In 
this Situation he laughed at their Haughtiness and despised their Attempts and in 
short they returned as they came." Oliver Pollock to a committee of congress, 
May 7, 1778. Papers of the continental congress. 

206 James A. James m.v.h.e. 

clared, would prevent the English from carrying out their plan 
against the Spanish possessions, for they were themselves com- 
pelled to fortify Natchez and Manchac against attack.*^ 

Without money for the support of his army Clark began, after 
the capture of Kaskaskia, to issue bills of credit on Virginia in 
exchange for provisions. These were satisfactory to the mer- 
chants and traders, for they were received and paid at their face 
value in silver by Oliver Pollock, at New Orleans. In a letter of 
July 18, Clark said to Pollock : ^ ^ I have succeeded agreeable to my 
wishes, and am necessitated to draw bills on the state and have 
reason to believe they will be accepted by you, the answering of 
which will be acknowledged by his Excelly. the Governor of Vir- 
ginia. '"^^ Large batteaux rowed with twenty-four oars, loaded 
with, goods sent by Pollock, under the protection of the Spanish 
flag, slipped past Natchez, then under the control of the British, 
and in from eighty-five to ninety days arrived at St. Louis or 
the Illinois posts. Full credit was given by Clark to Pollock for 
this assistance, by which he was able to hold the Illinois country. 
^ * The invoice Mr. Pollock rendered upon all occasions in paying 
those bills,'' Clark declared, *^I considered at the time and now 
to be one. of the happy circumstances that enabled me to Keep 
Possession of that Country.'' During September, 1778, goods 
were sent by Pollock to Clark, amounting to seven thousand two 
hundred dollars. The following January five hundred pounds 
of powder and some swivels were received by Clark from the 
same source. By February 5, 1779, bills were drawn on Pollock 
by Clark amounting to forty-eight thousand dollars. Of this 
amount, ten thousand dollars were paid by Pollock after he had 
disposed of his remaining slaves at a great disadvantage. 

By July, 1779, however. Pollock had so far exhausted his credit 
that in meeting an order from Governor Henry for goods 
amounting to ten thousand dollars, he was forced to mortgage a 
part of his lands. He had at that time paid bills drawn on the 
state amounting to thirty-three thousand dollars. The flour and 
meal which had been promised him had not been forwarded. 

48 Galvez to Torre, September 2, 1778. ArcMvo general de Indias. These cap- 
tured British posts were left unprotected by the Americans and early in July were 
again in the x^ossession of the British. 

*» James A. James, George Rogers Clarh papers, 1771-1781 (Illinois historical 
collections, vol. 8 — Springfield, 1912), Ixvii. 

Vol. IV, No. 2 Spanish Influence in the West 207 

^^ Being already drained of every shilling I could raise for the 
use of yours and the rest of the United States,'' he wrote, ^^I 
went first to the Governor of this place, and then to every mer- 
chant in it, but could not prevail upon any of them to supply said 
goods, giving for their reason the few goods they had were im- 
portedj would in all probahility become double the value of what 
they were just now, particularly at this juncture, as war between 
Spain and Great Britain was daily expected, and the little prob- 
ability there was of getting paid from your quarter in any rea- 
sonable time, by depending only on the Letter of Credit and Mr. 
Lindsay's contract. In fine finding it impracticable to obtain 
any by that means, and at the same time being fearful of the bad 
consequences that might attend your being disappointed in those 
goods, I have voluntarily by mortgaging part of my property 
for the payment at the latter end of this year, purchased the 
greater part of them from a Mr. Salomon; you have therefore 
invoice and bill of loading amounting to 10,029 dollars I Eial. ' ' ^^ 

While borrowing money on his own credit. Pollock, in order to 
encourage the shipment of arms, Indian goods, rum, sugar, and 
other articles to the Illinois country, and in order to encourage 
cargoes in exchange, made up of deerskins, beaver, otter, and 
flour, while at the same time keeping up the credit of the conti- 
nental currency, continued until July, 1779, to pay ^^Bateaux- 
man and Traders silver dollars for Paper Currency Dollar for 

Twenty-five thousand dollars' worth of the bills drawn by 
Clark were under protest at New Orleans. They were issued in 
favor of a number of the inhabitants of Illinois. These drafts 
had been received by the French merchants and traders in pref- 
erence to the continental money which had recently appeared in 
the west in small quantities. Continental currency had been 
used but little in the west previous to the expedition against 
Vincennes. The confidence of the people in the government, to- 
gether with the efforts of Pollock, sustained this money at par 
when it had so far depreciated in the east as to be worth only 
twelve cents on the dollar. 

While the British authorities were partially aware of the atti- 
tude of Spain towards the colonists, they waited for some more 

50 Draper manuscripts, 49 J 60. 

208 James A. James ^- ^- H- R. 

overt act.'^ '^ Though I have no doubt this minute of the exis- 
tence of a Spanish as well as a French war/' Lieutenant-Gov- 
ernor Hamilton wrote on January 24, 1779, '^jet I have, as yet, 
no accounts by which I may venture to act on the offensive 
against the subjects of Spain, which I ardently desire, as there 
would be so little difficulty of pushing them entirely out of the 
Mississippi.''^^ Three objects, among others, which it was 
hoped to accomplish by Hamilton's expedition were : (1) to erect 
a fort at the junction of the Mississippi and the Ohio which was 
to constitute a ^* bridle" on American trade; (2) to get control 
of the mouth of the Missouri with the hope of underselling the 
Spaniards and thus gaining the favor of the Indians of that 
region; and (3) by dislodging the ^^ rebels" from the Illinois to 
regain the Mississippi trade which otherwise, as an English 
official expressed it, would be completely ^'knocked up";^^ and 
at the same time contribute to the security of the Floridas.^* 

For Spain, the prize ultimately sought was not the trade of the 
Mississippi alone, so generously proffered by Governor Henry, 
but the possession of the entire valley. This object in view, a 
treaty between France and Spain was agreed upon in April, 
1779. The formal declaration of war against Great Britain 
quickly followed ; and in July of that year Governor Galvez was 
authorized to attack Natchez and other British posts on the west 
bank of the Mississippi. 

James Alton James 
Northwestern University 
EvxiNSTON, Illinois 

51 Canadian archives report, 1882, 25 ; Collections and researches made hy the 
Michigan pioneer and historical society (Lansing, 1892-), 9: 344. 

52 Ihid., 9 : 477. 
53lhid., 9: 371. 

54 Draper manuscripts, 58 J 2. 


The dominion arcMvist, Mr. Arthur G. Doughty, who by the 
way now carries the honorary title of colonel, is at present in 
Europe making a careful survey of documentary material relat- 
ing to the European war in so far as it relates to Canada and 
her effort in the great conflict. The dominion government has 
created what amounts to a national historical commission, al- 
though not at present so designated, which is charged with the 
duty of making **a complete survey of all the war activities 
official and semi-official of Canada" which it is hoped will pro- 
vide **a complete and comprehensive key to all classes of public 
war records, to all the departments, branches, offices, agencies 
and localities where they originate and where they are to be 
found, and to the nature and inter-relationships of all the activi- 
ties in the course of which they are produced." It is not the in- 
tention to attempt to collect these records, but inasmuch as they 
are accumulating in vast quantities, and their preservation will 
be a pressing duty immediately after the conclusion of the war, 
Mr. Doughty and those associated with him in the survey are to 
ascertain what measures have been taken to keep the records 
intact. Reports are to be made to the government from time to 
time. Those engaged in the survey are at present working in 
two groups, one under the direction of the dominion archivist, 
examining all the sources of material in Europe, and the other, 
under the supervision of Mr. Adam Shortt of the historical man- 
uscripts commission, performing a similar duty in Canada. The 
Canadian war records office, under the direction of Lord Beav- 
erbrook, is engaged in the collection of material relating to Can- 
ada's part in the war, and has the special duty of obtaining for 
Canada a series of war films of the activities of the Canadian 


Since the publication of the last survey the dominion archives 
have obtained from the public record office in London transcrixjts 
of a number of valuable documents, as well as a collection of the 

210 Lawrence J. Burpee m.v.h.r. 

Sliolbiirne manuscripts from Lansdowne House, and a series of 
documents from the British museum. Transcripts of records 
from the archives nationales in Paris have also been secured 
covering the years 1717 and 1763-67. Among many other inter- 
esting papers recently acquired for the archives from various 
sources on this side of the Atlantic are journals and other par 
pers relating to the western fur trade, transcripts from the court 
house of Montreal covering various periods during the French 
regime, transcripts of the Lafontaine papers, a series of docu- 
ments relating to Nova Scotia 1755-59, photostats of the Chal- 
mers collection in the library of congress, consisting in part of 
correspondence between Governor Lawrence and General Monck- 
ton relating to the Acadian expulsion, and photostats of the 
O'Callaghan papers in Washington, consisting of letters from 
William Lyon Mackenzie, Louis J. Papineau and other leaders 
in the rebellions of 1837-38 in Upper and Lower Canada, to 
O'Callaghan, w^ho seems to have had one of those amiable per- 
sonalities which sometimes serve as a connecting link for a 
number of otherwise antagonistic elements. The archives have 
also acquired a series of letters and papers relating to Papineau 
from a Mr. Chapman of New Zealand. 

The archives departments of the four western provinces of 
Canada are all doing quiet work in the collection and preserva- 
tion of historical documents, but inevitably anything like an 
aggressive policy involving the expenditure of considerable sums 
of money must wait until after the war. In Saskatchewan the 
provincial archivist is carrying on the task initiated last year of 
obtaining from every city, town, and village in the province au- 
thoritative accounts of the beginnings and early development of 
each community. The material so obtained is being carefully 
classified and analyzed, and in the course of a year or two the 
archivist expects to embody at least some of the results in the 
form of a Report. Information regarding the rebellion of 1885 ; 
the various tribes and their relations with the whites from the 
days of the early explorers and fur traders down; and the ro- 
mantic and stirring history of the royal north west mounted 
police, is constantly being added to the archives. A number of 
valuable documents bearing upon the history of the Blackfeet, 
and the taking jjossession of the western prairie by the mounted 

Vol. IV, No. 2 Historical Activities 211 

police in the seventies, have been procured from the widow of 
the late Sergeant-Major Spicer, who was twenty-nine years in 
the force, most of the time in the Blackfeet country. An inter- 
esting project that the archivist has had in hand for some time 
is the collection of autograph letters and documents of men and 
women directly or indirectly associated with the history of 

The archives department of British Columbia has similarly 
been adding to its documents of the fur trading era. Notable 
among the recent acquisitions are a number of records bearing 
on the founding and early days of Fort Victoria, several jour- 
nals and logs of early trading expeditions along the northwest 
coast, and a mass of material illustrative of the activities of the 
Hudson's bay company in the west. The archivist has done a 
particularly valuable piece of work in collecting the old depart- 
mental records of the colonies of Vancouver Island and British 
Columbia, for these documents are indispensable to an accurate 
knowledge of colonial administration. Interesting sidelights on 
the same subject are afforded by a collection of personal and 
family letters written in colonial days by the late Sir James 
Douglas, K.C.B., formerly governor of Vancouver Island and 
British Columbia. Besides the manuscripts mentioned, the ad- 
ditions to the archives include a large number of engravings and 
photographs of pioneers and early scenes. A systematic effort 
is being made to photograph the historic landmarks of the prov- 
ince, especially the remains of the farms and establishments of 
the old Hudson's bay and Puget sound agricultural companies. 


An important bibliographical publication was omitted from 
last year's survey of historical activities in Canada. The do- 
minion archivist issued as an appendix to his Annual report for 
1915 a ^^ Catalogue of pamphlets, journals and reports in the 
public archives of Canada 1611-1867." This catalog lists near- 
ly three thousand printed documents relating to the history of 
Canada, probably the most complete collection in its particular 
field. It is accompanied by a very full index and a large num- 
ber of facsimiles of title-pages. A small edition of the catalog 
was also issued in separate form, but is now out of print. 

212 Lawrence J. Burpee m.v.h. e. 

The late F. A. McCord compiled a Hand-hook of Canadian 
dates many years ago. It was published in 1888 and has long 
been ont of print. In spite of its many limitations, this little 
book of reference was so useful to students that it has been 
hoped that someone would be unselfish and persevering enough 
to make it the basis for a more complete work. This has now 
been done by Francis J. Audet, of the Canadian archives, whose 
Canadian historical dates and events 1492-1915, a volume of 
about 250 pages, will take its place as a standard book of refer- 
ence on Canadian history. As chief of the index division of the 
archives Mr. Audet had exceptional opportunities for not only 
correcting many errors that had crept into previous books, but 
also for including in his own work a great deal of historical data 
not elsewhere available. 

The forthcoming Final report on the Lake of the Woods ref- 
erence, now in press for the International joint commission of 
the United States and Canada, will contain a very complete bib- 
liography of the Lake of the Woods region, including its explor- 
ation and early history, the fur trade, and later development. 
Eeverend Father Hugolin has issued another volume of the 
bibliography of publications of the Franciscans in Canada, In- 
ventaire des revues, livres, brochures et autres ecrits puhlies 
par les Franciscains du Canada de 1890 a 1915. Two recent 
bibliographies of the works of French-Canadian historians are 
Garnet hihlio graphic des publications de M. VAbbe Auguste Gos- 
selin, and the bibliography appended to M. Malchelosse's bio- 
graphical sketch of Benjamin Suite, Cinquante-six ans de vie 
litter aire. There is in preparation an elaborate catalog in sev- 
eral volumes of the collection of pictures relating to the history 
of Canada, made by the well-known Toronto collector, John 
Eow Robertson, and now in the Toronto public library. Mr. 
Eobert J. Long of East Orange, New Jersey, who is by birth a 
Xova Scotian, is preparing a Bibliography of Nova Scotia!' 
which will include about one thousand names of authors and 
four thousand titles. The bibliography obviously aims at com- 
pleteness rather than selection. At the same time an astonish- 
ing number of comparatively well-known writers first saw the 
light in the Canadian province down by the sea. 

Vol. IV, No. 2 Historical Activities 213 


While the dominion archives is still busily engaged in the col- 
lection of documentary material relating to the history of Can- 
ada, it has been unable to do much in the way of publication 
since the issue of the last Report referred to in the survey for 
1915-1916. In addition to other difficulties, the archives staif 
is at present very short-handed, several members being on active 
service in connection with the war. The preparation of mate- 
rial for the forthcoming Report has been so seriously delayed 
that it is impossible at this time to give even an outline of what 
the Report will contain, beyond the statement that it will prob- 
ably include a collection of documents supplementing the ordi- 
nances published last year. The archivist intends to republish 
within the next few months the first two volumes of Documents 
relating to the constitutional history of Canada. 

The Ontario bureau of archives has been very active during 
the year and has to its credit two volumes of great historical 
value. One brings the publication of the journals of the legis- 
lative assembly down to the year 1824, and the other, comple- 
mentary to it, the journals of the legislative council, and com- 
pletes the manuscript series of the Upper Canada journals, as 
from 1825 down printed copies, though rare, are accessible and 
obtainable. The series of Ontario archives Reports begun in 
1909 covers the proceedings of both branches of the legislature 
of Upper Canada from 1792 with the exception of those for a 
few of the intervening years, the originals of which are missing. 
The series consists of seven volumes which contain data of the 
utmost importance and value in connection with the early his- 
tory of Ontario, and are proving a veritable mine of unworked 
ore to the student as well as to the general reader. The two 
latest volumes deal with a period of great interest in the legis- 
lative history of Upper Canada and contain a good deal of in- 
formation regarding the trade relations between Ontario and 
Quebec, that even at this interval of time is not lacking in in- 
terest. The volume devoted to the journals of the legislative 
assembly is unusually large and is furnished with an exhaustive 
and excellent index, for which the reader will feel grateful. It 
is understood that the bureau has material for about ^ve vol- 

214 Lawrence J. Burpee ^- ^- h. R. 

limes in hand ranging over a variety of subjects, which will ap- 
pear in due course. 

The archives department of British Columbia has several 
bulletins now in the printer ^s hands, and others in the course of 
preparation. These include a series of letters by Sir James 
Douglas ; papers relating to the convening of the first house of 
assembly in 1856; the journal of the trading ship Ruby, Captain 
Charles Bishop (1794-96) ; and the journal of Dr. Archibald 
Menzies, surgeon and naturalist to Captain George Vancouver's 
expedition of 1792-95 and one of the first trained observers to 
report upon the fauna and flora of the northwest coast. 

A certain amount of source material has been published in 
the transactions of various Canadian historical societies. Among 
others may be noted a reprint of ^^The constitutional debate in 
the legislative assembly (Upper Canada) of 1836,'' with an in- 
troduction by William Eenwick Riddell in the Papers and rec- 
ords of the Lennox and Addington historical society, volumes 
VII and VIII ; ^ ' Gleanings from the sheriff's records ' ' in the Trans- 
actions of the London and Middlesex historical society ; a collec- 
tion of documents published under the general title ^'Family 
history and reminiscences of early settlers" in the Publications 
of the Niagara historical society ; and two documentary articles 
in the Annual report of the Thunder Bay historical society, 
''Fort William's early newspapers," and ''Fort William in the 
middle of the XIX century. ' ' A good deal of valuable material 
relating to the early history of Canada is also contained in the 
first three numbers of the Manuscripts from the Burton histori- 
cal collection, collected and published by C. M. Burton of De- 
troit and edited by his daughter, M. Agnes Burton. 


The thirty-sixth annual meeting of the Eoyal society of Can- 
ada was held in Ottawa May 22, 23, and 24, 1917. Special at- 
tention was given to the subject of confederation, the fiftieth 
anniversary of the birth of the Canadian dominion falling on the 
first of July of this year. The Royal society and the Univer- 
sities' association of Canada, which was meeting in Ottawa at 
the same time, joined in a confederation dinner, at which ad- 
dresses were given by the governor-general, the Duke of Devon- 

Vol. IV, No. 2 Historical Activities 215 

shire, Sir George Foster, Rodolphe Lemieiix, and several other 
men prominent in Canadian pubhc life. Papers dealing with 
various phases of confederation were read before both the Eng- 
lish and French sections of the society. The presidential ad- 
dress before the former section was by George M. Wrong, of 
Toronto university, on ^' Fifty years of federation. A look 
backward and a look forward." Other papers on the same sub- 
ject were: ^^The federation principle as applied to the em- 
pire'' by Adam Shortt; ^^The feeling at present on confedera- 
tion in Nova Scotia'' by Archibald MacMechan of Dalhousie 
university; ^'Difficulties with Newfoundland" by J. W. Long- 
ley; ''Some origins of the British North America act" by W. R. 
Riddell; "Draft of an introduction to confederation and defence. 
A jubilee study, 1867-1917" by Lieutenant-Colonel William 
Wood; "A. T. Gait's 1858 draft of the confederation constitu- 
tion" by 0. D. Skelton, of Queen's university. The president of 
the French section, A. D. DeCelles, librarian of parliament, gave 
a paper on "Coup d'oeil sur la province de Quebec, lors de son 
entree dans la confederation." Other historical papers read be- 
fore the English section were : ' ' The contest for the command 
of lake Ontario in 1814" by Brigadier-General E. A. Cruik- 
shank, completing his documentary history of this phase of the 
war of 1812-14; "The conflict of educational ideas arising out 
of the war" by President Falconer of Toronto university; "The 
pioneers of Jasper Park," an historical account of exploration 
and the fur trade in the northern Rockies, by D. B. Dowling of 
the Canadian geological survey; "The loyalists of Pennsyl- 
vania" by W. H. Siebert, a continuation of his series of papers 
on the loyalists; "Loyalists in arms" by Archdeacon Raymond, 
a sketch of some of the British American military corps serving 
on the side of the crown in the revolutionary war. Among pa- 
pers read before the French section were: "A Chicoutimi et 
au Lac Saint- Jean a la fin du XVIIe siecle ' ' by Monseigneur A. 
E. Gosselin; "Notes sur le Conseil d'Assiniboia et des terres de 
Rupert" by L. A. Prud'homme; "France et Canada, 1775-1782" 
by Benjamin Suite; "Deux essais d'histoire: (a) La fee du 
chateau de Ramezay, recit heroi-fantastique canadien; (b) En 
marge de I'histoire du Canada: La Nouvelle France a I'arrivee 
de Frontenac (1672)" by Louis-Raoul de Lorimier; "Arrets, 

216 Laicrence J, Burpee ^i- ^^- h. R. 

eciits et aiitres documents les plus anciens de Montreal" by E. 
Z. Massicotte; ^^Essai genealogique et historique sur la famille 
d'Aillebont" by Aegedius Fanteux; *^Les Soeurs de Sainte- 
Anne a Vandreiiil, 1848-53" by Abbe Elie Anclair; ^'Les officiers 
d'etat-major des gouvernements de Quebec, Montreal et Trois- 
Eivieres sous le regime frangais" by Pierre-Georges Roy; 
*^Coup d'oeil sur Phistoire de la philosophic traditionnelle au 
Canada" by Monseigneur L. A. Paquet; "Armoiries et balsons" 
by Victor Morin. 

The Proceedings and transactions for 1916, third series, vol- 
ume X, were issued in the spring of the present year, and con- 
tain the papers read at the thirty-fifth meeting of the Royal so- 
ciety, as listed in the survey of last year/ 

The Anmial report of the Ontario historical society for 1916 
contains the proceedings of the society for that year, as well as 
the reports of the various affiliated societies, and of the historic 
sites and monuments committee. The Papers and records, vol- 
ume XIV, contains the following papers: '^ Robert (Fleming) 
Gourlay" by W. R. Riddell; *'The heraldry of Canada" by 
George S. Hodgins; ^'An election without politics" by J. Davis 
Barnett; ^^ Arrivals and departures of ships at Moose Factory" 
by J. B. Tyrrell; ^'Captain Robert Heriott Barclay" by Miss A. 
Blanche Burt. Volume xv, to be issued in August, contains the 
following papers : ^ ' Canadian history as a subject of research ' ' 
by Clarence M. Warner; ^^The Ridgeway semi-centennial" by 
Justus A. Griffin; ^^ Robert (Fleming) Gourlay: reminiscences 
of his last days in Canada" by Mrs. Sidney Farmer; ^'Military 
register of baptisms for the station of Fort George, Upper Can- 
ada, 1821 to 1827;" '^The last of the La Guayarians (Welling- 
ton county, Ontario) by the late C. C. James. A resolution of 
appreciation of the services of the retiring president, Clarence 
M. Warner, was adopted at the annual meeting. Mr. Warner, 
who has not only been one of the most active members of the 
Ontario historical society but also organized the Lennox and 
Addington historical society, has lately moved to Boston, where 
among other activities he has accepted the honorary position 
of curator of Canadian books in the Harvard university library. 

The eleventh annual meeting of the Champlain society was 

^ Ante, :i: 208. 

Vol. IV, No. 2 Historical Activities 217 

held in Toronto in the autumn of 1916, and the twelfth annual 
meeting in the same city in May, 1917. The Eleventh annual 
report has been published, and the Twelfth annual report will 
be issued probably before this survey appears. In spite of pe- 
culiarly difficult conditions due to the war, the society has man- 
aged to complete and issue to its members the third and final 
volume of Knox's Journal, edited by Arthur G. Doughty, and 
David Thompson's Narrative, edited by J. B. Tyrrell, the ex- 
plorer of northern Canada, who it will be remembered also edit- 
ed the Champlain society's edition of Hearne's Journey. Be 
cause of the practical impossibility of getting paper in England, 
where the publications of the society are printed, it is unlikely 
that any volumes will be issued this year, although several are 
in the printer's hands. 

The Lennox and Addington historical society (Napanee, On- 
tario) has issued a double number, the seventh and eighth vol- 
umes of its Papers and records in one, containing a reprint of 
the ^ ^ Constitutional debate of 1836 ' ' already noted. The second 
volume of the Papers and addresses of the Kent historical so- 
ciety (Chatham, Ontario) contains papers on ^'The Presbyter- 
ian church in Chatham" by P. D. McKellar; ^'Our storied past" 
by Katherine B. Coutts; ^^The Twenty- fourth regiment of Cana- 
dian militia" by Major James C. Weir; and *^ Municipal govern- 
ment in the county of Kent" by John A. Walker. The meeting 
of the Niagara historical society (Niagara,-on-the-Lake, Ontario) 
in October, 1916, marks the completion of the twenty-first year 
of the society's activity. Its Publication number 28 is devoted 
to historical reminiscences, noted elsewhere. Among the papers 
published in part 7 of the Transactions of the London and Mid- 
dlesex historical society (London, Ontario) are: ^'Pioneer politi- 
cians" by C. T. Cameron ; and ^' Bench, and bar in the early days" 
by the late D. J. Hughes. To the Sixth annual report of the Thun- 
der Bay historical society (Port Arthur, Ontario) Peter McKel- 
lar contributes two papers consisting mainly of documentary ma- 
terial, and A. L. Eussell is credited with ' ' A brief history of Port 
Arthur harbour." The third and fourth Annual reports of the 
Waterloo historical society (Kitchener, Ontario) contain papers 
by James H. Coyne on ^'The Indian occupation of southern On- 
tario;" by James E. Kerr, *' Sketch of the life of William Dick- 

218 Lawrence J. Burpee ^- ^- h. k. 

son;'^ by A. E. G. Smith, '^ Early history of Haysville and vicin- 
ity. ' ' A number of papers were read before the Elgin histori- 
cal and scientific institute (St. Thomas, Ontario) during the last 
twelve months, but although of an historical nature, they all re- 
late rather to the European war than to Canada. The same 
comment may be made as to papers read before several other 
of the Canadian historical societies, the members of which are 
in fact throwing so much of their energies into the various de- 
partments of war work that little time remains for the consid- 
eration of Canadian historical problems. The Lundy's Lane 
historical society (Niagara Falls, Ontario) has had in prepara- 
tion for the past two years an ecclesiastical history of the Niag- 
ara district. 


Among articles of an historical nature in the various maga- 
zines, the follovfing may be noted as relating to Canada: 

Canadian magazine (Toronto) : ^*The lost state'' by E. Green, 
and ^^ John Henry the spy" by C. H. Blue, both relating to in- 
cidents in the war of 1812-14; '^ Another patriot general" by W. 
E. Eiddell; this, like the article by G. C. Wells noted in last 
year's survey,^ relates to the rebellion of 1837-38; ^' First Cana- 
dians in France" by F. M. Bell; '^Seigniories of the Saguenay" 
by H. Simard; ''As others saw us" by L. J. Burpee; "Pioneer 
Canadian women" by E. P. Weaver. 

University magazine (Montreal) : "Trans-Pacific trade with 
Eussia" by L. D. Wilgress; "The testing of democracy" by J. 
0. Miller. 

United empire (London): "Canada and the West Indies" 
by Evan Lewin; "The necessity for a common imperial eco- 
nomic policy" by B. H. Morgan; "Imperial alternatives — al- 
liance or union" by J. W. Barrett; "The integration of the 
empire" by Sir H. Wilson; "The empire and armageddon" 
by W. Lang. 

Bulletin des recherches historiques (Beauceville, P.Q.) : "Jean 
Deshayes, hydrographe du roi" by P. G. Eoy: "Notes et docu- 
ments nouveaux sur le fondateur de Montreal" by E. Z. Massi- 
cotte; "La Saint- Joseph" by Benjamin Suite. 

La Nouvelle France (Quebec) : "La province de Quebec et 

2 Ante, 3: 211. 

Vol. IV, No. 2 Historical Activities 219 

la minorite anglaise" by Thomas Chapais; ^*Uri precurseur de 
la Trappe du Canada" by Abbe Lindsay; ''Les Capucins en 
Acadie, 1632-54" by Brother Alberic. 

Revue canadienne (Montreal) : '^Crimes et peines sous le 
regime frangais" by P. G. Roy; ''Le pro jet d 'union de 1822" 
by J. H. Lapointe; ''Thomas Storrow Brown" by John Boyd 
(Brown was one of the leaders of the rebellion of 1837 in Lower 
Canada, now the province of Quebec); "Les bibliotheques ca- 
nadiennes" by A. Fauteux. One may also mention here "L'in- 
teret sociologique de notre histoire an lendemain de la conquete" 
by Leon Gerin, in Revue trimestrielle canadienne. 

Several articles in English and United States periodicals, 
bearing upon Canadian history, may also be noted; "Tercen- 
tenary of the establishment of the faith in Canada" by A. T. 
Sadlier, in Catholic world-, "Growth of nationalism in the Brit- 
ish empire" by George M. Wrong, in American historical re- 
view, "Great Britain's bread upon the waters: Canada and her 
other daughters" by W. H. Taft, in National geographic mag- 
azine-, "Language issue in Canada," in Literary digest-, "Can- 
ada and the United States" in Pan American magazine-, "Can- 
ada faces new problems" by P. T. McGrath, in Revieiv of re- 
vietus; "Sir John A. Macdonald" by the Marquis of Aberdeen 
and Temair, in Outlook ; "The Doukhobors in Canada" by Elina 
Thorsteinson, in the Mississippi Valley Historical Review ; ^ 
and the following among many relating to Canada's participa- 
tion in the European war: "Why Canada is at war," in Quar- 
terly review; "Canada's two years of war and their meaning" 
by P. T. McGrath, in Review of reviews; "What Canada has 
done ' ' by W. R. Givens, in Independent, 


Probably the most important book of the last twelve months 
relating to Canadian history is E. M. Saunders' Life and letters 
of the Right Hon. Sir Charles T upper, Bart., in two volumes. A 
shorter biography is J. W. Longley's Sir Charles T upper, in 
the Makers of Canada series. As Tupper's political life opened 
many years before confederation (1867) and extended down to 
the beginning of the European war, and as he was for more than 

^Ante, 4: 3-48. 

i!20 Lawrence J. Burpee m.v.h.e. 

half a century one of the leaders in Canadian public life, these 
authoritative biographies are invaluable to the student of Ca- 
nadian history, especially in conjunction with the two volumes 
of his political reminiscences mentioned in the survey for 1914- 
15. Both Saunders and Longley were on intimate terms with 
Tupper for many years, the former as a political friend and the 
latter on the opposite side of politics. Sons of Canada: short 
studies of characteristic Canadians by August Bridle, sufficient- 
ly explains itself. One of the most attractive, as well as most 
authoritative books of the year is Arthur J. Doughty 's A daugh- 
ter of New France, an account of Madeleine de Vercheres and 
the old regime in Canada. The edition is limited to one hun- 
dred and thirty-five copies, and the entire proceeds have been 
given to the Canadian Red Cross society. The frontispiece, a 
view of the old windmill at Vercheres, is from a painting by H. 
R. H. the Princess Patricia. There are four other illustrations 
in color, reproduced from water color paintings, three by C. W. 
Jeffreys and one by George A. Reid. Other books of the past 
twelve months are W. R. RiddelPs The constitution of Canada 
in its history and practical workings ; * a new edition of Sir C. P. 
Lucas' Canada and Newfoundland; Louise S. Hasbrouck's La 
Salle; R. B. Deane's Mounted police life in Canada; G. Sellar's 
True makers of Canada; confederation and its leaders by M. 0. 
Hammond; a second volume of Canada in Flanders by Lord 
Beaverbrook, better known as Max Aitken; Two years of war: 
as viewed from Ottawa. This is a special issue of The civilian, 
giving some account of the war work of the civil service of Can- 
ada, 1914-1916. The federation of Canada, 1867-1917, consists 
of a series of lectures delivered in the university of Toronto in 
March, 1917, by George M. Wrong, Sir John Willison, and Z. A. 
Lash, K.C. The new era in Canada, edited by J. 0. Miller, con- 
sists of a series of essays dealing with the upbuilding of the 
Canadian commonwealth by Stephen Leacock, Sir Edmund 
Walker, George M. Wrong, Sir Clifford Sifton, and other well- 
known Canadians. Editors, authors, and publishers give all 
profits to the Canadian Red Cross. One may note here also 
James Woodsworth's Thirty years in the Canadian north-west; 
Colonel William Hamilton Merritt's Canada and national ser- 

4 To be reviewed later. 

Vol. IV, No. 2 Historical Activities 221 

vice; and Walter A. Riddell's Rise of ecclesiastical control in 

Among books in the French language may be noted La coloni- 
zation du Canada sous la domination frangaise by Abbe Ivanhoe 
Caron; Tableaux synoptiques de Vhistoire du Canada 1500-1700 
by 'Father Le Jeune, of the university of Ottawa; Vie de Mgr. 
Langevin by A. Gr. Morice; and Trois legendes Franciscaines de 
I 'an 1629, par le Frere Gilles by Pere Hugolin. 

The war has stimulated interest in all questions affecting the 
relations of Canada and the other self-governing dominions to 
the mother country. Out of this interest have grown such re- 
cent works as C. H. Currey's British colonial policy, 1783-1915; 
A. B. Keith's Imperial unity and the dominions; A. E. Du- 
chesne's Democracy and empire; W. B. Worsf old's The empire 
on the a^n/vil; Percy and Archibald Kurd's New imperial part- 
nership; Lionel Curtis' Problem of the commonwealth; and an- 
other volume, under the editorship of Mr. Curtis, The common- 
wealth of nations. 

A publication of special interest to students of the exploration 
period in the Canadian west is L. A. Prud'homme's memoir on 
^* Pierre Gaultier de Varennes, Sieur de La Verendrye, 1685- 
1749," published as volume v of the Bulletin of the historical 
society of St. Boniface, Manitoba. Chester Martin's Lord Sel- 
kirk's work in Canada deals in a scholarly way with the begin- 
nings of Manitoba. F. W. Howay of New Westminster, Brit- 
ish Columbia, has issued a pamphlet on the Fur trade in north 
western development. Two important articles on the history 
and exploration of one of the great northern rivers of Canada 
flowing into Hudson bay are Frederick J. Alcock's ^^The Church- 
ill river" and J. B. Tyrrell's '^ Early exploration of the Churchill 
river," both reprinted from the Geographical review (New 
York). Another notable reprint from the same periodical is 
Otto Klotz's ^^ History of the forty-ninth parallel survey west 
of the Rocky mountains." L. J. Burpee's '^Restrictions on the 
use of historical material" is a reprint from the Annual report 
of the American historical association.^ That indefatigable 
worker. Judge Riddell, has recently published The legal pro- 

5 To be reviewed later. 

6 To be reviewed later. 

222 Lawrence J. Burpee m.v.h. r. 

fcssion 1)1 Upper Canada in its early periods, and a pamphlet 
enlarging upon certain aspects of the subject The first law re- 
porter in Upper Canada and his reports. Kev. E. J. Devine 
S.J., is the author of a series of pamphlets dealing with the lives 
of five of the Jesuit martyrs in Canada, John de Brebeuf, Ga- 
briel Lalemant, Anthony Daniel, Charles Garmier, and Noel 

A work of unusual interest to students of the beginnings of 
English-Canadian history is Clarence W. Alvord's The Missis- 
sippi valley in Biitish politics.'^ The western American histor- 
ical societies and other similar agencies are publishing in their 
annual publications a great deal of material that is of value in 
connection with the study of Canadian history. In this connec- 
tion may be noted The new regime, 1765-1767, edited by C. W. 
Alvord and C. E. Carter, as volume xi of the Illinois historical 
collections of the Illinois state historical library;^ Frontier ad- 
vance on the upper Ohio, 1778-1779, edited by Louise P. Kel- 
logg, Collections (volume xxiii) of the State historical society of 
Wisconsin;® '* British policy on the Canadian frontier, 1782- 
1792 : mediation and an Indian barrier state,'' by Orpha E. Lea- 
vitt in Proceedings of the State historical society of Wisconsin -^^ 
^^The loyalist refugees of New Hampshire'' by W. H. Siebert, 
in Bulletin of the Ohio state university ; and articles in the South 
Dakota historical Collections, volume vii, by Doane Eobinson 
and Charles E. DeLand, and in the Mississippi Valley Histoei- 
CAL Review by Mr. Orin G. Libby, Mr. Robinson and Mr. De- 
Land, on certain points in connection with the western explora- 
tions of La Verendrye.^^ Two books bearing upon the history of 
British Columbia are In the wake of the war cause by W. H. Col- 
lison, and Up and down the North Pacific coast by Thomas Cros- 

The following doctoral dissertations relating to Canadian his- 
tory have either been published during the past twelve months 
or are in preparation: Historical antecedents of the unicameral 
system in New Brunswick by J. E. Howe ; The Canadian consti- 

7 Reviewed ante, 4: 131-133. 
^ To be reviewed later. , 
& Reviewed in this number. 
If Reviewed ante, 3: 557-558. 
1' Ante, 3: U3-160, 368-399. 

Vol. IV, No. 2 Historical Activities 223 

tutional act of 1791 by J. S. Custer; History of the Canadian 
grain trade by W. C. Clark; The westward movement in Canada 
by G. C. Davidson. 


The Annual report of the Historic landmarks association of 
Canada, 1917, contains an important list, with notes, of "Some 
historic sites in Canada and Newfoundland. ' ' Attention is also 
particularly drawn to the notable event which took place on Sep- 
tember 1, 1916, when H. R. H. the Duke of Connanght, as gov- 
ernor-general of Canada, relaid for the new parliament build- 
ings at Ottawa the same foundation stone originally laid on 
September 1, 1860, by his brother, the late King Edward vii, 
then Prince of Wales. The report of the committee on historic 
sites and monuments of the Ontario historical society, in the 
Annual report for 1916, records the marking in various w^ays of 
a number of historic sites in the province of Ontario. Good 
work is being done in this direction by many of the historical 
societies throughout Canada. One of the more ambitious pro- 
jects is that carried out by the Women's Wentworth historical 
society of Hamilton, Ontario, which has succeeded in purchas- 
ing the site of the battle of Stoney Creek in the war of 1812, in- 
cluding the Gage homestead, headquarters of the American 
staff during the battle. An incident worth noting is the adop- 
tion by congress in February, 1917, of a resolution expressing 
the appreciation of the government and people of the United 
States of the erection by the people of Thorold, Ontario, of a 
monument to certain soldiers of the United States in the war of 

The Ontario historical society is now waging a gallant fight 
for the preservation of old Fort York. In 1909 after a pro- 
longed public discussion and negotiation the historic property 
was granted to the city of Toronto in trust and on condition 
that "the site of the old fort . . . shall as far as possible be 
restored to its original condition . . . and shall be preserv- 
ed and maintained in such condition forever.'' It was provided 
that the grant should become null and void if the city failed to 
carry out the conditions. It appears that the city has violated 
the terms of the grant by the construction of a car line which 

224 Laic fence J. Burpee m.v.h.r. 

cuts into the ramparts in two places. The historical society is 
prepared to tight the city and hopes yet to preserve the integrity 
of the old fort. 

Eeference has already been made to the celebration of the 
fiftieth anniversary of Canadian confederation by the Royal so- 
ciety of Canada. In spite of its preoccupation with the war 
many Canadian public bodies have found time to pay fitting 
tribute to the fathers of confederation and their handiwork. 
On February 7 a resolution was passed in the senate and house 
of commons for the appointment of a joint committee to con- 
sider and report on the matter of an appropriate celebration. 
As a result of this committee's deliberations, the dominion gov- 
ernment issued a topical pamphlet, The jubilee of confederation, 
comparing and contrasting the Canada of 1867 with the Canada 
of 1917. The government also issued a proclamation inviting 
churches, sabbath and day schools, colleges, municipal authori- 
ties, Canadian clubs, and other associations, to cooperate in the 
working out of fitting commemorative services for the day. The 
provincial authorities were requested to arrange for a special 
celebration of the anniversary at the capitals of the several 
provinces. Appropriate memorial services were also to be held 
in London and Paris. Provision was made for the issuance of 
a commemorative postcard and postage stamp with appropriate 
design and legend representative of the work of the fathers of 
confederation. The dominion government itself on July 2 (the 
first of July falling on Sunday) arranged a ceremonial service 
in Ottawa, at which the governor-general dedicated a stone car- 
rying an appropriate inscription, in the central stone column up- 
holding the roof of the great entrance hall of the new parliament 


In his Summary report for the year 1916, Mr. E. Sapir, head 
of the division of anthropology of the geological survey of Can- 
ada, notes the fact that no further work has been possible in the 
preparation of anthropological exhibits because of the fact that 
pending the completion of the new parliament buildings the 
senate and house of commons are occupying the Victoria me- 
morial museum and the hall of Canadian anthropology has had 

Vol. IV, No, 2 Historical Activities 225 

to be closed for the present. A great deal of valuable ethnologi- 
cal and archaeological material relating to the Eskimo has been 
received from Mr. E. Jenness, the anthropologist of the Ca- 
nadian arctic expedition. The Eskimo collection is a very ex- 
tensive one and illustrates every aspect of the life and customs 
of the natives of Coronation gulf and neighboring regions. The 
museum has also secured a number of ethnological specimens 
from various sources, including Penobscot wampum colors 
from the far east and Lillooet and Tilgit specimens from the ex- 
treme west. The division of anthropology has also added mate- 
rially to its phonograph records. The field work included the 
collection of French-Canadian folklore, two volumes of which 
have been prepared for publication. Among the manuscripts 
received are the following: manuscript book belonging to Co- 
wichan Prophet, British Columbia; *^Time perspective in abori- 
ginal American culture" by E. Sapir; ^^Tsimshian and Iroquo- 
ian phratries and clans" by C. M. Barbeau; ^^Tahltan and Kas- 
ka tales" by J. A. Teit; ''Malecite ethnology" by W. H. Mech- 
ling; ^* Dakota ethnology" by W. D. Wallis. Since the publi- 
cation of the last survey the following anthropological publica- 
tions have been issued by the geological survey: Iroquois foods 
and food preparation by F. W. Waugh, and Time perspective 
in aboriginal American culture by E. Sapir. The following me- 
moirs have been completed for publication: ^^Tsimshian and 
Iroquoian phratries and clans" by C. M. Barbeau; ^^ Social and 
religious customs of the Ojibwa of southeastern Ontario " by P. 

The archaeological exhibits have been more fortunate than 
those relating to anthropology, the hall in which they have been 
arranged not being needed for the purposes of parliament. An 
interesting development in this department is the loan to the 
ceramic laboratory of the mines branch of a selection of speci- 
mens illustrating aboriginal Canadian ceramics to aid that 
branch in desigiiing pottery made from Canadian clay, as part 
of a movement to promote the clay industries. The field work 
included the examination of Iroquoian village sites in Ontario. 
The monograph on the '^ Archaeology of Merigomish harbour, 
Nova Scotia" has been completed by Harlan I. Smith, the ar- 
chaeologist of the museum. The cataloging of the archaeological 

226 Lawrence J. Burpee M- V- h. R. 

specimens has been brought up to October, 1916, and consider- 
able additions have been made to the card bibliography of the 
archaeology of Canada. 

During the year C. M. Barbeau contributed to the Journal of 
American folk-lore a very interesting article on ^^Contes popu- 
laires canadiens," and to Le parler frangais (Quebec) ^'Les tra- 
ditions orales frangaises au Canada/' 

Lawrence J. Burpee 
International Joint Commission 
Ottawa, Canada 


FuETHEB Pamphlets for the Canada- Gu ad ai^oupe Controversy 

Clarence W. Alvord has recently published a valuable bibli- 
ography^ upon the pamphlet warfare over the Canada-Guada- 
loupe controversy during the seven years' war. The compila- 
tion was begun in 1911 subsequent to the meeting of the Ameri- 
can historical association at Buffalo in that year. With the as- 
sistance of W. L. Grant of Queen 's university and of G. P. Win- 
ship of the Carter Brown library, it has attained to sixty-five 
titles. These are distributed among the seven collections of the 
Boston Athenaeum, library of congress. Carter Brown library, 
Canadian archives. Harvard college library, the British museum, 
and the University of Illinois library. One or two of the sixty- 
five titles Mr. Alvord traces through references or through book- 
sellers ' advertisements, and these he has listed as ^^not seen.'' 

There is in the McGill university library a very large collect 
tion of seventeenth and eighteenth century pamphlets under the 
general name of the Eedpath tracts (over 1,200 bound volumes, 
averaging from eight to ten pamphlets each). The collection 
contains ten of the titles Mr. Alvord enumerates, some of which 
he has listed as ^^not seen." It contains in addition twelve 
more new titles and hitherto unlisted titles. These, added to the 
sixty-five already found, will bring the bibliography to a total of 
seventy- seven. 

The titles duplicated are — following Mr. Alvord 's enumera- 
tion — numbers 2, 10, 13, 17 (five different editions), 21, 26 (two 
different editions) , 27, 28, 45, and 51. 

Since numbers 10, 13, and 48 are listed as **not seen," the fol- 
lowing notes may be of interest : 

Number 10 contains a brief statement in three sentences that 
opinions differ as to the retention of Guadaloupe (Canada not 

1 Clarence W. Alvord, The Mississippi valley in British polities (Cleveland, 1917), 
2 : 253-264. See review by O. G. Libby, ante, 4 : 131 ; also review by C. E. Fryer in 
Beview of historical publications relating to Canada for 1916, p. 36. 

228 Xofi's and Documents m.v.h.e. 

Xumber 13 contains one paragraph only on the subject, and 
this to the extent of attributing the success of the British arms 
in Canada to divine aid. It should therefore be omitted from 
the tinal list. 

For number 48 there is an almost parallel title as follows : A 
Letter to the Right Honourable Earl of Halifax etc. on the 
Peace. London, Printed for J. Newberry, at the Bible and Sun 
in St. PauPs Church-yard. 1763. (38 p.) It is an extravagant 
eulogy of George III. 

It may be remarked that number 27 appeared originally as 
two separate parts : 

1. A Postscript to the Consideration of the Present German 
"War. (Not dated, and intended for the second edition.) 18 p. 

2. Additions for the Sixth edition of the Considerations on 
the Present German War. (Not dated.) 64 p. 

Number 60 was advertised under two other titles also : 

1. A Review of the Present Ministry from the Resignation 
of Mr. Pitt and Lord Temple to the Signing of the Definitive 
Treaty, April 2, 1763. Printed for G. Kearsly, in Ludgate 

2. The Review of Lord Bute's Administration. Printed for 
J. Almon, opposite Burlington House, Piccadilly. 1763. 

The new titles that may be added to the published bibliography 

I. A Letter to a Noble Lord etc. By an Englishman. Lon- 
don, Printed for G. Kearsly at the Golden Lion in Ludgate 
Street. 1760. 45 p. (Argues against giving up Canada in 
preference to Guadaloupe. Would retain all conquests.) 

II. The Conduct of the Ministry Impartially Examined. And 
the Pamphlet entitled Considerations on the Present German 
AVar Refuted from its own Principles. London, Printed for R. 
Griffiths in the Strand, 1760. 56 p. (Argues in favor of a 
European war, and against conquests in the East and West 

III. A Full and Candid Answer to a Pamphlet entitled Con- 
siderations on the Present German War. Printed for J. Prid- 
den, at the Feathers, near Fleet Bridge etc. 1760. 86 p. (Tries 
to depreciate the value of American and West Indian conquests.) 

IV. A Letter to the Right Honourable W P . By a 

Vol. IV, No. 2 Usi fjf Recently Discovered Pamphlets 229 

Citizen. London. Printed for A. Henderson, in Westminster 
Hall. 1761. 24 p. (This evidently occasioned number 29 in 
Mr. Alvord's list. It argues against a war with Spain and de- 
preciates the value of possible conquests of Spanish territory.) 

V. A Letter from the Anonymous Author of the Letter Versi- 
fied to the Anonymous Writer of the Monitor. London. Printed 
for W. Nicoll, in St. PauPs Church-yard. 1761. 35 p. (Writes 
in support of Mr. Mauduit the author of Considerations on the 
Present German War.) 

VL A Letter to His Grace the Duke of N********. on the 
Present Crisis in the Affairs of Great Britain, containing Re- 
flections on a late Great Resignation. London. Printed for R. 
Griffiths, in the Strand. Not dated. 48 p. (Quite valuable. 
Argues for Canada, the West Indies and an attack upon Louisi- 
ana; explains the divisions in the cabinet over retaining Canada, 
revealed by M. de Bussy's visit.) 

VII. Letter to Her R 1 H s the P s D— w— g— r 

of W on the Approaching Peace. With a Few Words 

Concerning the Right Honourable the Earl of B and the 

General Talk of the World. London. Printed for S. Williams, 
at the Circulating Library in Ludgate-Hill. 1762. 59 p. (Would 
retain all conquests.) 

VIII. Reflections on the Domestic Policy Proper to be Ob- 
served on the Conclusion of a Peace. London. Printed for A. 
Millar, in the Strand, 1763 (but written October, 1762). 94 p. 
(Would retain all conquests, but deems Canada and continental 
settlement more worth while than Guadaloupe and the sugar 

IX. A Few Thoughts of a Candid Man at the Present Crisis, 
In a Letter to a Noble Lord Retired from Power. London. 
Printed for J. Hinxman, at the Globe in Paternoster Row, 1762. 
112 p. (Attributed to Dr. James Marriott of Doctors Commons. 
Is against a peace on mercantile principles only, but would re- 
tain Canada for its lumber, fisheries, etc.) 

X. An Appendix to the Review of Mr. Pitt's Administration 
by the Author of the Review. London. Printed for J. Almon, 
opposite Burlington House in Piccadilly. 1763. 40 p. (P. 37 
states that Mr. Pitt sacrificed Guadaloupe to redeem Hesse.) 

XI. The Opposition to the Late Minister Vindicated from 

230 Notes and Documents ^- ^- h. k. 

the Aspersions of a Pamphlet entitled Considerations on the 
Present Dangerous Crisis. London. Printed for W. Bathoe, 
near Exeter-Change in the Strand. 1763. 45 p. (States the 
Canada-Guadaloupe question was an embarrassing one in 1760 
and 1761, but at the final negotiations for peace the circum- 
stances of the belligerents had altered the controversy.) 

XII. An Address to the People of Great Britain and Ireland 
on the Preliminaries of Peace, Signed November 3, 1762, be- 
tween Great Britain and France and Spain. London. Printed 
for Messrs. Whiston and White in Fleet Street, and E. Dilly in 
the Poultry. 1763. 24 p. (Argues against Guadalupe as con- 
trary to the original purpose of the war, but strongly in favor 
of Canada.) 

One or two of these pamphlets are eloquent in their prophecy 
of the ultimate value of the Ohio-Mississippi country, and of 
what were termed the *^ French settelments.'' They supplement 
and confirm all that Mr. Alvord writes concerning the school of 
imperialist thinkers who argued in favor of America as a field 
for continental colonization. 

C. E. Fkyek 


French colonial question, 1789-1791. Dealings of the constituent as- 
sembly with problems arising from the revolution in the West Indies. 
By Mitchell B. Garrett, Ph.D., acting professor of history, Saint 
Lawrence university. (Ann Arbor, Michigan: George Wahr, pub- 
lisher, 1916. 167 p. $1.25) 
As stated in the preface, former writers on the French colonies in the 
West Indies have not given a clear and accurate account of the ' ' efforts 
of the national deputies at Paris to understand and redress the colonial 
grievances." By a painstaking study of the records of the constituent 
assembly the author of the present volume has attempted to supply the 

In chapters one and two the colonial factions and grievances are set 
forth. The whites of the French West Indies were divided into three 
classes: planters, government officials, and petits-hlmics. Planters for 
the most part lived in the colonies, yet a wealthy minority resided in 
France as absentee landlords. Of this number one hundred and fifty 
sat in the constituent assembly as national deputies. The government 
officials were a "lot of arbitrary soldiers, supercilious bureaucrats, and 
pedantic lawyers" sent out by the king. The petit-hlancs were ''small 
traders, adventurers and nondescripts in the cities and slave overseers 
and mechanics in the country, ' ' many of whom were of ' ' shady character 
and noted for their brutality, their lawlessness and their hatred of the 
colored race." The colored population was also divided into three 
groups: mulattoes, free blacks, and slaves. The mulattoes numbered 
about 45,000 as compared with 83,000 whites. Some of them were edu- 
cated and wealthy, but all were treated by the whites as social inferiors 
and not admitted to the learned professions. To escape this color dis- 
tinction many mulattoes made prolonged visits in France. The free 
blacks were poor, ignorant outcasts, disliked by both mulattoes and 
whites. The number was small and the role played by them insig- 
nificant. The slaves were mere chattels, but they outnumbered the free 
population five or six to one. 

The mother country gave her dependencies military protection for 
which she claimed a monopoly of the colonial trade. The whole exterior 
regime caused the planter no end of annoyance, as did also the interior 
regime, in the hands of a civil and military bureaucracy at the head of 
which were the governor and intendant. These men were given consider- 

'2S'2 Reviews of Books m.v.h.e. 

able power and patronage which the planter claimed they greatly abused. 
As a result of these conditions the planters were discontented. They de- 
sired local self-government, a voice in the administration of the exterior 
control and a modification of the navigation acts. The problem that 
confronted them was how to bring about these changes and at the same 
time guarantee the existence of slavery and the slave trade. Already 
the mulattoes w^ere demanding the abolition of the ^'aristocracy of 
color" and the slaves, since the founding of the Societe des amis des 
nmrs in Paris in 1788, had a champion for their cause beyond the sea 
who w^as working for the abolition of the slave trade and the gradual 
emancipation of the slaves. The remaining four chapters are devoted 
to the struggle carried on by these different factions both in the colonies 
and in France. 

This study of conditions of affairs in the French West Indies is of 
value, only to students of the period of the French revolution. So much 
knowdedge is presupposed that those unfamiliar with the men and events 
of the time would derive but little benefit from reading it. For the 
special student, however, there are some well organized details not to be 
found elsewhere so well presented in secondary accounts. 

N. M. Miller Surrey 

Jose de Gulvez, visitor-general of Nexi} Spain (1765-1771). By Herbert 
Ingram Priestly, assistant curator, Bancroft library. University of 
California. [University of California publications in history, vol- 
ume V] (Berkeley: University of California press, 1916. 448 p. 
The latest addition to the University of California publications in his- 
tory fully maintains the high standard of that series and proves an ad- 
mirable companion volume to the previous numbers by Smith and Bolton 
and a necessary supplement to Chapman's Founding of Spanish Cali- 
fornia. It is, therefore, doubly welcome as evidence of fruitful coopera- 
tion and earnest of further productiveness. 

The introductory chapters, forming about a third of the book, are of 
more than passing interest. The biographical sketch of Galvez, with 
many regional and personal details, is, in a book of this sort, as unex- 
pected as it is helpful. The chapter devoted to ''The historical back- 
ground" gives a very necessary setting for those that are to follow. It is 
w^ell to emphasize, as the author does, the growing influence of France, 
during the eighteenth century, in Spanish councils, largely at the ex- 
pense of England, and the necessary emphasis upon fiscal reform for the 
sake of increasing the national revenues. In this task of guiding the 
policy of Spain commercial agents played a greater part than regular 


Vol. IV, No. 2 Priestly: Jose de Gdlvez 233 

diplomats, although an occasional incident, such as the dispute over the 
Falkland islands and Honduras, which are briefly mentioned, gave the 
foreign offices of all three nations sufficient concern. But it is chiefly 
the desire to improve administration at home and in the colonies that 
maJjes necessary the visitation of Jose de Galvez. Mr. Priestly does well 
to note that this impulse for reform did not originate with Charles III, 
but was characteristic of the Bourbon regime before him, although that 
enlightened despot fostered its most striking development. 

The chapter on ' ' The administration of New Spain ' ' presents a concise 
but valuable summary of political conditions in New Spain at the middle 
of the eighteenth century. Despite its brevity the author also takes 
pains to touch upon some social and economic conditions that have a 
direct bearing upon his subject. The chapter on ' ' The origin and char- 
acter of the general visitation" is necessary and illuminating. From it 
we learn something of the functions and powers of previous visitors- 
general, as well as the instructions that determined the policy of Galvez 
during the years 17'65-1771. 

This lengthy introduction is space well utilized in preparation for the 
visitation proper. For nearly three decades no visitor-general had been 
sent to New Spain and reforms in its fiscal administration, in keeping 
with, the system already established in the mother country, seemed abso- 
lutely necessary. Galvez represented the dominant French influence 
that had already achieved results in Spain and was well fitted by train- 
ing and character to undertake this unwelcome task and push it to a 
definite conclusion in her most productive colony. This task involved 
unremitting toil, persistently followed in spite of interested factional op- 
position, bodily infirmity, and terrifying physical obstacles. Sonora and 
Lower California needed his presence as well as Vera Cruz, Jalapa, and 
Mexico City. He must assist in suppressing insurrection and in visiting 
punishment upon the disaffected, even though he had to defer, while 
thus engaged, his wider plans for fundamental reforms. His activity on 
the northern frontier led to the extension of settlement in Alta Cali- 
fornia, a more careful delimitation of the presidial line in New Mexico 
and Texas, and more consistent efforts to pacify the barbarous Indians. 
Ultimately his measures resulted in the establishment for the entire 
northern area of a commandancia general, partially independent of the 
viceroy. His efforts to establish a tobacco monopoly, to introduce com- 
mercial reforms at Vera Cruz and Acapulco, and to guard more care- 
fully the collection of internal revenues and the administration of muni- 
cipal corporations involved greater difficulties, because of concerted per- 
sonal opposition, but ultimately reached partial fruition in the system 
of intendencias, later established throughout New Spain. The critics of 

234 Reviews of Books m.v.h.-k. 

Galvez claim that he was harsh and vmdictive toward his opponents, and 
unnecessarily cruel in suppressing malcontents, and Mr. Priestly coin- 
cides with this view. But the visitor's main purpose was to increase the 
revenues of the crown by checking graft and preventing waste in the 
public service. He did not aim to improve the methods of legal pro- 
cedure or to correct the more glaring social and economic abuses that 
a^ected New Spain. The discontent excited by his severity came to a 
head a generation later in the wars of independence, but in the interim 
the revenues of New Spain were more productive than ever before in 
their history. For this reason Galvez is accounted one of the two most 
efficient colonial administrators of the Bourbon regime. 

A long closing chapter on the Real Hacienda, both before and after 
the time of Galvez, serves the double purpose of summarizing the fiscal 
side of his work and of explaining in some detail the various sources of 
royal reven,ue from the colony and the method by which it was collected 
and transmitted to Spain. While this chapter has fewer references to 
manuscript sources than the others, it shows careful study of the best 
authorities and affords a welcome summary of this difficult field. In 
general, Mr. Priestly has handled his sources well and presents his con- 
clusions tersely and clearly. He gives a complete bibliography and a 
full usable index. A portrait of Galvez and a view of his birthplace, 
mth several reproductions of contemporary maps, comprise the illus- 
trations. The sketch map at the close of the volume contains too few 
names to be thoroughly useful. One may criticise his use of italic type, 
or his failure in a few instances to use it, but the author himself has al- 
ready disarmed this criticism. Altogether he is to be congratulated for 
having produced a useful and readable study in Latin American institu- 
tional history. 

I. J. Cox 

Cotton as a world power. A study in the economic interpretation of his- 
tory. By James A. B. Sherer, Ph.D., LL.D., president of Throop 
college of technology. (New York: Frederick A. Stokes company, 
1916. 452 p. $2.50 net) 
Mr. Sherer tells us that some years ago, while reading Frank Norris's 
novel The octopus the thought occurred to him that the epic of the wheat 
was of no more interest than the story of cotton, ' ^ the new golden fleece. ' ' 
The result is a neat and attractive volume in which the author has sought 
to tell with some literary embellishment the history of cotton from its 
earliest antiquity to the present day. 

Perhaps there was little opportunity in one small volume to bring out 
much new material on so large a subject, but at any rate Mr. Sherer has 

Vol. IV, No. 2 Sherer: Cotton as a World Poiver 235 

given us for the greater part nothing but a compilation from the stan- 
dard authorities. The book is in no sense a contribution to the history 
of the subject, and even as a summary it falls far short of Mr. B. Ham- 
mond's classical Cotton culture and the cotton trade. It is only fair to 
state, however, that it was evidently not intended to compete with such 
books as Hammond's, but was written for the general reader whose 
patience is short and who must have his history served with a literary 
flavor. For even the casual student of industrial history there is nothing 
new. Only the most elementary facts are to be found concerning the 
discovery of the cotton plant, the introduction of the fibre into the com- 
merce of Europe, the early history of weaving, the industrial revolution 
in England, the beginning of cotton planting in America, Whitney's 
gin, the development of cotton culture and of its handmaiden slavery, 
of cotton milling in New England, of the part played by cotton in seces- 
sion and the war, and the cotton famine in Lancashire. There is no 
wandering from the well-beaten track. Yet it was a part of the author 's 
declared purpose ''to suggest its [cotton's] wholly unappreciated effect 
on the history of the United States" (p. 5). 

In the later chapters, approximately one-fourth of the book, there is a 
very inadequate account — perhaps necessarily so — of cotton culture 
in the "new south," with some reflections upon social conditions and 
problems in the cotton belt, a somewhat better summing up of the growth 
of southern cotton mills, and a general survey of the staple as a factor in 
world trade before and after the outbreak of the world war. Although 
he still relies for statements of fact chiefly upon the work of other men, 
in these chapters the author gives freer play to his own opinions and he 
is to the same degree more interesting. The fact that he is southern born 
and reared has perhaps enabled him to write with full appreciation of 
the southern point of view, as it may also account for the charm and in- 
terest which his subject has for him. The reader is likely to be puzzled 
to discover the relevancy of the final chapter, "Evolution an|d human 
welfare," wherein our historian turns philosopher and moralist and 
argues that the old belief that continual strife and the survival of the 
strongest is the law of life must give way to the newer conception of ' ' in- 
tegration" as the guiding factor in the life of niations as of plants and 

The conscientious reviewer in scanning the pages closely for errors 
finds few of any kind and none of serious consequence. The citations to 
authorities are sometimes made carelessly and here and there an infer- 
ence more often than a statement of fact seems overdrawn or unwar- 
ranted. The book is well written and is likely to have a large popular 
audience. Its short chapters, which average something less than four 

236 Beviews of Books ' m.v.h.h. 

pages, should appeal especially to those readers whose intellectual wings 
are trained onlj^ to short flights. The volume is not overburdened with 
statistical tables, but those which are needed are usually found in the 
right place. The appendix comprises about thirty-seven pages of lit- 
erary curiosa, statistics, and bibliography. The index is satisfactory. 

Charles W. Ramsdell 

Carihheaji interests of the United States. By Chester Lloyd Jones, pro- 
fessor of political science. University of Wisconsin. (New York: 
D. Appleton and company, 1916. 379 p. $2.50 net) 

This volume is not a history of the American tropics, nor is it a mere 
travelogue interspersed with random statistics. It is an illuminating 
study, based partly on personal observation, of some social and economic 
phases of present day life in the Caribbean. Occasionally the author 
touches upon political conditions when necessary to explain the purport 
of his economic data. In his hands the Monroe doctrine seems almost 
wholly an economic policy ; American intervention becomes the certain 
forerunner of commercial prosperity. 

The facts presented appear to justify this economic emphasis. Certain 
tropical products, notably the banana and other fruits, have given a new 
emphasis to international trade in Central America and the West Indies. 
Older products such as sugar, coffee, and tobacco have assumed a new 
importance with greater political stability and the influx of foreign cap- 
ital. New and improved facilities for transportation have rendered 
these products and other resources more available and at the same time, 
as in the case of petroleum, more desirable in themselves. To crown all 
the completion of the Panama canal promises, with the restoration of 
normal conditions, to break up the commercial isolation that for half a 
century has retarded progress in the American Mediterranean. 

Two chapters are devoted to the general importance ^of the Caribbean 
and the development therein of American influence. Then follows a dis- 
cussion of the political and commercial conditions in the various Euro- 
pean colonies, of which those of Great Britain are the most important. 
The Danish West Indies have changed their nationality since the appear- 
ance of the book and Mr. Charles H. Sherrell would have us believe that 
a like change would benefit the other remaining European dependencies, 
their present owners, and the United States. At any rate the author is 
content to make it appear that our country is bound to get the lion's 
share of profit from them all, as well as from the independent republics 
and protectorates of the region. A mutual dependence between Ameri- 
can capital and staple agricultural products has produced wonderful 
effects during the past twenty years and these factors seem destined to 
exert a more profound influence in the immediate future. 

Vol. IV, No. 2 Flowers : Japanese Conquest 237 

Mr. Lloyd's chapters dealing with Cuba, Porto Rico, San Domingo, 
and the two northern republics of South America briefly review the 
salient facts of contemporary politics, as does the longer chapter on 
Central America. More important, in this respect, are the chapters deal- 
ing with the revolt of Panama and the later controversies over tolls and 
the fortification of the canal zone. The arrangement of arguments pro 
and con upon these two controverted issues is helpful, and likewise the 
summary of our strained relations with Colombia. The author closes 
with eight general chapters in which he shows the economic dependence 
of the Caribbean area upon outside capital, the international importance 
of trade in its leading products, especially oil and bananas, and the de- 
sirability of its chief harbors as naval bases, especially since the comple- 
tion of the Panama canal. 

The emphasis upon material resources may seem to render the book 
an exposition in "dollar diplomacy," but its arrangement and its few 
political discussions will be of assistance in organizing the recent history 
of a region whose chance records have proved so difficult to annalist and 
teacher. Those who give courses in American diplomacy or in the his- 
tory of Latin America will value the work for supplementary reading. 
Enough statistical information appears to meet the demands of classes 
in commercial geography. The frequent citations to source material, in- 
cluding consular reports, a classified bibliography that is up to date in 
both its book lists and periodical literature, and a map showing in detail 
the entire area add further to the serviceableness of the volume. It is 
worthy of a place along with the works of Bonsall, Hill, and others, who 
in recent years have followed Froude into the American Mediterranean. 

I. J. Cox 

Japanese conquest of American opinion. By Montaville Flowers, M.A. 
(New York: George H. Doran company, 1917. 272 p. $1.50 net) 
Montaville Flowers, of Monrovia, California, an orchardist and Chau- 
tauqua lecturer, has very decided views concerning the Japanese people 
and the undesirability of admitting them to residence in any white man 's 
land. He therefore believes that the agitation and resulting legislation 
in California was absolutely wise and proper and he is convinced that the 
American people east of the Sierra Nevada mountains are either unin- 
formed or grossly misinformed on this subject. This misinformation is 
due, in his opinion, to the pernicious activities of certain Japanese and 
American agencies. The former are the Japanese writers and press 
bureaus, the latter are the American peace societies, the Federal council 
of churches, and such individuals as Sidney L. Gulick, Hamilton Holt, 
Lindsay Russell, Francis G. Peabody, and the late Hamilton Wright 
Mabie. Realizing and fearing ''the unmeasured power of money and 

238 Reviews of Books m.v.h.b. 

influence" of these agencies he has written The Japanese conquest of 
American, opinion to open the eyes of his deluded countrymen and set 
them right on all the points of this great problem. 

His book is a typical example of special pleading. It is based on no 
adequate knowledge of the Japanese, his principal authorities on Japan 
being Samuel Blj^the, Thomas F. Millard, Carl Crow, and Jefferson 
Jones. The discussion of the situation in California contains quite mis- 
leading accounts of the ''school boy" episode and the passage of the 
alien land law. Any argument which suits his end is advanced. Thus, 
on page 131, there is an attack on a Japanese professor in an American 
imivei'sity which is manifestly untrue and which is based on the state- 
ment of " a sweet-minded young lady. ' ' Again, the economic argument 
for Japanese immigration is clinched by the reported statement of a 
Japanese farm hand : ''Me make much money in California in one month 
as me make home, in Japan, in five years." On the other hand the writ- 
ings of Mr. Grulick and Mr. Millis are waved aside. Mr. Millis not only 
lived and taught in California but he was employed by the immigration 
commission to investigate immigration and industries in the west, yet 
Mr. Flowers does not hesitate to assert: "There are on the Pacific 
Coast a hundred thousand men and a hundred thousand women whose 
education, experience and honour entitle their opinions, each one, to 
equal consideration with his. . ." It would be a waste of time and 
space to consider Mr. Flowers' book further. His method will not ap- 
peal to any thoughtful reader, and few will accept many of the con- 
clusions at which he arrives. 

Payson J. Treat 

Breaches of Anglo-American treaties. A study in history and diplomacy. 
By John Bigelow, major U. S. army, retired. (New York: Sturgis 
and Walton company, 1917. 248 p. $1.50 net) 

In the early years of the century, when the Hay-Pauncefote treaty 
was under heated discussion, — and yet more recently, when the Panama 
tolls were in dispute, — the United States was repeatedly charged in the 
British press with lacking the sense of honor that holds a nation to its 
treaty obligations. Even so fair-minded a man as Sir Harry Johnson 
wrote that treaties bind the policy of the United States only "as long as 
they are convenient." Students of American history know that in the 
matter of treaty enforcement the United States has sometimes acted 
equivocally, and that at times it has been plainly remiss. The accusa- 
tion, however, was so sweeping that many persons must have felt its es- 
sential injustice, or at all events must have been set to wondering wheth- 
er a close examination of the facts would sustain it. 

Major Bigelow 's Breaches of Anglo-American treaties is the out- 

Vol. IV, No. 2 LasJci: The Problem of Sovereignty 239 

come of an inquiry into this matter, undertaken specifically to ascertain 
the relative trustworthiness of two great nations "as indicated in their 
intercourse with each other. ' ' The aim is innocent enough ; the conclu- 
sions arrived at, though in no wise startling, are of interest; and in these 
days of deep concern ahout moral values in international affairs it seems 
entirely natural that the motives and actions of nations should be dis- 
sected, weighed, and cataloged as good or bad. Yet there is something 
about the assumption on which Major Bigelow proceeds that grates on 
the historian's sensibilities. Everybody knows that there have been 
breaches of Anglo-American treaties. Every person well enough in- 
formed to be interested in Major Bigelow 's book knows that for these 
breaches both nations have been deeply responsible. It seems a work of 
no great value to measure degrees of guilt, to balance off infringements 
against one another, and to try to determine which nation's good works 
can be made to tip the scale. The project is perhaps saved by the au- 
thor's care in the use of his materials and by his effort to be entirely fair. 
Yet it rings of the mechanical, the quantitative. 

Major Bigelow fimds that between 1783 and 1913 some thirty compacts 
that may be considered treaties were concluded between the two powers; 
that of these, eight, — including practically all the agreements of first 
importance, ending wdth the treaty of Washington in 1871, — were vio- 
lated by Great Britain; that four, i.e., those of 1783, 1795, 1818, and 
1819, were violated also by the United States; that, with the possible 
exception of the treaty of 1819, the United States violated these four 
only after Great Britain had done so; that no treaty between the two 
nations ^ ' appears to have been violated by the United States alone ; ' ' and 
that whereas the United States has paid five and a half million dollars 
to Great Britain as indemnities. Great Britain has paid to the United 
States upwards of twenty-nine millions. The conclusion is that the 
United States ' ' has more than a safe balance of good faith to its credit. ' ' 

The author makes no pretense to the use of new materials, and his book 
can hardly be considered more than an accurate compilation of well- 
known facts. Illustrative fragments of diplomatic correspondence are 
printed in appendices. The bibliography shows no principle of ar- 
rangement, and two of the three maps are worthless. 

Frederic A. Ogg 

Studies in the problem of sovereignty. By Harold J. Laski, department 

of history, Harvard university, sometime exhibitor New college, 

Oxford. (New Haven: Yale university press, London: Humphrey 

Milford, Oxford university press, 1917. 297 p. $2.50 net) 

This monograph consists of a series of articles, previously published 

in periodicals, all of which illustrate the theme that the absolute concep- 

240 Revieivs of Books m.v.h.r. 

tiou of sovereignty is inadequate. Mr. Laski's philosophical theory of 
sovereignty is developed in the opening chapter, in which he confesses 
his attitude to be pragmatic and his philosophy to be pluralistic. In 
philosophic monism he finds the origin of the conception of the sover- 
eignty of the state as developed by Hobbes, Hegel, and John Austin, a 
conception which he believes suits better the unity of the human mind 
than the variety of historical facts. "The will of the State," he says, 
' ' obtains preeminence over the wills of other groups exactly to the point 
where it is interpreted with sufficient wisdom to obtain general accept- 
ance, and no further." (p. 14) That the doctrine of absolute, indi- 
visible sovereignty has had an important effect in the hands of Bismarck 
and other state builders is not denied, but the effect is not regarded as 

The detailed discussion is devoted to three illustrations of the struggle 
between church and state in the nineteenth century, "the disruption," 
"the Oxford movement," and "the Catholic revival." Mr. Laski is con- 
cerned with the theory of the contending parties rather than with the 
historical details of these movements. In all of them he finds the cen- 
tral motive to have been the demand of the church for a sphere of au- 
tonomy beyond the control of the state, carried in the Catholic revival by 
some to the extreme claim of the middle ages, that the church is supreme. 

In a final chapter the opinions of DeMadstre and Bismarck are dis- 
cussed as embodying the absolute conception of sovereignty in reference 
to church and state respectively, and in two appendices Mr. Laski briefly 
develops his ideas of federalism and centralization in relation to sover- 
eignty, to which he gives a real meaning by defining its exercise as "an 
act of will, to do or to refrain from doing" (p. 270). 

By bringing historic example to demonstrate the barrenness of the 
dogmatic conception of sovereignty, and the shallowness of the philosophy 
which puts the state in a class by itself, differing essentially from all 
other societies, Mr. Laski has made an important contribution to politi- 
cal theory. His historical view shows a broad perspective and also a 
mastery of detail. The footnotes indicate a familiarity with the medieval 
literature of the church and state conflict as well as the controversial 
literature of the nineteenth century. 

Mr. Laski has nothing to say of a "sovereignty" beyond the state. In 
this field such books as Westlake's Principles of international law, and 
Hill's World organization and the modern state have elaborated the 
criticisms of absolute sovereignty suggested by the present work. Un- 
doubtedly the tendency of political theory is to recognize a greater au- 
tonomy in associations above and below the state at the expense of the 
"sovereignty" of the state, thus attaining through federalism the unity 

Vol. IV, No. 2 Root: Government and Citizenship 241 

which has been found such a desideratum for law and order, without im- 
pairing the variety which progress demands. 

QuiNCY Wright 

Addresses on government and citizenship. By Elihu Root. Collected 
and edited by Robert Bacon and James Brown Scott. (Cambridge : 
Harvard university press, London : Humphrey Milford, Oxford uni- 
versity press, 1916. 552 p. $2.00 net) 

This is one of a series of volumes designed to contain the collected ad- 
dresses and state papers of Mr. Root during the period of his services in 
the cabinet and as United States senator from New York. The volume 
before us contains his various addresses on government, citizenship, and 
legal procedure. Mr. Root's great abilities as a lawyer and his long ex- 
perience in public life render valuable anything that he may have to say 
on these subjects. Most if not all the papers contained in this volume 
have been previously published in various forms, but the editors have 
performed a needed service in bringing them together for convenient use 
and reference. 

The longest and most systematic papers here reprinted are the series 
of lectures delivered in 1907 and 1913 at Yale and Princeton universities 
respectively on the William S. Dodge and Stafford Little foundations. 
Considerable space is also devoted to a reprint of speeches made by Mr. 
Root before the New York constitutional conventions of 1894 and 1915. 
The most noteworthy of these is the speech on "Invisible government," 
in which he attacked the system behind the form of the government 
which had dominated New York state for a generation. Another ad- 
dress here reprinted which attracted much attention at the time of its 
delivery in 1906 is that on "How to preserve the local self-government 
of the states," in which the speaker gave his views as to the relations be- 
tween the nation and the states. Also worthy of note is the able address 
on the case of William Lorimer, delivered in the United States senate. 

The various papers cannot here be reviewed in detail. Suffice it to say 
that, as a whole, they show the author to be possessed of a wide knowl- 
edge of public men and events and of a shrewd wit and common sense 
in judging them. They are imbued with a high sense of the duty of the 
citizen to his government and reflect his high ethical standards as a law- 
yer. Although extremely conservative if not reactionary in some of his 
views, Mr. Root is shown in this volume to be optimistic as to the future 
of party and popular government. It should be added, however, that 
towards many of our governmental institutions, his comments exhibit 
a merely laudatory, rather than critical or scientific attitude. 


242 Revieivs of Books m.v.h.r. 

Stone ornaments used hi/ Indians in. the United States and Canada. Be- 
ing a description of certain charm stones, gorgets, tubes, bird stones 
and problematical forms. By Warren K. Moorehead. (Andover, 
Mass.: Andover press, 1917. 448 p. $3.75) 
In almost every collection of Indian relics there will be found certain 
finished specimens to which no definite use can be assigned. From their 
fonn it seems certain that they are neither tools nor weapons, while the 
fact that in most cases they show no wear, and are wrought from mate- 
rials selected for beauty rather than durability or ease of working, points 
in the same direction. In some rare cases it would seem as if they were 
the result of indi\ddual caprice, the work of craftsmen playing with their 
art, but there can be no doubt that the vast majority of these objects 
hold a deeper significance. In spite of the great number of specimens 
knoT^Ti, there are very few which can not easily be identified as belonging 
to one or another of some half dozen well defined types. Collectors, rec- 
ognizing these types, have named them bird stones, boat stones, baiiner 
stones, plumpets, gorgets, and so forth, and have advanced a multitude 
of theories as to their origin and significance. In spite of these efforts it 
can not be said that any of the types have so far received a satisfactory 
explanation, and the present volume can justly claim to be a pioneer 
w^ork in a field which seems to promise results of more than ordinary 

Most writers on the subject have been hampered by the small number 
of specimens available for study in any single collection and by the con- 
dition of the literature, which consists for the most part of brief refer- 
ences scattered through hundreds of publications. Mr. Moorehead has 
overcome these difficulties, placing the problems already recognized on a 
firm basis, and disclosing others intimately connected with the culture 
areas and tribal migrations in prehistoric North America. Maps are 
given which indicate that in spite of the wide distribution of the prob- 
lematical forms, there is a comparatively small region in which all the 
known types occur simultaneously. This area, comprising western Il- 
linois, southern Wisconsin, Indiana, northern Kentucky, Ohio, and a 
narrow strip in Pennsylvania and New York, seems to have been a cul- 
tural nucleus from which the use of these objects spread to the sur- 
rounding tribes. An additional point of interest is that even within 
this prescribed area there are strong indications that the problematical 
forms belong to a cultural substratum which has been overlaid by the 
remains of other prehistoric occupations. Mr. Parker has contributed a 
chapter on the polished slate culture of New York in which he shows 
that such was apparently the case in that state, while even in New Eng- 
land, where several types of problematical objects are rare or lacking, 

Vol. IV, No. 2 Channin^g: History of the United States 243 

banner stones and plummets are found in the graves of the "red paint" 
people whose culture antedated that of the recent tribes. In New Jer- 
sey also a number of banner stones have been found under conditions 
which point to very great age. It is the writer's belief that further in- 
vestigation along these lines will produce valuable results. 

In addition to outlining these new problems, Mr. Moorehead has de- 
voted considerable space to a consideration of the theories advanced as 
to the significance and use of problematical forms, and has augmented 
these with the results of his own studies. Even in the case of as simple 
and apparently obvious a type as the gorget, no final decision is possible. 
Many of these objects were no doubt ornaments worn on the breast, as 
the name implies, but the use of others is unknown. Their occasional 
presence on the wrists of skeletons has led to the theory that some were 
used as archers' wrist guards, but Mr. Moorehead doubts this. Bar 
amulets, boat stones, bird stones, and the finer plummets probably had 
a talismanic significance. The winged, longitudinally perforated forms 
known as banner stones have excited much discussion and no less than 
six theories as to their use are given. It seems most probable that some 
were hair ornaments, others ceremonial objects of unknown significance. 

It seems rather surprising that Mr. Moorehead, while stretching his 
title to cover spuds, many of which were certainly tools, should have 
ignored the cones and hemispheres, recognized problematical types. In 
spite of this trifling oversight, the book is far and away the best and 
most complete dealing with this subject, and will be of interest to col- 
lectors and scientists alike. It is profusely illustrated, and contains in 
addition maps and outline charts of the various types. There are numer- 
ous lists giving the collections containing specimens of each of the types 
described, and a very complete bibliography which will be invaluable to 
all those seriously interested in this phase of American archaeology. 

Ralph Linton 

History of the United States. By Edward Channing. Volume IV, Fed- 
eralists and republicans, 1789-1815. (New York: Macmillan com- 
pany, 1917. 575 p. $2.75 net) 
Unlike those of the sybil of Cumae, the volumes of Mr. Channing in- 
tensify in value as they grow in number, for the advantages that lie in a 
review of American history by a single mind multiply as the period re- 
viewed lengthens. The four volumes now before the public represent a 
greater sweep of work than that of any other path breaker in the field. 
He has overcapped Bancroft by a generation, and has treated a period 
more than twice as long as McMaster, Von Hoist, or Schouler. Of 
course, a path had been opened through all the way he traveled before 

244 Reviews of Boohs m.v.h.e. 

Mr. Channiiig began his work, but none the less he is a pioneer, for his 
work is his own from the bottom up. Where he found a thicket unex- 
ploi-ed he went through it, where he found a beaten path he tested it 
with the same care as if it had been wilderness. He has not so much 
verified past findings as ig-nored them. Unlike many ambitious of a 
reputation for novelty, he has not allowed the work of others to deflect 
him from the treatment of facts and the formation of conclusions that 
seemed to him sound. To the careless reader it might often appear that 
he was repeating what has been written before, but he never repeats. 
Where his content resembles that of his predecessors it is because the 
subject seemed to him of significance ; where his conclusions are identical^ 
it is because his investigations indicated those conclusions. His work, 
then, is an independent review of our history to 1815, and its resemblance, 
in substantial measure, to earlier accounts is a gratifying evidence that 
the story of our past is coming to rest on solid foundations. 

The materials upon which this review is based are so various as to 
suggest completeness, yet, of course, it is obvious that no one could have 
gone over, much less weighed, all the sources existing for the period 
covered. One gains an impression that the selection of material was 
somewhat guided by interest in the subject. This was quite obviously the 
case in connection with one of the main limitations of this volume. Mr. 
Channing designed a history of the nation^al government, not of the 
states, and selected his material accordingly. The outstanding charac- 
teristic in the use of sources is the enormous scope of manuscript used. 
One is familiar enough with the study based entirely upon manuscripts, 
but using those of one collection only, and with the use of manuscripts 
as embellishments to a narrative based on printed matter. Mr. Chan- 
ning 's notes give an impression that his main thread depends on manu- 
scripts drawn from collections, public and private, scattered over all 
the area of which he treats. Another striking characteristic is the con- 
stant acknowledgment of assistance from those still at work on various 
subjects. All that lies between the original manuscript and the unwrit- 
ten monograph has been laid under tribute at all places where the sub- 
ject seemed to Mr. Channing to demand it. The notes are useful for the 
investigator, but do not fully represent the full authority on which the 
narrative is based. 

What Mr. Channing seeks from these sources is crystalline fact. Noth- 
ing delights him so keenly as a problem of evidence, and no American 
historian equals him in the objective solution, of such problems. He has 
long relished the reputation of an iconoclast, which his classroom teach- 
ing has given him, but in this great work the pride of novelty has been 
completely conquered. Probably no work has given the answer to so- 

Vol. IV, No. 2 Channing: History of the United States 245 

many moot points, and when it has been given, it is apt to prove final. 
It is not so certain that answers may not be given to some of those that 
Mr. Channing confesses insoluble. His method is impeccable rather 
than comprehensive, and the majority of his colleagues would admit a 
purgatory of things reasonably certain, as well as the heaven of finality 
and the hell of doubt. Individual proven facts are the basis of his work, 
the statistic and the generalization he abhors. 

Mr. Beard, reviewing this volume in the New republic for July 7, 
1917, while condemning it for not questioning "the sources of conscious 
opinion,^' commends it for dissecting ''that absurd abstraction 'section- 
alism' so thoroughly . . . that we need not expect to see it any- 
where except in text-books for the next three generations. " As a matter 
of fact Mr. Channing does not anywhere dissect sectionalism, and he 
consciously rejects the quest of the sources of conscious opinion. His 
conception of history is as rigid as his rules of evidence. History is the 
presentation of the facts that have been so carefully garnered, not their 
explanationu He presents the surface, let him who dares, guess what 
causes the flexions that are presented. There is room for doubt as to 
whether this is the sole function of the historian. Most recent history 
has concerned itself with the muscles and the nerves, and we have fallen 
into the belief that historical method affords an X-ray which renders 
such work scientific. It must be confessed, however, that over-indul- 
gence in the X-ray produces skin trouble, and that we sometimes become 
absorbed in the reconstruction of unseen causes only to find in the end 
that they could not have produced the obvious event. It is a distinct 
relief to find a simple record of the knowable unaccompanied by guesses. 
Mr. Channing represents not a survival, as Mr. Beard believes, but a 
school which will always exist, with waxing and waning vogue; the 
school of the purist, the puritan, the objectivist. Even Mr. Beard im- 
plies that Mr. Channing 's work is instinct with an intellectual quality, 
which makes the failure to explain glaringly a matter of choice rather 
than of ability. 

When, however, one comes to presentation, the subjective is bound to 
make itself felt. The whole, even of the knowable surface, cannot be 
presented; selection must be made. In many respects, Mr. Channing 's 
selection is as notable as his judgment of evidence. He endeavors to 
maintain his objectivity by selecting on the basis of importance, and 
the proportion and balance of the narrative have a classic perfection, 
while the mass is embellished by a skill in the selection of individual 
facts, that constitutes its chief literary distinction. 

It is, however, it cannot help being, Mr. Channing 's temple. It is a 
history of the national government, but it is the national government 

246 Reviews of Books m.v.h.e. 

rather as a field for the interplay of strong men than an institution. A 
preliminary chapter on social conditions is delightfully typical. Abso- 
lutely tangible, it deals exclusively, not with the things ''the people'^ 
did, but with what A, B, and C did. The whole book deals with men, 
real men, and, as they are men whose records have reached us, reason- 
ably promiuicnt men. If anyone wishes to follow up the social forces 
that moved them, he is at liberty to do so, but here are the men them- 
selves. Whether they worked by predestination or free will, whether 
they wove their web to carry out the will of a creator or evolution, is 
not to Mr, Channing the business of history. He will present the veri- 
table web in the weaving. 

The individual, therefore, plays exactly the same role as we see him 
playing about us, and the value of the impression conveyed will depend, 
in large measure, upon the view taken of the individual. In thus deal- 
ing T\dth the human element, the subjective involved in selection is in- 
evitably reinforced by the reaction of man on man. No human being 
can by any possibility escape it entirely. One cannot but feel that in 
dealing with men Mr. Channing has a somewhat mischievous delight in 
calling attention to their foibles. It is also apparent that he is a native 
of that section where ' ' Praise to the face is open disgrace. ' ' In his for- 
mal characterization, the virtues that appear are but few and grudging- 
ly bestowed. When, however, he discusses Hamilton, his real admira- 
tion for Washington and Madison is allowed to appear, and so through- 
out. The net impression that he leaves is distinctly one of a world of 
wholesome men, Avith some great ones scattered through it. He blames 
frequently, but his judgments are on the whole a fresh breeze after the 
mean and belittling views of human nature expressed by recent follow- 
ers of Dean Swift. Mr. Beard sees in the statement that Adams' ap- 
pointment of so many federalists to office in 1801 ''should be attributed 
to the goodness of his heart rather than to any selfish desire to defraud 
Jefferson of any of his rights," an instance of Mr. Cbanning's "dry 
humor;" of which indeed there are many. In this case, however, it is 
not humor but a deliberate judgment on the man in the study of whose 
character he has made the most profound contribution of the volume. 
On the whole, Mr. Channing creates an unusual atmosphere of confi- 
dence in his estimates of men. They appear to have some resemblance 
to those we know in ordinary life, and one can read his work and still 
preserve some modest hope of the decency of human nature. 

In detail the contributions of Mr. Channing to new knowledge are very 
numerous, and are scattered throughout the volume. They are perhaps 
greatest in the account of the Adams administration, and particularly in 
the study of the election of 1800. Naturally every informed reader will 

Vol. IV, No. 2 i^i^i Qj Newspapers in Yale Library 247 

query the inclusion and exclusion of topics and facts. To the reviewer 
the account of the Hartford convention seems unduly brief and colorless, 
and that of the negotiation at Ghent inadequate for the general reader. 
The chapters on "High finance" and on ''Blockade and trade with the 
enemy" are rich in new matter. 

Gael Russell Fish 

lAst of neivspapers in the Yale university library. [Yale historical pub- 
lications, Miscellany, II, issued under the direction of the department 
of history in conjunction with the Connecticut academy of arts and 
sciences] (New Haven: Yale university press, 1916. 216 p. $3.00) 
The happily increasing use of newspapers as an important historical 
source has made it improbable that the larger collections of newspapers 
should much longer remain relatively inaccessible for want of published 
bibliographies or check lists. Although in fullness of detail and care- 
fulness of execution the example set by the early Annotated catalogue 
of newspaper files in the library of the state historical society of Wis- 
consin, published in 1898 (second edition 1911) has not been generally 
followed, since that volume appeared more than a dozen catalogs of 
other large collections have been published. Together with the histori- 
cal bibliographies of the newspapers of several states, the union check 
lists in a number of cities have begun to make the chief collections more 
readily available. Much still remains to be done in this direction. 

The catalog of the collection in the Yale university library is an im- 
portant addition to the short list. The Yale collection, besides being rich 
in early New England, especially Connecticut, newspapers, contains a 
large number of papers from the principal South American states dating 
from early in the nineteenth century. This part of the collection sup- 
plements rather than duplicates the material in the library of congress. 
For example, while the latter is rich in papers of Brazil and Chile, the 
former has a large number from Bolivia, Colombia, and Peru. Of Mex- 
ican papers the library of congress has the larger number, but is weak in 
certain places in which the Yale collection has long runs of important 
titles, making it on the whole somewhat the better of the two. 

The compiler has settled the question of what constitutes a newspaper 
by including ''all periodicals whose main design is the publishing of 
news of general interest, issued more or less regularly once a week or 
oftener." The arrangement is geographical, the United States leading 
(states geographically arranged) , followed by Africa, Asia, Europe, and 
so on. The main list is supplemented by a title index and a series of 
useful charts showing graphically for each year the papers in the library. 
The fact that in this work, as in some others, the desire merely for a 

248 Reviews of Books m. v. h. r 

working list has led to the omission of many bibliographical details raises 
a question that might well be dealt with more generously when other 
large collections are cataloged. In view of the additional usefulness that 
can be secured at slight additional expense, such lists ought at least to 
show the year in which each paper was founded and discontinued, and 
the identities and connections of related and successive papers and those 
removed from place to place. 

Frank W. Scott 

Benjamin Franklin, pnnter. By John Clyde Oswald. (Garden City: 
Doubleday, Page and company for Associated advertising clubs of 
the world, 1917. 244 p. $2.00 net) 
''Founded Ao. Di. 1728 by Benj. Franklin" is a phrase which on the 
cover of a certain popular weekly finds regular entrance into the average 
American home. The statement thus confidently made appears to need 
amendment (pp. 96, 99), but Mr. Oswald will find few to gainsay the 
importance of Benjamin Franklin's work as a printer, "using the word 
in the sense which it possessed in his time, when it included printing, 
editing, publishing, and advertising." The present volume is justified, 
the author contends, because Franklin, the printer, has too often been 
obscured by Franklin, the patriot, the diplomat, or the statesman. Writ- 
ten for the Associated advertising clubs of the world, the book is designed 
to appeal to the business man rather than to the historian, but the latter 
will not find it useless. 

Mr. Oswald shows great familiarity with his subject. For many years 
a collector of ' ' Frankliniana, ' ' and an ardent reader of every new Frank- 
lin book, he has all the enthusiasm of the hobbyist. Indeed, it was this 
enthusiasm, we suspect, quite as much as the invitation of the Associated 
advertising clubs, which led him to undertake the task. We are not sur- 
prised that such a writer refuses to be bound by the rules of historical 
composition. As Franklin might say, he has "got clear of the Col- 
lege" (p. 160). He has no time for footnotes, and quotes freely from 
secondary works. Especially in the earlier chapters, he traverses much 
well-traveled ground, and does not hesitate to give us extracts from the 
Autobiography and epigrams from the Almanack which we remem- 
ber from our old fifth readers. From one-fourth to one-third of the 
subject matter consists of direct quotations of one sort or another. The, 
chapters which deal with Franklin's business career, however, have muchi 
in them that is original. The many publications of this most important 
of early American printers have been examined with great care, and the 
author's experience has stood him in good stead when writing on such 
subjects as "Publisher and bookseller," "As a business man," "Partner- 

Vol. IV, No. 2 Coolidge: Ulysses 8. Grant 249 

ships," ''Typefounder," ''Advertiser and propagandist." When we 
read of Franklin as an advertiser of fountain pens (p. 94) and of quack 
medicines (p. 108), as a devotee of simplified spelling (p. 193), and as 
''the first American trust magnate" (p. 139), we are in better position 
to understand how really modem he was. Certainly the most interest- 
ing and probably the most valuable part of the book is the fifty pages 
or more of illustrations. These are, for the most part, reproductions 
of the title pages of books which came from Franklin's press, sample 
pages of the Pennsylvania gazette and Poor Richard's almanack, speci- 
mens of the type which Franklin used, and the like. 

It has been the aim of the author to make the physical structure of 
the volume "conform typographically somewhat nearly to the style of 
the books printed by Benjamin Franklin." This accounts, possibly, for 
the decorative designs which occasionally appear, and for the well-filled 
pages. Franklin was desperately disgusted with the "excessive Arti- 
fices" of some printers by which they made it appear that "the Selling 
of Paper seems now the object, and printing on it only the Pretence" 
(p. 222). From the editor of The American printer we expect accurate 
work, and we are not disappointed. Still, so masculine a man as Frank- 
lin could hardly be called a "confidante" (p. 216) to anybody, and we 
wonder just which method of spelling "almanac" (pp. xi, 110) the 
author really approves. The index is short but serviceable. No bib- 
liography is given, but the more important books on Franklin are cited 
in the text, while chapter xix discusses the various editions of Franklin 's 
works, and the present whereabouts of Franklin manuscripts. 

John D. Hicks 

Ulysses S. Grant. By Louis A. Coolidge. (Boston and New York: 
Houghton Mifflin company, 1917. 596 p. $2.00 net) 
"When President Grant left the White House in 1877 the American 
mind had had its fill of public matters, was satiated with jurisprudence, 
and was unable or unwilling seriously to confront matters of public in- 
terest. It was ready to believe that public men were a bad lot. The 
names of Belknap, Babcock, Blaine, Colfax, Conkling, Schenck, Robeson, 
suggested stories, told or half told, that reflected little credit upon the 
statesmen in charge of affairs in the decade after the civil war. Grant 
had associated upon terms of intimacy with most of these men. He had 
allowed Belknap to dodge impeachment, and may have shielded Babcock ; 
he had offered the chief justiceship to Conkling and to Caleb Gushing. 
Yet the general public, willing to believe the worst of his friends, de- 
clined to concede any stain upon him. The honesty of Grant, like the 
rectitude of Lincoln, was one of the things not to be debated. And when 

250 Reviews of Books m.v.h.e. 

ill the next decade Grant wrote his "Battle of Shiloh" for the Century 
and Xicolay and Hay started their Lincoln the immediate response of 
the reading public proved that these names had still a magic influence. 

Lord Charnwood has recently given us an understanding study of 
Lincoln in his en\aronment and career, upon a reasonable scale. Mr. 
Coolidge's Uli/sses 8. Grant tries to do a similar service for Lincoln's 
associate. It is the best biography we have for Grant. Friendly to his 
subject at all times Mr. Coolidge avoids the indiscriminate loyalty that 
pervades many of the earlier lives. His story flows along in easy inter- 
esting narrative with the character of Grant developing from experience 
to experience. He has not used any new manuscript sources, but he has 
made an intelligent arrangement of the materials in print. 

The military half of Grant's public career reads like a fairy tale, but 
has been told so often that Mr. Coolidge has little to add in material or 
estimate. He tells it well, but the real interest of his contribution begins 
■^^dth the war over and Grant a civil figure. The half of the volume de- 
voted to the period 1865-1877 has peculiar value because of its inter- 
pretation of our doubtful period. Mr. Rhodes has seen only recon- 
struction in these years. Mr. Coolidge sees real construction. He is not 
discouraged by the signs of personal corruption, nor tempted into a 
career of muckraking. He calls a spade a spade, but is hunting for 
other things. His thesis is to maintain for Grant as president a success 
' ' in setting our feet firmly in the paths of peace and in establishing our 
credit with the nations of the world" which he believes to be ''hardly 
less significant than his success in war." 

Just because most of the earlier books upon the Grant administrations 
have been campaign tracts, or else pessimistic complaints, it is refreshing 
to deal with this serious and informed attempt to justify the general 
trend of events. Judgments will differ upon its success. It is probable 
that it proves too much. ''In establishing our credit" Grant had no 
obstacle to overcome equal to the inflation campaign that Bland and 
Butler led against Hayes, and Grant left no record indicating that he 
had thought out public finance and reached a reasoned conclusion. Hayes 
did. It may be doubted whether it required effort to set our feet "firm- 
ly in the paths of peace." The great difficulty for twenty years was to 
get our feet out of private ruts. Grant acquiesced in the general un- 
willingness to prolong the period of coercion by the army at the south. 
But it was Hayes who avowed a determination to let the south solve its 
own problems and who forced ambitious politicians to keep hands off. 
Until we have contrasted the evidence brought forward by Mr. Coolidge 
with that in Williams's Hayes and that in the forthcoming Garfield, of 
which we hear, it will be impracticable to say for certain how far Grant 

Vol. IV, No. 2 Memorial to Horace Greeletj 251 

consciously directed our affairs into paths of any sort, or how far he was 
a passenger upon the ship of state, — an honest passenger, not to be 
corrupted or sickened by his surroundings, yet a passenger and not a 
pilot. But we have no better book than this for the beginning of our 

Frederic L. Paxson 

Proceedings at the unveiling of a memorial to Horace Greeley at Chap- 
paqua, N. Y., February 3, 1914. With reports of other Greeley 
celebrations related to the centennial of his birth, February 3, 1911. 
[The University of the state of New York, Division of archives and 
history] (Albany: Published under the auspices of the state his- 
torian, 1915. 263 p. $1.00) 
At the time of his death in 1872 the Springfield Eepublican declared 
that ''Horace Greeley is only beginning to live. Everj^ year now will 
add to his power ; will round and heap the measure of his fame. ' ' Much 
has been written of Greeley since 1872, including several biographies, 
one as late as 1903 ; and some efforts have been made to show his rela- 
tion to later humanitarian, economic, and other reforms. But these have 
not by any means measured up to the subject, and in the main, the Gree- 
ley tradition, though it has been kept alive, has not validated the 
prophecy of the Republican. 

If, as was said somewhat indignantly at the time of the centennial, it 
is the fashion of a certain school of writers to sneer at Horace Greeley 
as one of the diminishing figures of American history, this centennial 
volume does little to discredit those who sneer. It is avowedly meant 
to ' ' furnish to the world as near an approach to a final life of the great 
editor as is likely to be presented, at least to this generation. ' ' It would 
appear, then, that Greeley must wait for a later generation to say the 
final adequate word, for very little is added to the already printed 
record; no one of the several important aspects of Greeley is clarified 
or illuminated. The greater part of the volume is filled with the pro- 
ceedings at the various memorial meetings and at the dedication of the 
Partridge monument at Chappaqua. To this material, which includes 
papers on Greeley and woman suffrage, Greeley the journalist, Greeley 
and the printers, Greeley and the cause of labor, is added a few studies 
and reminiscences: Greeley as a colonist, Greeley as political and social 
leader, and a wonderful decade ; Horace Greeley — orator, editor, nation- 
al benefactor. These topics offer opportunity, certainly, to give a clear 
evaluation of Greeley's place in American life, but the papers do not 
possess in any appreciable measure the qualities of adequacy or finality. 
Nearly a hundred pages of collateral material are appended — news- 

252 Revieivs of Books m.v.h.r. 

paper comment, characteristic utterances of Greeley, extracts from ad- 
dresses, and a bibliography of biographical material on Horace Greeley, 
in part one of which are : Books and pamphlets by Horace Greeley, 
Contributions to magazines and annuals, Introductions, etc. ; in part two. 
Biographies and biographical sketches of Horace Greeley, and Publica- 
tions which contain writings of Horace Greeley. These are useful lists 
which the student will be glad to have ; but in a ' ' final life ' ' they should 
have been made complete. Part one is an abridgment, with additions, 
of a compilation made by Nathan Greeley. From part two one re- 
spectable biography, that by William M. Cornell, is omitted; no place 
is found for such important records of contemporary comment as the 
Greeley memorial volume issued soon after his death, or for many arti- 
cles, both scholarly and popular, that have appeared in periodicals. 

One of the best features of the book is the interesting collection of 
photogTaphs of Greeley, many of them hitherto unpublished. It is to 
be regretted that many of them are reproduced on so small a scale as to 
compare unfavorably with the full-page portraits of persons who pro- 
moted the centennial. 

Frank W. Scott 

Galiislia A. Grow', father of the homestead law. By James T. DuBois 
and Gertrude S. Mathews. (Boston and New York: Houghton 
Mifflin company, 1917. 305 p. $1.75 net) 

The appearance of this book gives to the general reader as also to the 
special student the life story of a man who for two of the most trying 
years of our national life served as speaker of the house of representa- 
tives in congress. In this capacity he rendered a great service and was 
one of the few close advisers of President Lincoln. Together this small 
group of men determined in a large measure the policies to be followed. 
Yet to Mr. Grow, one of these advisers, Schouler, Rhodes, and McMaster 
give no space in their general histories of the United States. Wilson 
gives but five lines and Von Hoist less than a page. 

This book of 305 pages contains fifteen chapters; the first two, and 
most of the last one are devoted to the private life of Mr. Grow while 
the remaining chapters are used to set forth his public life and the 
measures with which he was connected. The subtitle of the book, Father 
of the homestead act, as also the following quotation from the fore- 
word, p. vii: "To his foresight and persistence we owe, in great part, 
the settlement of the Far West" give as the authors' purpose the connec- 
tion in a very important way of Mr. Grow's name with the westward 

To claim for Mr. Grow the fatherhood of the homestead law is, in the 

Vol. IV, No. 2 D^f^ Bois and Mathews: Galusha A. Grow 253 

mind of the reviewer, very extravagant. This statement is made al- 
though some evidence is submitted in the last chapter, pages 278, 286, 
287 to show that such honor may be fairly claimed for him. The fun- 
damental idea of the act — donations or sale at a nominal price to actual 
settlers — was very early in operation in North Carolina and Tennessee. 
Twenty-seven years before Mr. Grow entered congress Thomas Benton 
introduced in congress a bill containing this basic principle. And for 
a quarter of a century thereafter he championed the idea both in and 
outside of the legislative halls. President Jackson as did many others 
most vigorously urged the homestead principle. Even in the last years 
of the struggle for the adoption of this far-reaching measure it can 
hardly be said that Mr. Grow urged the bill more successfully than did 
others. It is true that he firmly believed in the homestead idea, that he 
repeatedly introduced a homestead bill which was, however, as repeatedly 
defeated, and that during the discussion of the final bill in the house, he 
did leave the speaker's chair and urge its adoption. The authors, how- 
ever, fail to show that Mr. Grow either originated the idea or is to be 
credited with the final passage of the bill. 

The real reasons for the success of the bill are to be found in the facts : 
( 1 ) that the republican party for political reasons had become committedi 
to the principle; (2) that the democratic south which had opposed the 
measure in the interests of slavery had withdrawn from congress; and 
finally (3) that the advent of railways developed the west and broke 
down the opposition of the east to this development. 

In other respects the book brings to our attention much of interest. 
Mr. Grow's lot was cast among the poor and on the frontier. His early 
struggle and that of his mother that he might have an education gave 
him a point of view and probably an appreciation of the sound demo- 
cratic principles for which he always stood. He was one of the found- 
ers of the republican party, served in congress from 1851 to 1863 and 
again from 1894 to 1902, and under President Hayes refused an ap- 
pointment to the Russian mission. Mr. Grow, quick, aggressive, and 
thoroughly honest, was a successful leader of men, devoted both to his 
party and to his country. All this is interestingly told by his biograph- 

In form and appearance the book cannot be seriously criticised. The 
paper is good, the print clear, and the binding excellent. The authors, 
however, trained as journalists, have not been careful to keep close to 
the sources. In the whole book there are less than a dozen footnotes 
and these references are for the most part to secondary sources (see for 
example chapter m) . Evidence appears on almost every page of a very 
close reliance upon autobiographical notes left by Mr. Grow (see the 

254 Revieivs of Books m.v.h.r. 

note of dedication) ; no attempt is made to verify statements found 
therein. In the matter of selection and arrangement it may be ques- 
tioned whether the best judgment is always sho\^Ti. For instan,ce in 
chapter ix the results of the repeal of the Missouri compromise are un- 
der consideration, yet a lengthy discussion of Mr. Grow's European 
trip and the impressions made upon him are included. Then too in the 
selection of words and phrases better authorities could have been follow- 
ed than appear to have been used. (See the following- citations: p. 47, 
''felt the urge"; p. 48, ''not then proven"; p. 49, " untellably " ; p. 50, 
"Motived by those causes.") In the last half of the book, too, there is 
tendency to use long and involved sentences. Yet with these defects 
the book is readable and its pages should be scanned by every student 
of American history. 

JuDSON F. Lee 

Sixti/ years of Amencan life. Taylor to Roosevelt, 1850-1910'. By 
Everett P. Wheeler, A.M., M.S. (New York: E. P. Button & com- 
pany, 1917. 489 p. $2.50 net) 

Mr. Everett P. Wheeler 's recollections cover the period of a useful life 
and illustrate a type of citizen rare in the earlier history of the United 
States, but fairly plentiful today. Holding no conspicuous office he 
has nevertheless provided some of the driving force for most of the 
disinterested movements of the last half century. His chapters review 
the civil war and politics in the dark days after the war, and traverse 
in some detail the movements for tariff reform, souud money, civil ser- 
vice reform, municipal reform, and law reform. He has been a prac- 
tical man in the midst of all this effort for social betterment, and has 
never been one of the "fringe of lunatics." The real meaning of the 
weight of popular approval that has sustained the non-political efforts of 
all our more recenjt presidents is clearer to any one who has worked 
through this narrative. Today our strong tendency is to use political 
machinery merely to record conclusions already reached, or nearly 
reached, through non-partisan and informal propaganda. Not only Mr. 
Wheeler's reforms but prohibition, suffrage, preparedness, and compul- 
sory service stand out as cases where the process is at work. An.d the 
leaders in this informal work constitute a type relatively unfamiliar 
and commonly difficult to study. 

There is little in Mr. Wheeler 's book that is new to the specialist ; but 
in its arrangement it gives continuity and substance to our impression 
of the reformer's mind. The documents printed and quoted from are 
less intimate than we should have desired. If the author had drawn 
from his letter files some of his more personal and revealing letters, as 

Vol. IV, No. 2 Kimball: A Soldier-Doctor of our Army 255 

ex-senator Foraker did, the contribution would have ranked higher for 
the historian. But withal it is a useful and informing work. 

Frederic L. Paxson 

Beminiscences of a war-time statesman and diplomat, 1830- J 9 Jo. By 
Frederick W. Seward, assistant secretary of state, administration 
of Lincoln, Johnson, and Hayes. (New York and London: G. P. 
Putnams' sons, 1916. 489 pages. $3.50 net) 
The Avork covers in a scattering way about seventy-five years from the 
earliest recollections of the writer to 1909. It is a mixture of reminis- 
cences, history, diary, and letters, and frequently the narrative is based 
on all of these. There are no chapters, but the book is divided into more 
than a hundred short sections or topics under three main divisions : Be- 
fore the v/ar; During the war; After the war. It cannot be said that 
Mr. Seward's compilation is of great historical value, yet at times it is 
very interesting and frequently it affords illuminating sidelights on 
men, measures, and events. Some of the more important or more inter- 
esting parts are those relating to the author's boyhood, recollections 
of men and con;'ditions in Albany and Washington in the late thirties 
and the forties, and his accounts of old-fashioned college life and of the 
administration of an antebellum newspaper. There are also reminis- 
cences of visiting personages and prominent politicians and statesmen, 
and most worth while of all, there is some inside information as to the 
conduct of foreign affairs by William Henry Seward, who is the hero 
of the book. Special mention may be made of the author's explanation 
(p. 149) of his father's '^ Thoughts for the president's consideration" 
as merely a basis for future discussion, and of the development of 
Seward's expansion policy. In connection with the latter topic the ac- 
counts of travels in the West Indies, Mexico, and Alaska are interesting 
and significant. Probably the book would have been a better one had it 
told more of Frederick William Seward's activities and less of William 

Henry Seward's. 

Walter L. Fleming 

A soldier-doctor of our army, James P. Kimhall, late colonel and assistant 

surgeon-general, U. S. army. By Maria Brace Kimball. With an 

introduction by Major-General William C. Gorgas. (Boston and 

New York: Houghton Mifflin company, 1917. 192 p. $1.50 net) 

Issued just before the declaration of war with Germany, this readable 

little volume forms a timely essay in practical patriotism. Basing her 

narrative mainly upon her husband's letters and diaries, Mrs. Kimball 

gives an interesting picture of the quiet self-sacrificing devotion of the 

best type of soldier-doctor. 

256 Reviews of Books M- V- h. i^. 

General Gorgas, in the introduction, well says: ''The army medical 
officer on the plains Avas obliged to combine the duties of surgeon, oculist, 
aurist, dentist, general practitioner. . . He was also general health 
officer of the garrison, w^as compelled to study and inspect water supply, 
to plant and irrigate post gardens, and sometimes to manufacture ice. 
In addition, he often had a large free clinic among Indians, traders and 
ranchmen. Yet this busy man, who happened to be interested in 
ethnology, botany, geology or biology, did not fail to make use of his 
rare opportunities for study. Our museums and libraries have been 
enriched by collections and monographs made by army surgeons. . . 
In this . . . Dr. Kimball did his part ably." It is to be regretted 
that the limits of the volume did not permit a more extended account 
of the archaeological and botanical researches of Dr. Kimball. Even 
more does the reader regret that more details of the home life of this 
fine, truly religious soldier and gentleman could not be related. 

A student at Union college when the civil war opened, James P. Kim- 
ball felt the call to serve the union, and saw in the military hospital 
his greatest field of usefulness. Graduating from the Albany medical 
college in December, 1864, he reported to Meade's corps next month, in 
time to participate in the fight at Hatcher's Run. When peace returned, 
after a brief attempt to practise in, Nevada., he followed for two years 
the career of country practitioner in New York. Returning to the 
army, in 1867, he served with many commands at many posts, east and 
west. He participated in such expeditions as the Yellowstone survey, 
and became the intimate friend of such soldiers as Terry, Stanley, Custer, 
and Hancock; such surgeons as Cuyler, clergymen like Father Ferard, 
the Jesuit missionary, and the journalist, S. J. Barrows. 

During the Spanish-American war, he rendered invaluable service 
in the direction of the hospitals at Governor's island. 

The book has a fair index, an engraved portrait of Colonel Kimball, 
and twenty other illustrations. 

For this brief notice, the best conclusion is a quotation from Dr. Kim- 
ball's account of the San Juan river expedition, of 1896. ''We had 
performed the chief duty of a standing army — to prevent war. . . 
The soldier, as individual and as citizen profits by his military training. 
While his body gains in strength and endurance, his spirit learns cour- 
age, self-sacrifice and obedience. He acquires habits of order, punc- 
tuality, attention, and courtesy that are invaluable in the arts of peace. 
But above these civic virtues is the active patriotism which the soldier 
learns, — 'that a country's a thing men should die for at need.' " 



Vol. IV, No. 2 Kellogg: Frontier Advance on Upper Ohio 257 

Frontier advance on the upper Ohio, 1778-1779. Edited with intro- 
duction and notes by Louise Phelps Kellogg, Wisconsin historical 
society. [Publications of the state historical society of Wisconsin, 
Collections, vol. xxiii. Draper series, vol. iv] (Madison: The society, 
1916. 509 p. $1.50) 

This volume is the fourth of a series begun twelve years ago under 
the editorial charge of Mr. Thwaites and Miss Kellogg. The three vol- 
umes previously issued under the auspices of the Wisconsin society, 
Sons of the Revolution, describe the revolution in the west from 1774 to 
1778. The State historical society of Wisconsin has now taken up the 
work and its secretary intimates that a number of additional volumes 
will follow. This series and the Illinois historical collections, taken to- 
gether, should furnish a remarkably full documentary account of events 
in the west from 1763 to the close of the revolution. 

This volume is made up largely of material selected from the Draper 
collection of manuscripts, but it also contains some sixty-seven hitherto 
unpublished letters from the Washington papers, many of them written 
by Washington himself. There are, in addition, summaries and ex- 
tracts from a number of documents that have been published elsewhere. 
The editor has succeeded in bringing together enough material for an 
excellent study of the subject. 

The volume has a very good historical introduction. After a brief 
summary of conditions on, the upper Ohio before 1778 the editor goes 
into considerable detail regarding events described in the documents 
that follow. 

The documents themselves give vivid descriptions of the dangers from 
Indians and loyalist conspirators in the spring of 1778, and of the 
jealousies and dissensions that made unity of action among the Amer- 
icans so difficult. The main objective of the forces on the upper Ohio 
was Detroit, but the troops were poorly supported and there is no evi- 
dence of any attempt to cooperate with George Rogers Clark. There 
are documents explaining the interest of Washington, Gerard, and of 
congress in the proposed expeditions. An appendix gives details re- 
garding troops, supplies, and military arrangements. 

The editorial work is, in general, adequate. The footnotes give con- 
cise information about most of the people who deserve notice and their 
references to other material are ample. In some cases extracts from 
documents are given without any clear indication of omissions (pp. 174, 
175, 181) and in some documents the omissions seem to leave an un- 
warranted gap in the account (pp. 211, 257). Topical headings are 
supplied for many documents or groups of documents; often the sub- 

258 Reviens of Boolcs m.v.h.Tv. 

ject is changed without any editorial notice. The index is satisfactory. 
It is to be hoped that publication of the remaining volumes will be more 
rapid than it has been in the past. 

Paul C. Phillips 

Ohio-Michigan houndanj. By C. E. Sherman, C.E., inspector. Vol- 
ume I of the final report, Ohio cooperative topographic survey. 
(Columbus: the state, 1916. 115 p. $.50) 

The dispute over some four hundred square miles of territory in what 
is now the northwestern part of Ohio once nearly caused hostilities be- 
tween the authorities of that state and the officials of Michigan terri- 
tory. ]\ristaken notions regarding the position of lake Michigan and 
lake Erie, based on the errors of John Mitchell's map, were largely 
responsible for this narrowly averted clash in authority. The affair 
was complicated by the failure of the federal government and the state 
of Ohio to settle the disputed boundary while the region was being peo- 
pled, by the prospect of material advantage to those wdio had specu- 
lated in Toledo real estate, and by the hope of political gain for the 
party that favored the claim of Ohio or advanced Michigan promptly 
to statehood. After a bitter controversy that extended on several occa- 
sions to the floors of congress, the matter was settled by the admission 
of Michigan as a state. In return for that boon her people acquiesced 
in the loss of the disputed strip and received in her present northern 
peninsula an area more than twenty times as large. 

The present publication is due to the fact that after a century the 
mucli disputed boundary still lacked permanent markers. Accordingly 
it was resurveyed in 1915 and the present volume issued by the state 
of Ohio. It includes the report of the commissioners under whose 
auspices the survey was made with accompanying detailed maps and 
illustrations; the report of the engineer directly in charge of the w^ork; 
and a history of the boundary dispute, comprising about half of the 
brief volume. For the average reader this will constitute the most 
important part of the work. Mr. Arthur M. Schlesinger of Ohio state 
university, in the "Basis of the Ohio-Michigan boundary dispute" con- 
tributes the cartographical foundation for the controversy and an ade- 
quate bibliography. The major portion of the historical material is the 
reprint of an article by Ann ah May Soule, which appeared in two im- 
portant Michigan publications about a score of years ago. The repub- 
lication with its careful references to the sources is worth while and the 
compilation will prove useful to the local historian. An index, at least 
to the completed publication, would be desirable. 

I. J. Cox 

Vol. IV, No. 2 Lindley: Indiana as seen by Early Travelers 259 

Indiana as seen by early travelers. A collection of reprints from books 
of travel, letters and diaries prior to 1830. Selected and edited by 
Harlow Lindley, director department of Indiana history and ar- 
chives, Indiana state library, secretary Indiana historical commis- 
sion. [Indiana historical collections] (Indianapolis: Indiana his- 
torical commission, 1916. 596 p. $1.50) 
It was a happy thought on the part of the Indiana historical com- 
mission to include in its publications on Indiana history a volume on 
Indiana as seen by early travelers. The book appears under the editor- 
ship of Mr. Harlow Lindley, a member of the commission and director 
of the department of Indiana history and archives. • It is a substantial 
volume of 596 pages and mechanically considered is a fair specimen of 
the state printer's art, at least as practiced in the middle west. 

The volume contains thirty-three selections from travelers' narratives. 
In length they range from two (Eneas Mackenzie and Captain Basil 
Hall) of one and one-fourth pages each to one (David Thomas) of 
ninety-four pages; in point of time from 1778 to 1833. Only two are 
of earlier date than 1800, however, and all but seven of the thirty-three 
are of later date than the close of the war of 1812. Four of the selec- 
tions are now first published from manuscript sources ; the other twenty- 
nine are for the most part taken from the well-known gazetteers and 
travelers' journals of the period, such as those of Imlay, Volney, Melish, 
Darby, Flint, Hall, and Atwater. 

The four newly published narratives naturally attract the reviewer's 
chief interest and attention. The journal of Thomas Scattergood Teas 
of a tour to Fort Wayne in 1821 is a charming narrative, unfortunately 
all too short. The letters of William Pelham in 1825 and 1826, running 
to nearly sixty pages, likewise constitute an interesting and valuable 
picture, particularly of the Owenite settlement of New Harmony. The 
recollections of Charles F. Coffin, written by a nonagenarian and per- 
taining to the period of his early boyhood, are, naturally, of but slight 
value or importance. The final narrative of the quartette and of the vol- 
ume, the recollections of Victor Colin Duclos, presents another interest- 
ing picture of New Harmony life. In view of the youth of the author, 
however, the narrative is of considerably less value than are the Pelham 
letters. ■ ■■ ^t^ 

The work of the editor is confined in the main to printing (or reprint- 
ing) the selections, accompanied, usually, by a one paragraph introduc- 
tory statement. This is a matter for regret since a more extensive edit- 
ing of the documents would have added greatly to the scholarly value of 
the volume. Its object is stated by the editor to be ^'to make available 
to the people of the State and others interested in Indiana history, 

260 Reviews of Boohs m.v.h.r. 

material which could not be procured easily otherwise." It follows that 
the volume is not intended primarily for scholars, who, presumably, 
have or are able to obtain access to the original editions, but rather for 
the ordinary reader. But such readers need particularly the assistance 
of adequate editorial annotation if they are to read with profit such a 
collection of journals of a bygone period as the ones under considera- 
tion. By w^ay of obvious illustration from the opening pages, the reader 
should be told that Thomas Hutchinson exaggerates materially the 
length of the Ohio (page 7), and that Thomas Ashe frequently drew a 
long bow in relating the story of his travels and adventures. 

A properly constructed map would have added much to the usable- 
ness of the book. The index which concludes the volume is far from 


Constitution making in Indiana. A source book of constitutional docu- 
ments wdth historical introduction and critical notes. By Charles 
Kettleborough, Ph.D., legislative draftsman, Indiana bureau of legis- 
lative information. Volume I, 1780-1851 ; volume II, 1851-1916. 
[Indiana historical collections] (Indianapolis: Indiana historical 
commission, 1916. 530 p.; 693 p. $1.50 per volume) 
By an act of March 8, 1915, the general assembly of Indiana created 
the Indiana historical commission and assigned to that body as one of its 
duties the collection and publication of documentary and other materials 
on the history of the state. These two volumes are the result of that 
commission, though the work of collecting, compiling, interpreting, and 
editing were entrusted to Mr. Kettleborough; and it may be said at the 
outset that all students of state history and government are deeply in- 
debted to the author for a painstaking, thorough, and apparently accu- 
rate work. The general introduction, which alone comprises 241 pages, 
gives an account of constitution making from the admission of the state 
in 1816 to 1916. Since all constitutional measures had to pass the legis- 
lature, a detailed description of the adventures of each measure is given 
together with the political complexion of the general assembly having it 
under consideration. This introductory discussion is based upon an ex- 
tensive and intensive use of the original sources, including journals, 
session laws, and current newspapers. The documents quoted in the 
body of the text are also preceded by brief historical introductions, thus 
rendering the work intelligible as a useful work of reference on constitu- 
tion making. 

The scope and content of the main body of the work may be suggested 
by noting the chief divisions into which the work is grouped. They are : 

Vol. IV, No. 2 Her rich and Sweet: North Indiana Conference 261 

(1) the session of the Northwest territory to the United States and the 
organization and development of territorial government (1780-1816), 

(2) the organization of a constitutional government, (3) amendment of 
the constitution of 1816, (4) the constitutional convention of 1850, and 
(5) amendment of the constitution of 1851. 

Stated in general terms, the two volumes really center about the two 
constitutions under which Indiana has been governed for one hundred 
years: the constitution of 1816 and that of 1851. These two constitu- 
tions are given in full with elaborate notes ; but there was a long struggle 
in the attainment of each of these fundamental laws, and, when adopted, 
the questions of interpretation, of amendment, of repeal, and of carrying 
the instrument into effect formed an interesting history in state politics, 
and these phases are illustrated by appropriate documents in the shape 
of resolutions, debates, court opinions, and newspaper comments. Thus 
the history of political parties in Indiana and their relation to the na- 
tional parties are set forth in orderly development giving an insight into 
the local forces that determined in a measure party action in the nation 
at large. While the period covered only aims to give the history of a 
century, the first document, the Northwest ordinance, is the starting 
point in that history and the work thus reflects the entire history of 
political parties in America as developed in one state. The fact that 
Indiana was one of the states carved out of the Northwest territory lends 
a special interest to the work, for aside from Ohio no state west of the 
AUeghanies has passed through a more interesting process of develop- 
ment. Here the ideas of the fathers of the constitution meet those of 
the pioneer ; the models for the states of the great west are being formed 
here; indeed every phase of political life through which America has 
passed since the formation of the constitution is reflected, if not en- 
acted, in the history of Indiana. Mr. Kettleborough has greatly en- 
hanced the usefulness of this work by devoting 150 pages to a very 
thorough analytical index, especially useful since the original archives 
of the earlier sources quoted are without an index. The work is an im- 
portant contribution to American political institutions. 

Karl F. Geiser 

History of the North Indiana conference of the Methodist Episcopal 
church. From its organization, in 1844, to the present. By H. N. 
Herrick, D.D., of the North Indiana conference, and William War- 
ren Sweet, professor of history, DePauw university. (Indianapolis: 
W. K. Stewart company, 1917. 375 p. $2.50) 
The addition of one more to the extensive list of books dealing wdth 

local religious history would not ordinarily be expected to command at- 

262 Reviews of Books m.v.h.r 

teution beyond the special locality or at most beyond the membership of 
the denomination to which it pertains. That it should do so in the pres- 
ent instance is unquestionably due to the fact that the name of a profes- 
sional historian already identified with the history of the Methodist 
Episcopal church appears upon the title page. The share Mr. Sweet 
has had in the production of the volume is clearly set forth in the intro- 
duction. At the death of the veteran member of the North Indiana con- 
ference to whom the task had at first been confided, who had arranged 
a plan and had collected the major portion of the material, the duty of 
editing, supervising, and producing the book devolved upon Mr. Sweet. 
While thus assuming responsibility for the form and content of the vol- 
ume he has relied upon the assistance of a group of historical students 
working under his direction, and only a few of the eleven chapters which 
compose the first part of the book are from his own pen. The second 
part containing well-arranged lists of appointment records which fill 
more than a third of the volume was practically completed by the origi- 
nal historical committee of the conference. Under these circumstances 
Mr. Sweet has not ventured to depart from the conventional method of 
recording religious history, and save for its more accurate documenta- 
tion his work differs but little from other chronicles of religious denom- 
inations in the United States. His frank avowal that it is written for 
the gratification of ' ' those who love the church of their fathers, whether 
they be laymen or ministers" rather than with intent ''to excite the in- 
terest of the casual reader" sufficiently explains its scope and purpose. 

Serious criticism might thus have been effectually disarmed were it 
not for the question raised in the opening chapter as to whether such a 
history is worth the writing. To this question there can be but one 
answer. In a country where religion has played so large a part in the 
formation of ideas, institutions, and character, the history of any single 
denomination and especially of one that has been so potent a factor as the 
Methodist Episcopal church is indispensable to a true understanding of 
national development. The only matter in doubt is the way in which 
such writings should be done. 

From the standpoint of the historian there are two chronic defects 
which writers of religious history would do well to overcome in order 
that their work may prove to be of permanent value. The one concerns 
the selection and use of material; the other concerns the point of view, 
and of the two it is incomparably the more important. The limitation 
in the use of material which this book shares in common with a large 
majority of its predecessors is the tendency to rely almost exclusively 
upon what may be called the official documentary sources of one denom- 
ination. Only one manuscript is cited in the footnotes, and the informa- 

Vol. IV, No. 2 Herrick and Sweet: North Indiana Conference 263 

tion in the text is chiefly drawn from reports of conference meetings and 
from the pages of the Western chnstian advocate. In consequence we 
find there much statistical information as to the membership of churches, 
the dimensions of church buildings, the furniture of parsonages, the pay- 
ment of salaries, the number of converts at revivals and camp meetings, 
and the contributions of missionary societies, while there is compara- 
tively little which reveals the part taken by the leaders of the Methodist 
Episcopal church in northern Indiana in the ordinary affairs of their 
day and generation ; and although biographical sketches appear with the 
regularity of obituary notices in the official organ of the denomination 
the personality of individuals whose influence upon western life can 
scarcely be estimated still remains veiled. The result is a chronicle of 
facts not much more illuminating than the sources from which it is 

The second defect is to a certain extent a logical result of this limited 
use of source material. On account of the peculiar relations between 
church and state in the United States the official utterances of religious 
denominations are guarded and reserved in the extreme. The evidence 
from these sources therefore can not be accepted as conclusive save for 
statistical facts. For the interpretation and understanding of these 
facts, it must be reinforced by the more intimate personal material 
found in diaries, letters, or sermons where a freer expression of indi- 
vidual feeling and a fuller discussion of problems affecting religious de- 
velopment were both safe and permissible. To illustrate by a case in 
point, the bare statement is made from time to time that Sunday services 
were held in a court house pending the completion of a church building, 
yet no hint is given of the efforts necessary to obtain permission to use 
a public building for religious purposes, nor of the hard feelings en- 
gendered where it was occupied by Methodists to the exclusion of Bap- 
tists, Catholics, or Presbyterians, who for the time being were likewise 
without a place of worship. Such facts indubitably more significant 
than the exact number of converts upon the particular occasion would 
be obviously out of place in records intended for immediate publication, 
yet they become abundantly clear in the manuscript sources and are cor- 
roborated by a glance at the history of rival denominations. 

It appears certain, therefore, that a wider range of investigation lead- 
ing to comparative study of the various sects in a given locality would 
result in an expansion of the point of view and would produce a truer 
historical perspective. Especially is this the case in the religious history 
of the northwest, where sectarian competition was at its keenest and 
where the political influence of the various denominations had to be 
taken into account. Granted that the history of other denominations 

264 Reviews of Books m.v.h.b. 

should be relegated to the background, it is nevertheless true that keep- 
ing the spotlight continually upon the activity of the Methodist Episco- 
pal church in Indiana is apt to create the erroneous impression that its 
development went on apart from and uninfluenced by the forces which 
affected other denominations. That the author is cognizant of this sec- 
tarian interaction is shown in three brief though rather casual refer- 
ences, one noting the influence of Quaker example upon the questions of 
licensing women preachers, another mentioning Catholic competition 
after 1880, and a third which cites in a footnote the statistics of a few 
protestant denominations in 1906. As a matter of fact, however, Cath- 
olic expansion, into the northwest had been regarded as a political and 
religious menace by many pious protestants even before the organization 
of the North Indiana conference in 1844, and in spite of the courteous 
intercourse between members of different faiths there were deep under- 
currents of acrimonious feeling concerning the efforts of Methodists to 
increase their membership at the expense of other protestant denomina- 
tions. To leave these facts out of account in writing a history of the 
Methodist Episcopal church is to present a partial and biased view of its 

Still further expansion in the point of view would vastly improve the 
traditional method of writing religious history. If it be incontestably 
true that the story of one religious sect can not be portrayed apart from 
that of others existing in the same locality, it is equally beyond question 
that there is close interrelation between the development of the country 
as a whole and that of the various sects. Not only were the churches 
affected by the economic and political conditions of the country; they 
were also important factors in aiding or retarding that development. 
It would be interesting to know, for instance, just how the lands for 
churches and parsonages were originally acquired, whether by direct 
purchase from the government or from private owners, or, as was often 
the case, by donation from land speculators who were anxious to encour- 
age settlement upon tracts in their possession. In either event the nego- 
tiations for the property would throw much light upon conditions of life 
in a frontier community where the church was the social as well as the 
religious center. The political influence exercised by religious associa- 
tions, while difficult to estimate with precision, might also be detected by 
means of a thorough investigation of religious source material, and the 
inclusion of such topics would greatly enhance the permanent value of 
these studies in the local history of church organizations. 

That the task of writing religious history from this enlarged point of 
view is far more complicated than compiling a chronicle of events from' 
a narrower range of printed sources must be admitted, and there is rea- 

Vol. IV, No. 2 Goebel: Deutsch-Amerikamschen 265 

son to doubt whether even the most liberal minded of religious sects 
would feel justified in financing such a narrative. Historical truth in 
its larger aspects then may not be feasible in a denominational study and 
accuracy of statement may only be possible when the record is limited 
to the obvious facts; yet if students in this unexplored field are to per- 
form the service expected of them they must take into consideration on 
the one hand those subtle and potent forces of human personality and 
belief which explain the motive behind the event, while on the other 
hand they must view the subject of religions in the clearer light of polit- 
ical, social, and economic development. Otherwise the local sectarian 
history will remain in the future what it has been in the past, a conveni- 
ent secondary source from which the religious history of the United 
States may some day be written. Meanwhile there is encouragement for 
the future in the increasing interest historians are showing in this par- 
ticular field and in the fact that one of them has been able and willing 
to cooperate with religious leaders in the production of a study of un- 
usual precision and accuracy. 

Martha L. Edwards 

Jahrhuch der DetUsch-Amerika7iischen histonschen Gesellschaft van Il- 
linois. Herausgegeben von Dr. Julius Goebel, Professor an der 
Staatsuniversitat zu Illinois. [ Jahrgang, 1915, volume xv, im Auf t- 
rage der Deutch-Amerikanschen historischen Gesellchaft von Il- 
linois] (Chicago: University of Chicago press, 1916. 382 p. $3.00 
The present volume of the Jahrhuch is a distinct step in advance of 
the old method of treating ethnic elements of our population. Instead 
of being a mere collection of biographical sketches or annalistic accounts 
of the activity of the German- Americans in some field of endeavor, it is 
composed of carefully sifted articles consisting of source material, bio- 
graphical sketches of prominent German-Americans, and contributions 
on the German-American activities and influence in some field with care- 
ful estimates of their influence on American activities in the same field. 
In the source material we have two speeches of Karl Schurz and Franz 
Sigel edited by Mr. Goebel. These speeches, delivered in 1891, sound 
the same keynote of loyalty to their adopted country as is sounded in the 
utterances of many German-Americans of the present day. A letter of 
Paul Follen, the leader of the G-iessener Gesellschaft, an unfortunate 
emigration society, pictures the hardships of the pioneers in Missouri. 
In the same class of material are the interesting ^ ' Recollections of a f or- 
ty-eighter," by Frederick Behlendorff who presents a vivid picture of 
early civil war campaigns in Missouri. The last contribution in this class 

266 Revieus of Books m.v.h.r. 

is a ••German song of 1778" regarding mercenaries furnished England 
by the margrave of i^nsbach during the revolutionary war. 

The biographical sketches are of two prominent political refugees of 
the nineteenth century. The one of Francis Lieber by Ernest Bruncken 
gives an evaluation of the work of one of the foremost publicists of his 
day. Lieber, however, did not identify himself with German-American 
activities. Of quite a different type was Karl Heinzen, the radical, 
whose life and work have been carefully studied and presented by Paul 

In the third class of materials we have a study of ''The German the- 
ater in New York City, 1878-1914," by Edwin Zeydel. In this the au- 
thor does not attempt "to give a mere annalistic account of German 
theatrical activity in New York," but ''to examine the influence of the 
German theater on the American stage," and "to describe the function 
of the German theater as an educational force." The remaining article 
is a presentation of the political influence of the German-Americans in 
the northwest by F. J. Herriott in "The premises and significance of 
Abraham Lincoln's letter to Theodor Cainisus." Mr. Herriott has made 
an extensive study of this subject for the period immediately preceding 
the civil war. In this article he shows by reference to contemporary 
newspapers that the balance of power in Illinois and Iowa in the election 
of 1860 lay in the hands of the German-Americans. 

The volume closes with the annual report of the German-American 
historical society of Illinois. 

Jessie J. Kile 

Statute law-making in loiva. Edited by Benjamin F. Shambaugh. 
[Iowa applied history series, edited by Benjamin F. Shambaugh, 
vol. 3.] (Iowa City: State historical society of Iowa, 1916. 718 p. 

To quote Mr. Shambaugh, the editor of this work as well as the author 
of one of the nine monographs of which it is composed : ' ' This volume 
is a product of cooperative research. The conception of the book and 
the preliminary outlines of its several parts came from the Editor, under 
whose direction the researches were carried on and the component mono- 
graphs were written." 

According to Mr. Shambaugh, nine men cooperated with him and with 
each other "in perfecting the working outlines, collecting the necessary 
data, and compiling the nine monographs." Eight of the monographs 
are accredited to six of these co-workers while Mr. George F. Robeson, 
Mr. C. Upham, and Mr. John M. Pfiffner are the other workers whose 
researches have helped to make the work possible without any separate 
monograph being accredited to them. 

Vol. IV, No. 2 Shambaugh: Statute Law-making in Iowa 267 

To Mr. John E. Briggs is given the credit for having contributed the 
first of the monographs which, very naturally and appropriately, treats 
of the "History and organization of the legislature in Iowa." This is 
the longest of the nine monographs, covering as it does 135 pages (in- 
cluding the 13 pages of notes and references) of the total number of 687. 
The discussion is divided into two parts of six chapters each. The first 
one treats of the territorial legislature or legislative assembly (1838- 
1846) under the subjects: sessions; organization; procedure; the gov- 
ernor as a factor in territorial legislation ; and the character, publication, 
and distribution of territorial statutes; while the second part or last six 
chapters deal with the state legislature or general assembly (1846-pres- 
ent) according to a similar outline. 

The second of the monographs, entitled "Law-making powers of the 
legislature in Iowa" and contributed by Mr. Benjamin F. Shambaugh, 
is comparatively brief. Here also there are two main parts, the first 
discussing the law-making powers of the legislative assembly and the 
latter the law-making powers of the general assembly. The paper brings 
out very clearly the bases of as well as the nature and extent of legisla- 
tive power under the territorial and state forms of government. 

"Methods of statute law-making in Iowa" is contributed by Mr. 0. K. 
Patton. The development of American legislative procedure is traced 
very briefly and in a very interesting manner. Emphasis is laid upon 
the importance of English . origins, Jefferson's and Gushing 's manuals. 
The general rules regulating the proceedings of a legislative assembly in 
general as well as the steps in the making of statute law in Iowa are ex- 
ceptionally well outlined and the discussion will be a great aid to stu- 
dents in political science and statute law-making in particular. 

Under the subject of "Form and language of statutes in Iowa," Mr. 
Jacob Van der Zee points out the fact that American statutes have been 
copied after English laws in form and language and that therefore the 
same criticisms as apply to the former apply also to the latter. The ses- 
sion laws of low^a are discussed and criticised as to their specific parts 
such as the titles, enacting clauses, preambles, subdivisions, amendments, 
repeals, forms, and schedules. The defects in the language of Iowa 
statutes are also very ably criticised and suggestions are presented which 
if adopted would serve to eliminate the worst of these defects. 

The fifth monograph is by Mr. Dan E. Clark and is entitled "Codifica- 
tion of statute law in Iowa." The author divides his treatment into 
problem and purpose of codification in Iowa, history of the Iowa codes, 
process of codification, and the content and character of codification. 

Mr. Patton is also the author of the paper on "Interpretation and 
construction of statutes in Iowa." In this monograph are discussed the 
respective functions of the legislature and the courts, the general prin- 

268 Beviews of Books m.v.h.k. 

ciples which should govern the interpretation and construction of stat- 
ut<.^s as well as special features such as the interpretation of proviso, 
exceptions, and saving clauses. 

Another monograph contributed by Mr. Van der Zee is entitled ^'The 
drafting of statutes." After taking up the primary causes of defective 
statutes which the author justly concludes are, first, the imperfection of 
human language, and, second, the use of that language in statutes, Mr, 
Van der Zee discusses the agencies which might be used for the drafting 
and improvement of legislation such as legislative reference and bill- 
drafting departments. He shows how the agencies Iowa has used for 
this purpose are inadequate or imperfect and makes a plea for the estab- 
lishment of a bill-drafting department. 

''The committee system" by Mr. Frank E. Horack is a comprehensive 
surv- ey of the workings, organization, powers, and defects connected with 
this fundamental phase of American statute law-making. The criticisms 
are justly founded and the suggested reforms are worthy of study not 
only by those interested in the reform of law-making in Iowa but also 
by those who would like to see similar changes in both our federal and 
other state governments. 

The final monograph is contributed by Mr. Ivan L. Pollock and under 
"Some abuses connected with statute law-making" the author discusses 
the more or less familiar abuses arising out of pre-election influences, in- 
fluences in organization of the legislature, lobbying, politics and pro- 
cedure in the legislature, perquisites, privileges and patronage, and 
finally special legislation. 

In general it may be said of this very detailed and comprehensive re- 
search study that- it answers a real need of students of history and polit- 
ical science. The several monographs are broader in their scope than 
their titles would imply for most of them cast very interesting sidelights 
upon English origins as well as upon the practices in federal and other 
state governments. 

S. A. Park 

Journals of Captain Merhvether Lewis and Sergeant John Ordway kept 
on the expedition of western exploration, 1803-1806. Edited with 
introduction and notes by Milo M. Quaife, superintendent of the 
society. [Publications of the state historical society of Wisconsin, 
Collections, volume xxii] (Madison : State historical society of Wis- 
consin, 1916. 444 p. $1.50) 
The bibliography of the Lewis and Clark expedition continues to grow. 
Some twelve years ago, when editing the original journals kept by the 
two leaders, the late Reuben Gold Thwaites attempted to include in that 

yo\.iY,^o.2QnQ^lfQ. Journals of Captain Meriwether Lewis 269 

publication every important record of the expedition then unpublished. 
A few random letters naturally escaped his attention; but within the 
past two years, the society of which he was so long the superintendent 
has found it advisable to publish three additional important Lewis and 
Clark manuscripts. The two most notable of these comprise the present 
work. They are the journal kept by Meriwether Lewis from Pittsburgh 
to his winter camp at the mouth of Dubois river, and the record of Ser- 
geant John Ordway for the entire expedition proper. Lewis had al- 
ready given us chance information of his early movements through his 
letters to Jefferson, and his journal, unfortunately, adds little to our 
knowledge of this phase of the expedition. He could, for instance, have 
given us an interesting picture of life in Cincinnati, where he had many 
intimate friends and where he stopped several days. But his visit there 
occurs in the midst of a hiatus of fifty-four days in his record, and en- 
tries are lacking of other considerable periods. Ordway 's narrative, re- 
cently recovered entire from among the Biddle papers, as was the other, 
has the distinction of being the only record of the expedition from start 
to finish kept by one man, but it actually fills only one brief gap of six 
days not covered by other accounts, and supplements for a few days 
more the brief record of Sergeant Gass. Its value, therefore, is more 
sentimental than real, although the writer displayed commendable per- 
severance in his task. 

Mr. M. M. Quaife, the present superintendent of the Wisconsin his- 
torical society, contributes the brief preface, the historical introduction, 
and the extensive and well selected notes. In the opening paragraphs 
of his introduction one observes some expressions about Columbus, Spain, 
and the English occupation of Havana and Manila that might be stated 
with greater accuracy. Readers will welcome his brief sketch of the 
"Commercial company for the discovery of the nations of the upper 
Missouri." This enterprise proved an important forerunner of the 
later American exploration. Lewis profited greatly from data furnished 
by Evans and McKay, emploj^ees of this Spanish corporation. This in- 
formation, as we learn from other sources, reached the state department 
through Daniel Clark of New Orleans, and was forwarded by Jefferson 
to his young representative. Transcripts recently obtained from the 
Archivo general de Indias at Seville, have increased our information 
concerning this Spanish enterprise and doubtless further details of this 
and similar undertakings may be brought to light by further researches 

Miss Louise P. Kellogg contributes a comprehensive index to the work. 
Two sketch maps and numerous illustrations add to its value. It occurs 
to the reviewer to add that in time the work may escape casual search 

270 Reviews of Boohs m.v.h.r. 

unless some later occasion stimulates the production of a complete bib- 
lioiiraphy of this notable exploration and its painstaking annalists. 

I. J. Cox 

History of the United States. By Emerson David Fite, Ph.D., Frederick 
Ferris Thompson professor of political science, Vassar college. (New 
York: Henry Holt and company, 1916. 575 p. $1.60) 

This book will meet quite successfully the demands of recent pedagogy 
and historical scholarship. At the end of each of the twenty-seven chap- 
ters there is a list of general references, special topics, illustrative ma- 
terial, and suggestive questions. There are forty-four maps, one hun- 
dred and ten illustrations, and four appendices. The reviewer welcomes 
the articles of confederation as an appendix but he questions the ad- 
visability of using the photograph of from two to five contemporaries. 
Why give one-third of a page to a likeness of Van Buren or Greeley or 
John Mitchell? Some of the illustrations are unique; for example, the 
Barker house and the San Antonio mission. 

As to the divisions of the subject and the points of emphasis, Mr. Fite 
has followed largely what seems to be modern orthodoxy. He brings the 
narrative to 1763 in ninety-seven pages, arrives at Jackson's administra- 
tion in the middle of the book, and gives fully one-fourth of the text to 
the period since 1865. In the early period he stresses the spread of 
geographical knowledge, and the relation of the continental and the 
West India colonies. The preface states that '4ess space than usual" 
has been given to military history 'Svhile the social and industrial de- 
velopment of the country, economic progress, sources and effects of im- 
migration, conditions on the ever-receding frontier, and changes in gov- 
ernmental forms, both national and local, have received special atten- 
tion." Other points emphasized are foreign relations, the peace move- 
ment, and very recent history. Many readers will agree that these aims 
have been realized as fully as can be expected in a book of this size. 

While Mr. Fite has synthesized the story of the West Indian and the 
continental colonies, he has not solved the difficult problem of writing 
colonial history so as to be really teachable. The reviewer feels that this 
text will not give the high school pupil a clear idea of the institutional 
life of the colonists. Many teachers will desire more than seven pages 
on the struggle between England and France for the possession of the 
new world. The forties and the fifties are well treated. The recon- 
struction period is discussed in two chapters : one on the economic phases 
and the other on political ; the former being much better than the latter. 
It is rather doubtful whether economic reconstruction should be treated 
before the political situation has been presented, especially when the 

Vol. IV, No. 2 File: History of the United States 271 

economic events are brought down to the eighties. One of the best chap- 
ters of the book is the one on "Progressive democracy" covering the 
last decade. 

The quotations from Chastellux, Brissot de Warville, Burnaby, and 
some others add strength to the text, but it is the opinion of the reviewer 
that the rather lengthy description of a buffalo hunt by Fremont, Whit- 
man 's ''My captain," and the Gettysburg speech might have been 

The book is singularly free from errors. The style is quite readable 
and is written distinctly for the high school. This book will take rank 
among the best of the recent texts. 

D. C. Shilung 



The attention of the readers of the Mississippi Valley Historical 
Re\tew is called to the following communication : 

During the joint meeting of the American political science and Amer- 
ican historical associations held in Cincinnati in December, 1916, a pro- 
ject for the foundation of a quarterly review to deal in the broadest sense 
with the history and institutions of the new world states arising from 
the colonization efforts of Spain and Portugal was launched by Mr. C. E. 
Chapman of the university of California. 

Among other matters, a committee on organization was appointed and 
instructed to take the necessary steps toward the proposed foundation. 

The duties imposed on the committee included among others the rais- 
ing of a guarantee fund of at least $10,000 (since it could not be hoped 
that the review would be self supporting for several years at least) , and 
the preparation of the first number of the review. 

The committee is now able to announce that sufficient funds have been 
gathered to ensure the inauguration of the publication (although this 
fund is still some thousands short of the figure named in its instructions) 
and the first number of the Hispanic-American historical review is ex- 
pected to appear by February, 1918, at the latest. 

In view of the fact that the sum of $10,000 has not yet been raised in 
its entirety, it is suggested that members of the Mississippi valley histori- 
cal association who desire to do so may make pledges or cash contribu- 
tions to the project through the undersigned, or through Mr. Waldo G. 
Leland, who has consented to act as trustee of guarantee funds ; and it is 
hoped that there will be a generous and wide response to this suggestion. 
It is also suggested that some may wish to contribute a certain sum each 
year for three or more years. 

It is expected that the subscription price of the Review will be three 
dollars per annum. Subscriptions are requested. They should be sent 
to the undersigned immediately. 

James R. Robertson, 
Chairman, Committee on Organization 

Announcement is made of the annual meeting of the Ohio valley his- 
torical association, to be held in Pittsburgh on Friday and Saturday, 
November 30 and December 1, 1917. The program will include meet- 
ings with the Western Pennsylvania historical society, the faculty and 

Vol. IV, No. 2 ^g^^,^ ^^^ Comments 273 

students of the university of Pittsburgh, the Upper Ohio valley teachers' 
association, and the Pittsburgh business men's association. It is also 
planned to take an excursion to some historic spot in the vicinity. The 
committee on arrangements consists of Burd S. Patterson, Isaac J. Cox, 
and H. F. Webster. Members of the Mississippi valley historical asso- 
ciation are urged to attend. 

President Butler of Columbia university has named Herbert E. Bolton 
of the university of California, Paul Van Dyke of Princeton university, 
and William Milligan Sloane lately of Columbia university as a com- 
mittee of three to nominate candidates for the Loubat prizes to be award- 
ed by Columbia university at the commencement in 1918. These prizes, 
of one thousand dollars and four hundred dollars respectively, are to 
be awarded for the two best works printed and published in the English 
language since July 1, 1913, on the history, geography, archaeology, 
ethnology, philology, or numismatics of North America. 

Among the contributions in the June issue of the Bulletin des re- 
cherches historiques are : ' ' Les Amyot sous le regime f rancais, " ' ' Pierre 
Gaul tier de Varennes de la Verendrye et ses fils, ' ' and ' ' Les prisonners 
de guerre americains decedes a Quebec de 1812 a 1815. ' ' 

The Military historian and economist for July contains: "French mil- 
itary theory," by Emile Laloy; ''Pope's campaign in Virginia ;" the 
first installment of the "Visayan campaigns: the insurrection of the 
sugar planters on Panay, " by H. V. Bronson ; and ' ' An estimate of the 
situation" of our part in the world war. 

The "Project of an international court of justice" is discussed by 
James Brown Scott in the May issue of the Judicial settlement quarter- 
ly. The author arrives at the conclusion that the "Supreme Court of 
the United States, created as the agent of sovereign states for the settle- 
ment of their disputes of a justiciable kind, seems to me . . . to be 
a safe, a sound, and a sure model for that court of justice which shall 
one day be established at The Hague as the agent of the nations of the 
world. . ." 

The contents of the annual publication of the Richmond college his- 
torical papers are as follows : ' ' Nathaniel Beverly Tucker : his writings 
and political theories, with a sketch of his life" by Maude Howlett 
Woodfin; "Taxation in Virginia during the revolution" by Louise A. 
Reams ; ' ' William Grayson : a study in Virginia biography of the eight- 
eenth century" by Weston Bristow; "The letters of William Allason, 
merchant of Falmouth, Virginia" by D. R. Anderson. 

274 News and Comments M.v. h. r. 

Of interest to the casual reader are two articles in the Catholic his- 
torical review for April: Joseph Bntsch's "Negro catholics in the United 
States" and Michael O'Brien's "Early Irish schoolmasters in New Eng- 
land." In this issue also occurs Charles L. Souvay's "Bishop Rosati 
and the see of New Orleans, ' ' followed in the July number by ' ' Rosati 's 
elevation to the see of St. Louis (1827)." 

The leading article in the April Ohio archaeological and historical 
quarterly is by Eugene H. Roseboom on "Ohio in the presidential elec- 
tion of 1824." The other contributions are "Explorations of the West- 
enhaver mound" by William C. Mills, illustrated by maps, drawings, 
and pictures; and "The mound builder and the Indian" by C. W. Clark. 

Logan Esarey's account of "Pioneer politics in Indiana" appears as 
the leading article in the Indiana magazine of history for June. 

"The antiquities of Green Lake" by Charles Brown was published in 
March by the Wisconsin archaeological society in the Wisconsin archae- 

The state historical society of Iowa is now undertaking to issue a series 
of small pam^phlets under the title Iowa and^ the war "dealing with a 
variety of subjects relating to military matters connected with the his- 
tory of Iowa." The July number, the first of the series, entitled "Old 
Fort Snelling" and written by Marcus L. Hansen, is a history of the 
fort since its establishment in Missouri territory in 1819. John E. 
Briggs' "Enlistments from Iowa during the civil war" comprises the 
second pamphlet. 

"The Monroe doctrine and the war" appears as the leading article in 
the May Bulletin of the Minnesota historical society. In it Mr. Becker 
exploits the history and theory of the century old protection to western 
democracy to prove President Wilson's assertion that by entering the 
great war we are not renovincing but only extending the Monroe doctrine. 

The Missouri historical review combines its April and July numbers in 
one publication. Walter Stevens in his address before the Missouri cen- 
tennial committee of one thousand (printed as the leading article) 
Avarmly discourses on some of the many incidents of the inspiring "his- 
tory . . . that Missourians will review in this first one hundred 
years of statehood." "Missourians abroad" is a series of popular 
articles that has been prepared to inform Missourians at home of the 
achievements of those outside the state ; it is with some pride, no doubt, 
that the first of the series is devoted to Major-General John J. Pershing. 

Vol. IV, No. 2 News and Comments 275 

In the July issue of the Southwestern historical quarterly James E. 
Winston publishes an article "Mississippi and the independence of 
Texas," based largely on information gleaned from the newspapers of 
1835 and 1836. 

'^A history of Meade county, Kansas" by Frank S. Sullivan (Topeka, 
Kansas: Crane and company, 1916. 184 p.) is rather worse than the 
usual brand of county histories. 


Published quarterly at Cedar Rapids, Iowa. This notice required by Act of Con- 
gress, August 24, 1912. 

Editor, Clarence W. Alvord, Urbana, Illinois. 

Managing Editor, Clarence W. Alvord, Urbana, Illinois. 

Business Manager, Clara A. Paine, Lincoln, Nebraska, and Cedar RapidB, Iowa. 

Publisher, The Mississippi Valley Historical Association, Lincoln, Nebraska. 

Owner, The Mississippi Valley Historical Association, Lincoln, Nebraska. 

There are no bond holders, mortgages, or other security holders. 

Clara A. Paine, Business Manager 

Sworn and subscribed to before me this 4th day of September, 1917, by Clara A. 
Paine, Business Manager. 

Sam B. Iiams, Notary Public 


Vol. IV No 3 December, 1917 


In the secession movement of the fifties, Howell Cobb of 
Georgia was one of the small group of southern democrats of 
distinctly unionist principles. He has received only slight at- 
tention in the standard histories, and is remembered principally 
as an ardent proslavery man and a leading advocate of secession 
in 1860.^ His leadership in the final movement for disunion and 
the part he played in the establishment of the confederacy have 
tended to obscure the character of his statesmanship in earlier 
phases of the struggle over the extension of slavery. Cobb's 
public career extended over the years 1842 to 1860, a period 
characterized on the whole by extreme sectionalism. Cobb was 
always ready with a good word for slavery and was never back- 
ward in defending the south from attack ; but along with his sec- 
tional views he held an intense national patriotism, seeing no 
necessary incompatibility between them. Indeed, his uncom- 
promising advocacy of unionism, especially in connection with 
the compromise of 1850, alienated him completely from his party 
associates in the south; and his political advancement was sac- 
rificed solely because of his fight against disunion. 

Cobb was not yet twenty-nine years of age when he took his 
seat in the twenty-eighth congress as the representative of the 

1 This paper was read at the joint meeting of the American historical association 
and the Mississippi valley historical association in Cincinnati, December, 1916. 

2 James F. Ehodes, History of the United States from the compromise of 1850 
(New York, 1906-07), 1: 117. ''His [Cobb's] devotion to slavery and southern in- 
terests was the distinguishing feature of his character." Ehodes quotes with ap- 
parent approval Horace Mann's dictum that Cobb "loves slavery, it is his politics, 
his political economy, and his religion." Theodore C. Smith includes Cobb in a 
group of extremists *'of the Davis and Yancey type." (Parties and slavery, 1850- 
1859 {The American nation: a history, vol. 18 — New York, 1906), 52. 

280 R, P, Broohs m.v.h.r. 

sixth district of Georgia. Eemarkably self-controlled for so 
young a man, lie never indulged in the outbursts of sectional 
rancor so common at the time, but strove rather to emphasize 
the national point of view. His speech was free from offensive 
and threatening expressions, and his manner to opponents, even 
under great provocation, was courteous. He quickly estab- 
lished himself as a man of strong unionist feeling and became 
popular with the like-minded element in congress. Further- 
more, his skill in debate and familiarity with parliamentary 
procedure made him a leader on his side of the house. 

The conflict which culminated in the compromise legislation 
of 1850 began in the closing days of the twenty-ninth congress. 
Two days before adjournment, in August, 1846, a bill was intro- 
duced carrying an appropriation of $2,000,000 to be used in pay- 
ing for any territory that might be obtained from Mexico.^ On 
the same day Wilmot introduced his proviso prohibiting slavery 
in any such acquisition. This proviso was incorporated in the 
biU, the entire southern delegation, with the exception of two 
Kentucky whigs, voting against it. The senate struck out the 
proviso and killed the bill; but an ominous situation had de- 

In the second session of the same congress, another bill was 
introduced, carrying this time an appropriation of $3,000,000, to 
settle the war with Mexico. The Wilmot proviso was again pro- 
posed as an amendment, and in the debate Cobb addressed the 
house.* He made a plea for fairness and liberality in the legis- 
lation for the territory won by the exertions of all the people 
of the United States. He did not recognize any moral aspect 
of the north's unwillingness to see a further extension of slav- 
ery. Both parties to the controversy he regarded as engaged 
in an effort to further economic and political interests; the right 
of the people of both sections to participate in the fruits of the 
victory over Mexico was undeniable ; and, as free soil and slav- 
ery could not exist in the same place at the same time, Cobb 
thought a division of the territory the only practical way out of 
the difficulty. He put the argument for a compromise in the 
strongest possible light by contending that, if this dispute were 

3 Congressional gloTje, 29 congress, 1 session, 1211. 
^Ihid., 29 congress, 2 session, 360-363. 

Vol. IV, No. 3 Howell Cohh and the Crisis of 1850 281 

peaceably settled, the long contest over the extension of slavery 
would be ended, since the status of slavery would have been 
determined in all the land owned or likely to be acquired by the 
United States. At this stage of the struggle Cobb advocated 
the extension of the Missouri compromise line, the principle of 
congressional nonintervention not having as yet become the 
southern rallying cry. 

Some time later Cobb expressed the opinion that had the 
southern representatives stood together it would have been pos- 
sible to secure an extension of the Missouri line.^ Certainly 
Georgia democrats were for a time favorable to such a settle- 
ment, as was indicated by their vote on a resolution introduced 
in the Georgia senate in November, 1847.^ But the Calhoun 
influence was beginning to work against a compromise, and the 
time passed when the north could be induced to accept the Mis- 
souri line, if, indeed, such a course had ever been possible. 

Throughout both sessions of the thirtieth congress, conven- 
ing in March, 1847, interest was centered on various bills for 
the organization of government in the Mexican cession and in 
Oregon. The Oregon matter was settled in August, 1848, but 
all efforts to adjust the question in the other territory were 
futile. Much angry debating took place, however, and the ex- 
citing interchange of views and the fixed determination of the 
north to exclude slavery from the territories lent strength to 
the Calhoun following. For some time Calhoun had been urg- 
ing southerners to abandon party allegiances and act together 
in defense of their sectional interests. Before a meeting of 
southern representatives and senators, in January, 1849, he laid 
a carefully prepared paper known as ^ ' The southern address. ' ' ^ 
It reviewed the history of the sectional fight over slavery, and 
showed how the northern states had violated the constitutional 
guarantees of the institution. The aggressive policy of the 

5 Oobb to Lamar, June 26, 1850, in Cobb manuscripts. These papers are in the 
possession of Cobb's daughter, Mrs. A. S. Erwin, of Athens, Georgia. Portions of 
the Cobb manuscripts were included by Mr. Ulrich B. Phillips in his edition of the 
'^Toombs, Stephens, and Cobb correspondence." A further selection is now being 
prepared for press by the present writer, under the title ''Cobb papers." 

6 Glenn to Cobb, December 1, 1847, in ' ' The correspondence of Eobert Toombs, 
Alexander H. Stephens, and Howell Cobb, ' ' edited by Ulrich B. Phillips, in American 
historical association. Annual report, 1911 (Washington, 1913), 2: 89. 

T The worTcs of John 0. Calhoun (Cralle ed. — New York, 1856), 6: 290-313, 

282 R. P. Broohs m.v.h.e. 

north, Calhoun contended, looked ultimately to nothing less than 
the total destruction of slavery. Only by the united action of 
all southerners could northern aggression be successfully met. 

Unfortunately for Calhomi's plan, the southern whigs would 
not cooperate in the movement.^ Having just elected their can- 
didate for the presidency, they naturally desired to minimize 
sectional discord and to give Taylor's administration a chance 
of success. Only two whigs signed the ''Address," and the 
movement was thus deprived of a nonpartisan character. The 
democrats were nearly unanimous in upholding Calhoun, but 
Howell Cobb and a few others refused to do so. Four of the 
dissentients combined in a letter to their constituents, explain- 
ing their action.^ The communication was written by Cobb. 
The main point in the letter, as Cobb explained to Buchanan,^^ 
was a remonstrance against the formation of a southern sec- 
tional party. Calhoun had disingenuously sought to convince 
the people of the south that the northern people had been a unit 
in opposing southern interests, making no discrimination be- 
tween northern democrats, whigs, and abolitionists. That this 
had not been true, Cobb showed by contrasting the attitude of 
whigs and democrats on the various sectional issues that had 
arisen. He cited particularly the Wilmot proviso. Many votes 
had been taken on this measure in the house and senate, ''and 
it yet remains for the first northern Whig to record his vote 
against it. It has at different times been defeated by both 
branches of Congress and in every instance by the aid of north- 
ern Democratic votes.'' 

The communication then related how at the meeting that 
adopted the "Address," after the whigs had revealed their atti- 
tude, Cobb had tried to get incorporated the true history of 
abolitionism as it had affected party politics. The majority, 
however, were committed to giving the "Address" as nonparti- 
san an aspect as possible, despite the defection of the whigs. 
Cobb's amendments had, therefore, been rejected, and he and 
his associates had refused to sign the document. He was at a 
loss to see, he continues, how a distinctly southern organization 
could give additional security to southern interests. Such an 

8U. B. Phillips, Life of Bohert Toomls (New York, 1913), 60. 

» Co?>b and others * ' To our constituents, ' ' February 26, 1849, Cobb manuscripts. 

10 American historical association, Annual report, 1911, 2: 164. 

Vol. IV, No. 3 Howell Cohh and the Crisis of 1850 283 

organization ^^ . . possessed no charms to lure us from the 
old association which we had formed in the days of our earliest 
political recollection with the Democratic party of the Union. 
We preferred yet to rely upon the combined influence of the 
Southern and Northern Democrats for the protection of the 
rights of the South, so long as the same were dependent upon 
the legislation of our national government. We could not see 
how our strength was to be increased by diminishing our num- 
bers. If Southern Democrats alone could, by party organiza- 
tion, throw ample barriers around the peculiar interests of the 
South, we were at a loss to understand how the aid and co- 
operation of our Northern friends would embarrass our move- 
ments or weaken our defences. So long as we contemplate the 
continuance of the Union, so long will we look to the preserva- 
tion of the integrity of the Democratic party of the Union, as 
an element of our greatest strength and security. When the 
time shall come, if ever, which Grod, in his mercy, avert, when 
the rights and the interests of the South, under the Constitu- 
tion, are spurned and disregarded, and we shall cease to be con- 
sidered as equals with our northern brethren, we shall look to 
other and higher measures of redress than those which promise 
to flow from the organization of a Southern sectional party. ' ' 

Cobb's attitude toward this southern movement is of con- 
siderable importance to the student of his career. He planted 
himself squarely in favor of national parties, as the necessary 
machinery for handling national questions. His faith in the 
national democracy remained with him a cardinal political tenet, 
to which he held until the Charleston convention in 1860. In 
the second place, the episode marks the beginning of his 
estrangement from the southern extremists. An effort was 
made to compel acquiescence in Calhoun's scheme as a test of 
loyalty to the democratic party and the south.'' A north 
Georgia editor complained that a shower of curses had de- 
scended on him for approving Cobb's position.'^ Public meet- 

ii/fcid, 2: 159.- Augusta (Georgia) Chronicle and Sentinel, July 23, 1849: ''It 
is known . . . that for some time past the Southern address has been the stand- 
ard by which the patriotism of all parties has been judged of by certain politicians. 
Our Democratic friends have denounced as traitors, every man that did not sign it 
in Washington, and every one that refuses to worship it in Georgia. ' ' 

12 American historical association, Annual report, 1911, 2 : 157. 

284 B. P. Brooks m.v.h.r. 

ing's in most of the soutliern states passed resolutions endorsing 
tlie project of a sectional party. One of the signers of Cobb's 
letter, Lumpkin of Georgia, wrote him in March giving details 
of such a meeting, in which resolutions were passed, as Lumpkin 
put it, ^ ^ to organize a Southern sectional party and to disregard 
either democrat or whig, and to make the love of negroes and 
the defence of their rights connected with them as paramount 
to every other consideration/'^^ 

^^lile losing popularity in Georgia and the south, Cobb gained 
prestige among the northern democrats as the result of this inci- 
dent. The leaders of the northern wing of the party were 
pleased ^Yit\l his fairness in recognizing the value of their ser- 
vices to the south. This feeling was doubtless in part respon- 
sible for Cobb's receiving the nomination of the democratic 
caucus in December, 1849, for the speakership of the thirty-first 
congress. The Calhoun element made a determined fight 
against his nomination,^* and throughout the three weeks of bal- 
loting in the speakership contest, a small group of southern 
extremists threw away their votes rather than support the man 
who had opposed Calhoun. Cobb was finally elected on the 
sixty-third ballot, after a resolution to elect by plurality had 
been adopted. He took the chair free from pledges of all sorts, 
having even voted against the plurality rule.^^ He had refused 
overtures of northern whigs to exchange support for a promise 
to construct the committees to their satisfaction ; ^^ and of south- 
ern whigs, who sought, it was later said, to obtain from him an 
agreement to appoint the committees so as to prevent the pas- 
sage of the Wilmot proviso." In electing Cobb the house had 
come about as near as possible to satisfying all elements.^^ He 
was popular with unionists everywhere and it was believed he 
would be fair in his appointments and in the exercise of his 
power as speaker. 

13 American historical association, Annual report, 1911, 2: 156. 

^^Ihid., 2: 177, 178. 

i^^Ihid., 2: 179. 

i« Ibid. 

^7 Ibid., 2: 189. 

18 The Washmgton Union, December 27, 1849, quoting the National Intelligencer: 
". . . had it devolverl on the Whig members of the House to select a Speaker 
from the opj^osito party, it is quite probable that a majority would have chosen Mr. 
Cobb. ' ' 

Vol. IV, No. 3 Howell Cohh and the Crisis of 1850 285 

The congress over which Cobb was thus chosen to preside was 
a memorable one. The territorial question, of course, was still 
uppermost, now complicated by the rapid movement of popula- 
tion to California and the demand for her admission as a free 
state. Clay in the senate introduced his resolutions in Janu- 
ary, 1850.^^ At about the same time the house took up a pres- 
idential message presenting the free soil constitution of Cali- 
fornia. Doty, a free soil democrat, introduced on February 28 
a resolution instructing the committee on territories to report a 
bill for the admission of California.^'^ After a motion to table 
the resolution had been defeated by a strictly sectional vote, the 
southerners began a filibuster. The obstructionists were not 
opposed to the admission of California on a constitution of her 
own choice,^^ but were determined to force at the same time a 
satisfactory settlement of the status of slavery in the rest of 
the Mexican cession. Cobb assisted the filibusters by recogniz- 
ing all who desired to make obstructive remarks, and after 
adjournment arranged a meeting of the leaders on both sides 
at his house. The conference resulted in an agreement to bring 
in bills for the organization of Utah and New Mexico, in which 
the principle of congressional nonintervention should be incor- 
porated.^^ The bills were actually introduced, but never came to 
a vote, though their substance was later enacted into law. 

Meanwhile in the senate the select committee of thirteen, ap- 
pointed April 18 to consider Clay's resolutions, made a report 
recommending the settlement outlined by Clay, and presenting 
bills to carry their recommendations into eifect.^^ To the first 
measure, the Utah bill, an amendment was offered^* in these 
words: *^and, when admitted as a state, the said territory, or 
any portion of the same, shall be received into the Union, with 
or without slavery, as their constitution may prescribe at the 
time of their admission. ' ' On the adoption of this amendment, 
which meant the acceptance of the nonintervention principle, 

19 William MacDonald, Documentary source hooTc of American history, 1606-1898 
(New York, 1908), 384. 

20 Congressional globe, 31 congress, 1 session, 375, 376. 

21 Alexander H. Stephens, A constitutional view of the late war between the states; 
its causes, character, conduct and results (Chicago, 1868-70), 2: 201-203. 

22lhid., 2: 203, 204. 

23 MacDonald, Documentary source hooTc of American history, 1606-1898, 386. 

24 Congressional globe, 31 congress, 1 session, 1239, 

286 B. P. Brooks m.v.h.e. 

depended the success of the compromise measures.^^ It was 
adopted, and by tlie middle of September the entire program 
going to make up the compromise of 1850 had been completed 
in both senate and house, though not without a bitter fight in 
the house on the nonintervention features of the territorial 

The compromise of 1850 was the result of a sincere effort by 
the unionists to end a dispute that was impossible of adjust- 
ment except by mutual concessions. Extremists in both sections 
believed that a humiliating surrender had been made to their 
opponents. The politicans had done their best: it remained to 
convince the masses of the wisdom of the settlement. The arena 
of discussion was, therefore, shifted to the states. 

In the south the source of the opposition to the compromise 
had been foreshadowed by the house vote at the critical mo- 
ment.^^ Southern whigs had been nearly unanimously in favor 
of the measure, while twenty-nine southern democrats had voted 
on the other side. Shortly after the passage of the compromise 
a paper was circulated among the members pledging all who 
signed it not to suport any one for president, vice-president, 
senator, representative in congress or in a state legislature, 
who was not known to be in favor of the compromise and ^^ op- 
posed to the renewal in any form of agitation upon the subject 
of slavery. ' ' Howell Cobb was the only southern democrat who 
signed.^^ We have seen that in his speech of February, 1847, 
Cobb favored the extension of the Missouri line. He had now 
abandoned that plan and was thoroughly committed to Clay's 
scheme. As early as June, 1850, he turned his attention to creat- 
ing sentiment in Georgia for the settlement. He urged his kins- 
man, John B. Lamar, to arrange a unionist meeting at Macon.^^ 
Lamar agreed to do so. He reported that there was a good deal 
of sentiment among the democratic masses in favor of the com- 
promise, but that the press was seeking to ^'browbeat our repre- 
sentatives in Congress into the belief that the people are opposed 

^^' Stephens, Constitutional view of the late war between the states, 2: 218, 219. 
20 Phillips, Life of Eohert Toombs, 85-88. 

^7 Stephens, Constitutional viev) of the late war between the states, 2 : 234 ; Con- 
gressional globe, 31 congress, 1 session, 1764. 

2% Augusta Chronicle and Sentinel, February 20, 1850. 
29 Cobb to Lamar, June 26, 1850, Cobb manuscripts. 

Vol. IV, No. 3 Howell Cobb and the Crisis of 1850 287 

desperately to the Senate Compromise and if they vote for it 
their doom is sealed. ^ ' ^^ 

Democratic opposition to the compromise was due in large 
measure to a revival of the demand for the extension of the Mis- 
ouri line, which after the rapid movement of population to Cal- 
ifornia and the demand for statehood on a free constitution 
seemed more advantageous than nonintervention.^^ Cobb was 
convinced that the demand for the Missouri line was insincere. 
He had said in the letter to Larmar above referred to : **Does it 
not present a singular spectacle to see the very men who would 
have ostracized me for advocating the Missouri Compromise 
line, now making that their sine qua non. If they had united 
with me at the proper time we could have obtained that line as 
the basis of settlement, but Mr. Calhoun said, the South was 
sick of compromises and demanded the constitutional principle 
of non interference. Well, non interference is tendered and is 
to be rejected on the ground that the heretofore repudiated Mis- 
souri Compromise is preferable. I have no patience with such 
men. If they believed today that we could settle the question 
upon the terms now proposed, they would reject it and demand 
something else.*' 

Correspondents confirmed Cobb's belief that the cry for the 
Missouri line had been raised simply to keep alive the agitation. 
A. H. Chappell, a middle Georgia unionist and former congress- 
man, wrote Cobb in July urging that he bestir himself to stem 
the tide setting towards disunion.^^ * ^ The game of the destruc- 

30 American historical association, Annual report, 1911, 2 : 191. 

31 Benning to Cobb, March 29, 1850, Cobb manuscripts. This letter is an able 
presentation of the views of the extremists. The Nashville convention, meeting in 
June, also demanded the Missouri line. The Augusta Chronicle and Sentinel, a whig 
paper, commented editorially June 25, 1850, on the astonishing change about face 
of the radicals on the Missouri compromise line. ''Prior to the Convention we were 
wont to hear the advocates of the measure [the convention?] denounce the Missouri 
Compromise as a degrading concession on the part of the South, and yet we find the 
Convention commending it as the only just measure of compromise to the Southern 
people." A state mass meeting in Macon, in August, approved the acts of the 
Nashville convention, particularly the demand for the Missouri line. See ibid., 
August 30, 1850. 

32 American historical association, Annual report, 1911, 2: 193, 206. The Augusta 
Chronicle and Sentinel, May 17, 1850 : ' ' Is there nothing in all this coalition of Free 
Sellers and Abolitionists and Ultraists of the South, to mark the purposes and designs 
of these factions to prevent an adjustment, and thus leave the question open for 
future agitation?" 

2SS B, P. Brooks . m.v.h.r. 

fives/' lie said, ^4s to use tlie Missouri Compromise principle 
as a medium of defeating all adjustment and then to make the 
most of succeeding events, no matter what they may be, to in- 
furiate the South and drive her into measures that must end in 
disunion. ' ' 

Eesponding to this appeal, Cobb prepared an exhaustive state- 
ment of his views. ^^ The communication is too long for even an 
adequate resume. He argued strongly for the several parts of 
the compromise, and gave particular attention to the California 
question and the southern agitation for the Missouri line. So 
far as California was concerned, Cobb saw no tenable ground of 
opposition. The people of California wanted a free soil con- 
stitution and it was a cherished southern principle that the 
people should decide this labor question for themselves. ^^We 
have the satisfaction of knowing that the constitution which Cal- 
ifornia presents to us has received the sanction and approval of 
her people. . . The mere fact that her constitution excludes 
the institution of slavery constitutes no valid or constitutional 
objection to her admission as a State. The right of the people 
to pass upon this and all kindred questions in the organization 
of their State governments is a principle which needs only to be 
stated to be admitted and sanctioned. ' ' He had disapproved of 
the irregularities which attended the organization of govern- 
ment in California, but ^^ . . these objections are not so 
grave and formidable in their character as to require at my 
hands the entire rejection of California as a state when the 
question is prescribed to me as part of a general system of settle- 
ment by which peace and quiet is to be restored to my country, 
torn and distracted by the most angry and alarming dissen- 

As to the rest of the Mexican cession, after a long fight the 
principle of congressional nonintervention had been wrested 
from congress. This settlement he held to be preferable to the 
extension of the Missouri line, because it threw open the whole 
of the territory to the slaveholders. Under either plan, he 
frankly pointed out, the final decision of the labor question would 
not be a matter of legislation, but would be determined by nat- 
ural conditions. ^^ . . but whether recognized by Congress 

33 American historical association, Annual report, 1911, 2: 196 ff. 

Vol. IV, No. 3 Howell Cobb and the Crisis of 1850 289 

or not, no one proposes to force the institution of slavery into 
any portion of the territory against the wishes of the people 
who may emigrate there and inhabit it ; so that at last its exist- 
ence there must depend, as it should, upon the decision of the 
people of the territories. This fact should be borne in memory 
to prevent the public mind from falling into the fatal error of 
supposing that the adoption of the Missouri Compromise line 
was the absolute establishment of slavery in any portion of 
that country. Such a result does not necessarily follow up- 
on this mode of adjustment. Soil, climate and the general 
adaptation of the country to slave labor, are the great ele- 
ments that must mould and regulate the institutions of those 
territories if left free from the operation of Congressional re- 
strictions. ' ^ 

This letter placed Cobb in direct conflict with the current of 
opinion in his party. Excitement in Georgia was intense. The 
democratic press all over the state was denouncing the settle- 
ment and angrily threatening disunion.^* For example. The 
Columbus Sentinel said: ^^We have all along contended that 
the admission of California would fill to overflowing the poisoned 
cup of degradation which the North has for years been prepar- 
ing for the South. . . We now abandon the Union as an en- 
gine of infamous oppression. We are for secession, open un- 
qualified secession. Henceforth we are for war upon the gov- 
ernment; it has existed but for our ruin, and to the extent of 
our ability to destroy it, it shall exist no longer.'^ 

In February, the legislature of Georgia had adopted a set of 
resolutions calling for a state convention to consider measures 

34 Columbus (Georgia) Sentinel, September 12, 1850. In similar strain the editor 
of the Macon (Georgia) Telegraph wrote on September 17: ^'It remains to be seen 
whether the men of the South will, with freemen's hearts, strike for their rights, or 
with the spirit of slaves and dastards submit to this Congressional quackery, until 
they are driven from their country like the Poles. If the territory — the land and 
property of the South, can be taken by a vote of the majority, why not her slaves'? 
The question then which springs to the lips of everyone, is, what are we to do? the 
mere politician who waits to see the course of the popular breeze before he sets his 
sails — 'the time-server and office-seeker, who palters with the great issues of equality 
and degradation, submission and slavery, despicable at aU times is doubly so now. 

Other newspapers openly advocating secession were the Columbus Times, Savannah 
Georgian, (Augusta) Constitutionalist. 

290 R.P.Brooks m.v.h.r. 

of redress, should congress force on the south the program 
which was being urged.^^ The passage of the California bill 
was taken by the governor as justification for calling the con- 
vention, to meet in December. A lively contest ensued between 
secessionists and unionists for the control of the convention. 
Toombs, Stephens, and Cobb worked hard to bring out a full 
unionist vote, and a large majority of conservatives were chosen 
as delegates. 

The convention met and adopted a preamble and set of resolu- 
tions known as the ^^ Georgia platf orm, ' ' ^^ which pledged 
Georgia to the support of the compromise and the union, as long 
as her constitutional rights were respected and the north re- 
mained faithful to the provisions of the adjustment of 1850. 
This action of the state of Georgia was hailed with rejoicing by 
unionists everywhere,^^ and the decision of the state to uphold 
the compromise contributed much to a general acceptance of 
the settlement in the south. 

Unionists had for the time being laid aside party differences 
and combined against the disruptive movement; but the whigs 
contributed far the larger part of the membership of the con- 
vention. The radicalism of the day, as has been seen, was in 
the democratic ranks, and Cobb's exertions had swung to the 
unionist cause only a minority of his party, coming principally 
from the two north Georgia districts, one of which he repre- 
sented in congress. As the real problem was to secure enough 
votes from the ranks of the democracy to win the fight, Cobb 
deserves the largest share of the credit for the success of the 
movement. Stephens admitted that but for Cobb's efforts the 
** Georgia platform'' would not have been possible.^^ Toombs 
and Stephens in advocating the compromise in Georgia had not 

. 35 H. V. Ames, State documents on federal relations, 1789-1861 (New York, 1907), 

36 Journal of the Georgia convention of 1850. 

87 The Augusta Chronicle and Sentinel, January 1, 1851, quotes the Providence 
(Rhode Island) Journal as follows: ". . . and so ends the convention which was 
called to take the lead in the work of resistance to the federal government. The 
patriotism of Georgia, manifested in this act, will long be remembered with gratitude 
by the i>eople of the whole union; and when her orators shall sum up her claims upon 
the country, this will stand among the most valuable and conspicuous services which 
she has rendered.*' 

88 Stephens, Constitutional view of the late war hetween the states, 2 : 332. 

Vol. IV, No. 3 Howell Cobb and the Crisis of 1850 291 

jeopardized their popularity, but Cobb had had to incur the 
hatred of many erstwhile firm political allies. 

The attitude of the Georgia convention had been due rather 
to conservative restraint in the presence of a situation that 
looked dangerous for the union than to a thorough-going ap- 
proval of the compromise. Unionist leaders, aware of the wide- 
spread dissatisfaction with the settlement, felt it necessary to 
effect an organization to uphold the decision of the state in ac- 
cepting the compromise. Accordingly, a ' ' Constitutional union 
party*' was formed in December, 1850.^^ To a unionist rally in 
Macon in February, 1851, Cobb sent a letter in which he ex- 
pressed the opinion that the danger to the union had not passed.*^ 
Abolitionists and their allies in the north and secessionists in 
the south were exerting themselves to keep alive sectional feel- 
ing. The friends of the union, he thought, should stand firmly 
on the compromise and a final adjustment. *^The success of this 
movement,'' he said, ** decides in my honest judgment the fate 
of the Union. ' ' 

The constitutional union party enlisted the bulk of the whigs 
and the more moderate democrats. The extremists also organ- 
ized, under the name ^^ Southern rights party." Both parties 
nominated candidates for the governorship in the approaching 
election. The union party named Cobb; the southern rights 
party, Charles J. McDonald, already twice governor and a very 
popular man. 

In the stirring and bitter campaign that followed the issues 
were the same as in the election of delegates to the Georgia con- 
vention the year before. Cobb visited every part of the state, 
maintaining the wisdom of the compromise and combating seces- 
sion doctrines. The extremists succeeded in making the ab- 
stract right of secession the principal issue.*^ This question the 
union party in convention had sought to avoid,*^ Cobb, how- 
ever, foresaw the issue and exchanged letters with Toombs on 

39 The Augusta Ch/ronicle and Sentinel, December 28, 1850, gives an account of the 
organization meeting. 

40 American historical association, Annual report, 1911, 2: 221, 222. 

'41 Columbus (Georgia) Enquirer: ''But according to the views, or pretended 
views, rather, of our opponents, there is but one thing now that is worth talking 
about, and that is the abstract right of secession.'^ Quoted by the Augusta Chron- 
icle and Sentinel, July 18, 1851. 

42 Toombs to Cobb, June 9, 1851, Cobb manuscripts. 

292 R.P.Brooks m.v.h.b. 

the subject/^ Stephens also wrotei** advising Cobb how he 
thought the matter should be handled. Cobb prepared a com- 
munication in August containing an explicit statement of his 

He denied that at the time of the adoption of the constitution 
any right of secession was recognized. '^When asked to con- 
cede the right of a State to secede at pleasure from the Union, 
with or without just cause, we are called upon to admit that the 
framers of the constitution did that which was never done by 
any other people possessed of their good sense and intelli- 
gence — that is to provide in the very organization of the gov- 
ernment for its own dissolution.''^ '^^ Had the framers of the 
constitution intended to leave the perpetuity of the union to the 
caprice of each state, it seemed to Cobb that such a principle 
would have been clearly enounced in the document itself and not 
left to 'inference and metaphysical deductions of the most com- 
plicated character. ' ^ That a ratification of the constitution was 
regarded as irrevocable he showed from the hesitation of Rhode 
Island and North Carolina. Had it been a recognized principle 
that a state need stay in the union only so long as it pleased, 
Cobb contended that these two states would have adopted the 
constitution immediately with the intention of withdrawing 
should the other states refuse to adopt the amendments they 
desired. He thought it was especially absurd to claim that 
states made from territory bought by the United States had the 
right to secede. Our governmental arrangements are pitiable, 
Cobb thought, if the existence of the union is at the disposal of 
each state: ^'By admitting the doctrine of the secessionists we 
are brought to the conclusion that our Federal Grovernment 
. . . is nothing more than a voluntary association, temporary 
in its character, weak and imbecile in the exercise of its powers, 
incapable of self-preservation, claiming from its citizens alle- 
giance and demanding annual tribute from their treasure, and 
yet destitute of the power of protecting their rights or preserv- 
ing their liberties. . . I do not so understand our govern- 
ment; I feel that I owe my allegiance to a government possessed 
of more vitality and strength than that which is drawn from a 

43 Toombs to Cobb, June 9, 1851, Cobb manuscripts. 

44 American historical association, Annual report, 1911, 2: 237, 238. 

45 Ihid., 2 : 251 ff. 

Vol. IV, No. 3 Howell Cohh and the Crisis of 1850 293 

voluntary obedience to its laws. I hold that no government is 
entitled to any allegiance that does not pass wise and just laws, 
and does not possess the power to enforce and execute them.'* 

Up to this point Cobb's argument was directed against seces- 
sion as an abstract right, a measure to be resorted to peaceably 
at any time that interest or inclination prompted states to such 
a course. The emphasis is on the conception of secession as a 
peaceable process ; otherwise it is indistinguishable from revolu- 
tion. The right of revolution Cobb recognized. Such action, 
however, could not possibly be allowed to go unchallenged and 
had no constitutional justification. On this point he said : ^ ^ The 
right of a State to secede in case of oppression or ^a gross and 
palpable violation' of her constitutional rights, as derived from 
the reserved sovereignty of the States, I am prepared to recog- 
nize. In such case each State, in the language of the Kentucky 
and Virginia resolutions of 1798- '99, is to be the judge, not only 
of the infractions,' but of the ^mode and measure of redress.' 
It is the just right of the people to change their form of govern- 
ment when in their opinion it has become tyrannical in a mode 
not provided for in the constitution, and is therefore revolution- 
ary in its character and depends for its maintenance upon the 
stout hearts and strong arms of a free people." 

Much emphasis was being laid on the question of the use of 
force to quell a secession movement. Cobb sought apparently 
to make this aspect of his views as palatable as possible to his 
opponents and to win over the less extreme of them by advanc- 
ing the proposition that, theoretically, the exercise of military 
power v/ould not necessarily follow the secession of a state. 
Kesort to force would come only if such action were compelled 
by the ^^ rights and interests of the remaining States of the 
Union. ' ' But as a practical proposition, Cobb appeared to think 
violation of the rights of other states would inevitably follow 
secession. If he, as governor, were called upon to furnish 
militia to coerce a seceding state, he would first summon a con- 
vention of the people and let them decide between the union and 
the seceding state or states. 

This exposition of his views on the right of secession has been 
viewed as an effort on Cobb's part to straddle.*^ The judgment 
is based on his failure to come out unequivocably for the use of 

46 Arthur C. Cole, The whig party in the south (Washington, 1913), 204. 

294 R, P. Brooks m.v.h.r. 

force to crush au attempt at secession and on his statement that 
participation by individuals in such a movement would not, in 
his opinion, amount to treason to the national government. The 
position taken in the quotation last above given is also open to 
objection, as Cobb found constitutional justification for an action 
which in the next breath he speaks of as a revolutionary right 
to change the form of government ^4n a mode not provided for 
in the Constitution/' There was a good deal of complaint dur- 
ing the campaign that he spoke in a different tone at different 
places; but the communication now being considered was in- 
tended to clear up all doubts as to his position and may be taken 
as final. On the whole, it must be pronounced distinctly na- 
tionalist in tone, though not uninfluenced by Cobb's natural ten- 
dency to compromise on disputed questions. 

The election returns showed that Cobb had been elected by an 
overwhelming majority. The people of Georgia had spoken 
emphatically against disunion and secession, and in favor of the 
finality of the compromise. The secession movement of the 
fifties was over, for a similar result had been obtained by union- 
ists in other southern states.*^ There remains to be considered 
the effects of Cobb's stand for the union on his political fortunes. 

In organizing the constitutional union party, Toombs*^ and 
Stephens and some of the democratic leaders*^ hoped to make 
of it the nucleus of a national third party. But Cobb seems 
never to have favored the idea.^^ The whig party he thought 
permanently denationalized and incapable of being used any 
longer as the instrument of fostering unionist feeling or for the 
protection of the south.^^ The democratic party at large, on the 
contrary, he believed ** sound" on both these points. The wing 
of the party led by himself in Georgia he regarded as repre- 
senting the national democratic position; the southern rights 
wing he considered schismatic. He desired, therefore, to keep 
up the union organization and throw its strength in national 
elections to the democratic party, a course to which the principal 
obstacle was the traditional hostility of whigs and democrats. 

47 Cole, Whig party in the south, 188, 189. 

48 American historical association, Annual report, 1911, 2 : 227. 
^^Ihid., 2: 229. 

soihid., 2: 221, 275. 
51 JMd, 2: 311. 

Vol. IV, No. 3 Howell Cobh and the Crisis of 1850 295 

The test whether the whig and democratic elements of the 
union party could be kept together came with the preliminaries 
to the presidential election of 1852. The southern rights organ- 
ization, arrogating to itself the sole title to regular democracy, 
appointed delegates to the Baltimore national convention, to 
meet in June. The union party held a meeting in April to decide 
what action should be taken about delegates.^^ The democratic 
wing desired to be represented, but the whigs refused to agree. 
The convention adjourned without taking action, but after the 
meeting the democrats got together and appointed delegates. 
The whigs had acted at the behest of Toombs and Stephens, who 
opposed acting with the democratic party. They desired to hold 
aloof from both national organizations and throw the strength 
of the unionists to the party that embraced the compromise and 
named a compromise candidate.^^ After the nomination of 
Pierce on a compromise platform, there seemed no reason why 
the whig leaders should hesitate to support the democratic ticket. 
Indeed, soon after the adjournment of the democratic conven- 
tion, Toombs wrote Cobb: *^You and your friends are fully 
and thoroughly in line. The resolutions of the Baltimore Con- 
vention on the Compromise are full, clear and explicit. No hon- 
est Compromise man can object to them, and the candidate, Genl. 
Pierce I doubt not from what I can learn of him is a fair, great 
and upright and honest man without the least objection on the 
slavery issue. ' ' ^* Stephens also was reported ^^ as entirely sat- 
isfied with the platform and the candidate. The nomination of 
Scott by the whigs should apparently have clinched the argu- 
ment, as Scott was known to entertain anti-compromise views 
and had been used to prevent the nomination of a compromise 
man.^® Despite the favorable outlook, Toombs and Stephens 
after a period of vacillation backed down and brought out a third 
ticket, headed by Webster. They could not endure the idea of 
affiliating with the democratic party which was being ' ' reorgan- 

52 Augusta Chronicle and Sentinel, April 28, 1852. Proceedings of the convention. 

53 Stephens to Cobb, January 26, 1852, Cobb manuscripts. 

54 Toombs to Cobb, June 10, 1852, Cobb manuscripts. 

55 American historical association. Annual report, 1911, 2 : 300. Also Stephens to 
Cobb, January 26, 1852, in Cobb manuscripts. 

56 American historical association, Annual report, 1911, 2 : 311 ; Stephens to the 
Augusta Chronicle and Sentinel, June 28, 1852. 

296 B. P. Brooks m.v.h.e. 

ized" by what they regarded as an infamous coalition of south- 
ern fire-eaters and northern free soilers. 

Notwithstanding the defection of Toombs and Stephens, Cobb 
and other union democrats made an effort to keep the party to- 
gether. A convention was held in July, a majority of those 
attending being democrats. When the democrats tried to force 
through a resolution favoring Pierce and King, the whigs bolted, 
and the party was disrupted. The democratic wing then put up 
a Pierce and King ticket. Shortly after the convention the ex- 
ecutive committee issued a statement formally dissolving the 
union party, the principal reason for the abandonment of the 
organization being stated as *^the rallying of the Whigs on a 
third candidate endangering the success of Pierce and King. ' ' " 
The reference was to the Webster ticket. 

While these events were happening, indeed, ever since the dis- 
ruption of the union party had been threatened by the business 
of sending delegates to Baltimore, an effort had been afoot to 
bring together the two wings of the democratic party. Influ- 
ential democrats of the union party urged this course.^^ Cobb 
advocated a reunion in an open letter.^^ His reasons for favor- 
ing a reunion were that the union party of Georgia had been 
formed for the sole purpose of committing Georgia to the com- 
promise measures of 1850 ; it had succeeded in its effort and ful- 
filled its mission ; the opponents of the compromise had embraced 
it and the issue was a dead one, both national parties in conven- 
tion having adopted compromise platforms. There was, there- 
fore, no reason for the continuance of an organization cut off 
from affiliation with the national parties, and it was desirable 
that the two wings of the democracy should forget past differ- 
ences and work together for the Pierce and King ticket. Several 
leaders of the other wing were also eager to effect a reconcilia- 
tion,^^ and for a time it seemed likely that democratic harmony 
would be restored."' A democratic rally was held in Atlanta in 

57 American historical association, Annual report, 1911, 2 : 316. The announce- 
ment, called ' ' Address of the executive committee to the constitutional union party 
of Georgia, " is in the Cobb manuscripts. 

•'>« American historical association, Annual report, 1911, 2: 280. 

''"^ Jhid., 2: 311; Cobb to Thomas Morris, March 7, 1853, Augusta Chronicle and 
Sentinel, April 11, 1853. 

'if' American historical association. Annual report, 1911, 2: 318, 319. 

0) Ibid., 2: 318. 

Vol. IV, No. 3 Howell Cohh and the Crisis of 1850 297 

September for the purpose of patching up a truce ; but it turned 
out that a large majority of the southern rights leaders were ut- 
terly opposed to reconciliation. It had been hoped that at this 
Atlanta meeting the two Pierce and King tickets in the field (one 
that of the southern rights democrats, the other representing the 
democratic wing of the union party) might be fused, with a fair 
representation to each faction. The southern rights men, how- 
ever, refused to make any concessions to the unionist minority.^^ 
The leaders of the union democrats thereupon took down their 
ticket, against the wishes and advice of Cobb.^^ This withdrawal 
was bitterly resented by a portion of the union democratic press 
and soon thereafter a new Pierce and King ticket was put out.^* 
In the election this ticket polled about 6,000 votes, the southern 
rights ticket receiving 39,000. 

The opposition of the southern rights leaders to reconciliation 
was due largely to their determination to crush Cobb.^^ Numer- 
ous correspondents agree on this point.^^ Forced to support a 
platform and candidate hateful to them, the extremists vindic- 
tively desired to punish Cobb for his part in the situation and 
for what they regarded as his apostasy to the south. He had 
met them on their own ground, boldly challenged their favorite 
dogmas of state sovereignty and secession and had worsted them 
in the conflict. Now, through the failure of the third party 
movement, due to the action of Toombs and Stephens, the ad- 
vantage lay with the former minority on the issues of 1850-1851 ; 
and this minority, the majority of the old democratic party of 
Georgia, used their power in every way possible to hurt Cobb. 
Every effort was made to win back the rank and file of the union 

62 Augusta Chronicle and Sentinel, September 25, 1852, copy of editorial from the 
Marietta Union. 

63 IMd., April 6, 1853, Hull to the editor of the Constitutionalist. 

6* Augusta Chronicle and Sentinel, October 2, 1852. Hopkins Holsey, editor of the 
Southern Banner (Athens), regarded as Cobb's personal organ, was one of the leaders 
in this movement, and was named as an elector on the new Pierce ticket. 

65 Augusta Chronicle and Sentinel, September 18, 1852, quotes the Savannah Re- 
publican: ''The object of the Southern Rights Party is apparent. The leaders have 
determined to crush Howell Cobb. That is the source of all the difficulty. If he 
were to die tomorrow, the ticket would be reorganized and everything done to re-unite 
the party. For his Excellency, they have no terms but such as the executioner gives 
his victim." 

66 American historical association. Annual report, 1911, 2: 271, 307, 308; Fannin 
to Cobb, April 11, 1852, Cobb manuscripts. 

298 B. P. Brooks m.v.h.r. 

democrats, but Cobb was expressly excluded. In this hue and 
cry after Cobb, the southern rights leaders were ably assisted 
by the entire democratic press of Georgia. Even some of the 
union democratic press was full of bitterness against him, as 
he was held responsible for the withdrawal of the union Pierce 
and King ticket. 

These developments left Cobb politically stranded so far as 
Georgia politics were concerned. He was forsaken by the whigs 
and the overwhelming majority of his own party. His position 
was made clear early in 1854 when the legislature was called 
upon to elect a senator to succeed Dawson, the whig incumbent 
and a candidate for reelection.^^ In the numerous ballotings 
Cobb 's highest vote was thirty-four. The small group of union- 
ists was finally forced to witness the election of one of the most 
radical of the secessionist group, Alfred Iverson, of Columbus. 

Defeated in the senatorial contest, Cobb was returned by his 
old district, strongly unionist in feeling, to the thirty-fourth con- 
gress, and resumed his seat in 1855. He never recovered his 
popularity with the Georgia democracy. In 1860 the party re- 
fused to put his name before the Charleston convention for the 
presidency ;^^ and even at the Montgomery convention of the 
seceding states, the undying resentment of the southern extrem- 
ists prevented consideration of his name for the first place in 
the new government.*^^ In embracing the cause of the union in 
the fifties, Cobb paid the price of political proscription in his 
native state. No expression of regret has been found anywhere 
in his writings for having followed the course he elected to pur- 
sue. His name deserves an honorable place among the unionist 
statesmen of the ante bellum period, despite the fact that the 
sudden and unlooked for revival of sectionalism after 1854 
forced him to follow the fortunes of his people. 

R. P. Brooks 
University of Georgia 

67 Savannah Bepuhlican, January 20, 1854. 

.«8 Phillips, Life of Eoheri Toombs, 188, 189. 

6» Stephens, Constitutional view of the late war between the states, 2 : 331. 

TION, 1819-1820 

In his well-known report submitted to congress in January, 
1820, the secretary of war said that the Yellowstone expedition 
was **a part of a system of measures" which had for its object 
the protection of the northwestern frontier and the greater ex- 
tension of the American fur trade/ This specific statement has 
not been sufficient, however, to prevent students from losing 
sight of the larger scheme which Calhoun had in mind when he 
wrote his report. Writers have referred to it but have pro- 
ceeded to treat the expedition as an isolated event, or simply in 
connection with Long's explorations of 1819-1820.^ In this 
paper the writer intends not only to determine what the plan 
was, but also to point out some of the results of the efforts made 
to put it into effect. To do this a cursory consideration of the 
following topics will be necessary: (1) The activity of the 
British in the northwest at the close of the second war for inde- 
pendence; (2) the movement of troops to the mouth of the St. 
Peter's (Minnesota) river; (3) the so-called Yellowstone expedi- 
tion; and (4) the explorations of Lewis Cass in northern Wis- 
consin and Minnesota during the summer of 1820. 

The big western problem before the government at Washing- 
ton immediately following the war of 1812 was to establish effec- 
tive control over the Indians in the northwest.^ Information 

"i^ American state papers: military affairs, 2: 33. 

2 As an example of the former see Hiram M. Chittenden, The American fur trade 
in the far west; a history of the pioneer trading posts and early fur companies of 
the Missouri valley and the Boclcy mountains and of the overland commerce with 
Santa Fe (New York, 1902), 2: 562-587. This is rather surprising in Chittenden, 
whose subject justifies a broader treatment of this particular phase than one finds 
in his work. The latter treatment is illustrated by Thwaites in his preface to Long's 
expedition, Early western travels, 1748-1846 (Cleveland, 1904-1907), vol. 14. In his 
brief notice of the subject Mr. Turner implies that it is a part of a larger scheme, 
but the full breadth of the program is not indicated. Frederick J. Turner, Bise of 
the new west, 1819-1829 {The American nation: a history, vol. 14 — New York, 
1906), 125-127. 

3 In his report cited above, Calhoun said that the tribes in the southwest were 

300 Cardinal Goodwin m.v.h.k. 

received at the capital just after the war indicated that the suc- 
cessful solution of the problem was becoming more difficult be- 
cause the British were becoming increasingly active in that 
quarter. Reports of this activity were brought to the attention 
of the war department, two of which may be noted. On June 
20, 1815, Lewis Cass, governor of Michigan territory, wrote to 
acting Secretary of War Dallas, that the possession of the for- 
mer privileges of trade which the British had enjoyed among 
the Indians of the northwest was a subject which the govern- 
ment should take up for consideration. To these concessions he 
attributed a large number of the difficulties which American 
officials experienced in their relations with the native tribes of 
that section.* Just a few months later, October 18, special com- 
missioners, William Clark, Ninian Edwards, and August Chou- 
teau, who had been appointed by the United States government 
for the express purpose of concluding treaties with the Indians 
in the northwest, reported that British traders were constantly 
intriguing among these tribes, that English merchandise was 
present in larger quantities than had ever been known before, 
and that these intruders were utilizing every conceivable means 
of retaining their influence over the natives of that section.^ 

These official reports had their effect upon the government. 
Taking advantage of the situation the American fur company 
in the person of John Jacob Astor persuaded congress to act 
on the subject at once.^ A law was passed, and approved by the 
president on April 29, 1816, forbidding American authorities to 
issue licenses to foreigners to trade with the Indians within the 

' ' either inconsiderable, or so surrounded by white population, and, what is of no less 
importance, so cut oif from intercourse with all foreign nations, that there are rea- 
sonable grounds to believe, that we shall, in future, be almost wholly exempt from 
Indian warfare in that quarter, ' ' 

4 State historical society of Wisconsin, Collections, 19:376-379. The Collections 
of both the Wisconsin and Michigan historical societies contain numerous references 
to the activity of the British in the northwest. A very different view from that 
usually taken is given by Alfred Brunson in ''Memoir of Hon. Thomas Pendleton 
Burnett," in State historical society of Wisconsin, Collections, 2: 244. He does not 
believe British influence to have been very strong. The Indian sought the English- 
man as long as the latter had presents to give and no longer. He claims to base his 
observations on twenty years' experience among the Indians. 

'''American state papers: Indian affairs, 2: 11. 

« Chittenden, T?te American fur trade in the far west, 1: 310. See also James H. 
Lockwood, ''Pearly times and events in Wisconsin," in State historical society of 
Wisconsin, Collections, 2: 102. 


Vol. IV, No. 3 The Yellowstone Expedition, 1819-1820 301 

territorial limits of the United States, ^'unless by express direc- 
tion of the president . . . and upon such terms and condi- 
tions as the public interests may, in his opinion, require. ' ' Any 
foreigner caught in the Indian country without a passport was 
to be fined not less than fifty dollars nor more than one thousand, 
or imprisoned for not less than one month nor for more than 
twelve. Peltries and goods found in the possession of such in- 
truders were to be divided equally between the informer and the 
United States.^ 

But it was found difficult if not impossible to carry on the 
Indian trade without the aid of foreigners. As a result instruc- 
tions were given the Indian agents along the frontier during the 
summer of 1816 to issue licenses to foreigners as interpreters 
and boatmen upon their giving bonds for their good behavior 
while they were in the Indian countr}^ This opening made it 
possible for the British traders to continue their operations with 
practically no danger of molestation. All that was necessary 
was to employ an American, have the goods and a license taken 
out in his name, and proceed into the Indian country. When 
out of sight of the United States officials the real owner, who 
had been passed as an interpreter or as a boatman, took posses- 
sion of his own.® 

Foreigners who did this were subject to severe penalties if 
caught, but it was found difficult to catch them. In its attempt 
to solve the problem, and in order to strengthen its influence 
over the Indian tribes, the government built new forts and sent 
out additional troops into the northwest. In August, 1816, Fort 
Howard was erected on the west bank of Fox river about a mile 
from its mouth.^ Governor Clark of Missouri had built Fort 
Shelby in May, 1814, for the purpose of destroying the opera- 
tions of British traders and hostile Indians at Prairie du Chien, 
but in the following July the English under the command of 
Major William McKay captured the place and held it until the 

7 Laivs of the United States of America from the 4 March, 1815 to 4 March, 1821 
(Colvin ed. — Washington, 1822), 6: 144, 145. 

8 Lockwood, ' ' Early times and events in Wisconsin, ' ' in State historical society of 
Wisconsin, Collections, 2: 102, 103. For a somewhat similar opinion submitted by a 
congressional committee at a later date (1818) on enforcing the law, see Beports of 
committees, house of representatives, 15 congress, 1 session, no. 59. 

9 Eeuben G. Thwaites, Wisconsin; the Americanization of a French settlement 
(American commonwealths series — Boston, 1908), 180, 181. 

302 Cardinal Goodwin m.v.h.e. 

end of tlie war/** In the meantime tlie name had been changed 
to Fort McKay. It was destroyed, and on its site Fort Craw- 
ford was erected during the summer of 1816. The following 
year Fort Armstrong was constructed on Eock Island and its 
occupation completed.^^ 

The location of these posts enabled the United States to keep 
a closer watch on British traders and to secure more intimate 
communication with the Indian tribes in the present state of 
Wisconsin and in a part of Iowa. They also controlled the main 
routes into the more remote northwest.^^ The proper super- 
vision of operations in that section, however, and the urgent 
demand for more effective control of the Indian tribes required 
the establishment of additional military posts on the upper Mis- 
sissippi ^^ and Missouri rivers. The movement in that direction 
was hastened by another event. Lord Selkirk, a Scottish noble- 
man, established a colony on the American border during the 
war of 1812. There is reason to believe that it was the report 
of this settlement which led to the concentration of the fifth in- 
fantry at Detroit for the purpose of transferring troops, under 
the command of Lieutenant-Colonel Henry Leavenworth, to the 
mouth of the St. Peter's river.^* 

The government plans for erecting a military post at that 

10 Edward D. Neill, History of Minnesota, from the earliest French explorations 
to the present time (Philadelphia, 1858), 283, 284; William Salter, Iowa, the first 
free state in the Louisiana purchase, from its discovery to the admission of the state 
into the union, 1673-1846 (Chicago, 1905), 94, 95. 

11 Benjamin F. Gue, History of Iowa from the earliest times to the beginning of 
the twentieth century (New York, [1903]), 1: 137, 138; Annals of Iowa, third 
series, 1: 602-613. 

12 The three main routes from Canada into the northwestern part of the United 
States were (1) by way of the Chicago and Illinois rivers; (2) by Green bay and the 
Fox and the Wisconsin; and (3) by way of the west end of lake Superior. The 
second was used the most extensively. Milo M. Quaife, Chicago and the old north- 
west, 1673-1835, a study of the evolution of the northwestern frontier, together with 
a history of Fort Dearborn (Chicago, 1913), 264; Minnesota historical society, Collec- 
tions, 2: 28. 

13 Michigan territory had been extended to the Mississippi. See letter from Cal- 
houn to Andrew Jackson in "Correspondence of John C. Calhoun," edited by J. 
Franklin Jameson, in American historical association. Annual report, 1899 (Wash- 
ington, 1900), 2: 138. This letter also shows that Calhoun considered the expedi- 
tions which were to be sent up the Missouri and up the Mississippi a part of one plan. 

i^Ibid., 2: 148; Eichard W. Johnson, ''Fort Snelling from its foundation to the 
present time," in Minnesota historical society, Collections, 8: 427. See also E. D. 
NeiU, ' ' Occurrences in and around Fort Snelling from 1819 to 1840, * ' in ibid., 2 : 102, 


Vol. IV, No. 3 The Yellowstone Expedition, 1819-1820 303 

point on the Mississippi river extended back to the period fol- 
lowing the purchase of Louisiana/^ but the energies of the ad- 
ministration during the dozen years subsequent to that event 
had been too completely absorbed with foreign relations and 
with the war to permit a realization of these intentions. With 
the treaty of peace, however, came a revival of interest in the 
west. Madison appointed a ** board of officers,*^ consisting of 
four Americans and a Frenchman, General Bernard, who had 
won distinction in his own country as an engineer, to examine 
the coast and the inland frontier for the purpose of determining 
the needs of both.^^ It may have been in connection with this 
work that the government sent an exploring party up the Mis- 
sissippi during the summer of 1817 under the command of Major 
Stephen H. Long. The objects of the expedition were to 
^* sketch the course of the Upper Mississippi, to exhibit the gen- 
eral topography of the shores, and to designate such sites as 
were suitable for military purposes. ' * ^^ 

Major Long left Prairie du Chien July 9, and arrived at the 
falls of St. Anthony on the sixteenth of the same month. He 
recommended three sites as desirable locations for military 

15 The expeditions of Zehulon Montgomery Pike to headwaters of the Mississippi 
river, through Louisiana territory, and in New Spain, during the years 1805-06-07 
(Coues ed. — New York, 1895), 1: 83, 84. 

16 See the letter from Monroe to General Jackson in James Parton, Life of An- 
drew Jackson (Boston, 1879), 2: 361-366. In connection with this see also Amer- 
ican state papers: military affairs, 1: 669, no. 158. 

17 Major Stephen H. Long, ' ' Voyage in a six-oared skiff to the falls of St. An- 
thony in 1817," in Minnesota historical society, Collections, 2: 9-88. Long's journal 
gives no information on his observations up the Wisconsin, but he refers to such a 
voyage (p. 10). He begins his daily notes with his departure from Prairie du Chien. 
On his return down the Mississippi to Bellefontaine he made stops at several places, 
among them the forts along the river. The location of these are commended or crit- 
icised, their conditions reported, and occasionally suggestions are made for improving 

In the spring of 1817, according to Parton, .Jackson had ordered Long to make 
a topographical survey of part of the Mississippi. This work had been completed 
and the report of it published in the newspapers before April 22, 1817. This inci- 
dent proved to be the origin of a bitter correspondence between Jackson and Scott. 
Parton, Life of Andrew Jackson, 2 : 372, 373, 377-382. 

Long explored the St. Peter's river to its source in 1823. William H. Keating, 
Narrative of an expedition to the source of St. Peter's river, Lake Winnepeek, Lake 
of the Woods, ^c, performed in the year 1823, hy order of tlie Hon. J. C. Calhoun, 
secretary of war, under the command of Stephen H. Long, major, U. S. T. E. (Lon- 
don, 1825). 

Cardinal Goodwin 

M. V. H. E. 

posts on the Mississippi ; one was at the lower end of lake Pepin, 
a second south of the St. Croix, and a third just above the St. 
Peter's. The last of these was the one selected by the war de- 
partment, and in the summer of 1818, Calhoun decided that a 
fort should be erected there as soon as possible. This post, he 
said, ^^from its remoteness from our settlements, its proximity to 
Lord Selkirk's establishment on Eed river of Lake Winnipeg, 
and from its neighborhood to the powerful nations of the Sioux, 
ought to be made very strong. ' ' ^® 

On February 10, 1819, orders were issued by the war depart- 
ment to Major-General Jacob Brown, the commander of the 
division in the north, which were transmitted by him to his sub- 
ordinates on April 13 following, to concentrate the fifth regiment 
of infantry at Detroit, preparatory to putting Calhoun's plans 
into execution. The necessary transportation was to be ready 
by the first of May.^^ Under the command of Colonel Henry 
Leavenworth the troops proceeded by way of Green Bay and 
Fort Howard to Prairie du Chien, arriving at the last named 
place on June 30. Here they were joined by Major Thomas 
Forsyth, an Indian agent from St. Louis, who was to accompany 
the expedition. He carried with him about two thousand dol- 
lars' worth of merchandise which he was to distribute among 
the Sioux Indians.^^ 

On August 8 the expedition, consisting of ninety-eight sol- 
diers ^^ and about twenty boatmen, fourteen bateaux, two large 
boats loaded with provisions and merchandise, and a barge occu- 
pied by Colonel Leavenworth, left Prairie du Chien for the upper 

18 American historical association, Annual report, 1899, 2 : 148. 

19 Henry R. Schoolcraft, Summary narrative of an exploratory expedition to the 
sources of the Mississippi river in 1820: resumed and completed hy the discovery of 
its origin in Itasca lake, in 1832 (Philadelphia, 1855), 35, 36. 

20 Thomas Forsyth, ''Journal of a voyage from St. Louis to the falls of St. An- 
thony, in 1819," in State historical society of Wisconsin, Collections, 6: 188-215. 
This was later printed in Minnesota historical society, Collections, 3 : 139-167. For- 
syth kept daily notes from the time he left St. Louis on June 8, until his return to 
that place on September 17, 1819. He was with the troops at the mouth of the St. 
Peter's from August 23 to 30, during which time he held conferences with various 
tribes of Indians from points farther west. See also American historical associa- 
tion, Annual report, 1899, 2: 155, 156. 

21 One hundred and twenty additional soldiers joined these troops a few days after 
their arrival at the mouth of the Minnesota. State historical society of Wisconsin, 
Collections, 6: 208. 

Vol. IV, No. 3 The Yellowstone Expedition, 1819-1820 305 

Mississippi. Frequent stops were made at Indian villages along 
the river when Forsyth delivered speeches to the various tribes, 
warning them against British influence and distributing pres- 
ents among them.^^ On the twenty-fourth the expedition arrived 
at the mouth of the St. Peter's. Temporary quarters were con- 
structed on the south side of the river. On account of a flood 
during the spring of 1820, it is reported, the troops were moved 
across the river to Camp Cold Water. Here the foundations 
for a permanent fort were laid during the late summer or early 
fall. The work was done almost entirely by the soldiers, and 
by the fall of 1822 the structure was ready for occupancy. It 
was called Fort St. Anthony at first but later, upon the recom- 
mendation of General Winfield Scott, who visited the post in 
1824, the name was changed to Fort Snelling in honor of Colonel 
Josiah Snelling who had succeeded Colonel Leavenworth during 
the winter of 1820-1821. 

Protected by this military post the efficient Indian agent, Law- 
rence Taliaferro, did a great deal toward destroying British 
influence among the tribes of the upper Mississippi and toward 
establishing American authority there. 

There are indications that an attempt had been made to in- 
itiate plans for building a military post on the Missouri at the 
mouth of the Yellowstone before the expedition to the upper 
Mississippi was undertaken. The plans had been suggested by 
Monroe during the brief period that he occupied the chief posi- 
tion in the war department, but the opposition of John Floyd of 
Virginia, of John Cocke of Tennessee and of Henry Clay of Ken- 
tucky had prevented its execution.^^ In 1817 Monroe became 
president, and during the summer of that year he made a tour 
of the north for the purpose of examining the military defenses. 
On this trip he went as far west as Detroit.^* In the fall of 1817, 
Calhoun became secretary of war, and began the following 

22 For a sample of the speeches delivered see ibid., 6: 202, 203. Forsyth ends his 
journal with an interesting comparison of British and American Indian policies, much 
to the discredit of the latter. Ihid., 214, 215. 

23 Memoirs of John Quincy Adams, comprising portions of Ms diary from 1795 to 
1848 ([Charles Francis] Adams ed. — Philadelphia, 1874-1876), 6: 249. 

2*^ narrative of a tour of observation, made during the summer of 1817, by 
James Monroe, president of the United States, through the north-eastern and Vrorih- 
western departments of the union with a view to the examination of their several 
military defences (Philadelphia, 1818). 

306 Cardinal Goodwin m.v.h.e. 

March to make active arrangements for establishing a military 
post at the mouth of the Yellowstone.^^ By August, 1818, how- 
ever, he had concluded that the principal post should be at the 
Mandan villages, because that was the point on the Missouri 
nearest the British post on the Eed river, *^and the best calcu- 
lated to counteract their hostilities against us. . .''^^ 

But the summer of 1818 passed and little was accomplished.^^ 
Finally Colonel Atkinson was selected to command the enter- 
prise and on March 27, 1819, Calhoun wrote him a letter of in- 
structions. The ^^two great objects^' of the expedition, the sec- 
retary of war asserted, were **the enlargement and protection 
of our fur trade, and permanent peace of our North Western 
frontier by the establishment of a decided control over the vari- 
ous tribes of Indians in that quarter.'' Of the two the latter 
was considered the more important. As long as American fur 
traders were obeying regulations they were to be protected. 
Foreigners were to be treated discreetly until the military posts 
were well established, then notice should be given that after a 
fixed period foreign trade would be rigidly excluded. Partic- 
ularly was Atkinson to avoid hostility with the Indians if pos- 
sible. If hostilities should occur and additional forces were 
necessary, he was informed that troops at the mouth of the St. 
Peter's river might be called to his command.^^ 

On December 2, 1818, the government made a contract with 
Colonel James Johnson to transport the troops and provisions 
up the Missouri. He provided five steamboats for the purpose, 
two of which, Chittenden says, probably never entered the river, 

25 American historical association, Annual report, 1899, 2 : 134-136. The letters in 
this volume, edited by J. Franklin Jameson, are invaluable for this subject, partic- 
ularly those addressed to Colonel Thomas A. Smith, General Jacob Brown, General 
Andrew Jackson, and Colonel Leavenworth. 

2Qlhid., 2: 138. 

27 During the fall of that year a detachment of troops moved up the Missouri to 
the present site of Leavenworth, Kansas, where they spent the winter. At this time 
Captain Martin was in command of the expedition. Thwaites, however, says that 
Colonel Atkinson was in command at this time (Early western travels, 1748-1846, 
14: 9, 10). Calhoun's letters to Jackson dated December 28, 1818, and January 5, 
1819, together with the letter of instructions to Atkinson of March 27, 1819, will 
show that Atkinson could not have been appointed to the command before January 
5, 1819. American historical association. Annual report, 1899, 2: 150, 151, and 159. 

2* Ihid., 2 : 159, 160. For a full statement of the objects of the expedition see 
also American state papers: military affairs, 2: 31-34. 

Vol. IV, No. 3 The Yellowstone Expedition, 1819-1820 307 

a third abandoned the trip thirty miles below Franklin, and the 
other two wintered at Cow island a little below the mouth of 
the Kansas and returned to St. Louis in the spring^^ Despite 
the delays occasioned by the government's attempt to use steam- 
boats instead of the more practical keel-boats, Atkinson suc- 
ceeded by September, 1819, in getting his troops as far as Coun- 
cil Bluffs, where they experienced a disastrous winter from an 
attack of scurvy. 

In the meantime the scientific branch of the expedition under 
the command of Major Stephen H. Long was experiencing less 
difficulty. A special boat had been constructed for the members 
of this division which proved to be more practical than the ves- 
sels provided by Colonel Johnson. The wheels had been placed 
in the stern and the boat drew only nineteen inches of water. 
Even the ** absurd attempts at ornamentation" served the pur- 
pose intended. Not only the Indians but the frontier settlers 
themselves were profoundly impressed with this *^ apparent 
monster '' bearing ^*a painted vessel on his back, the sides gap- 
ing with portholes and bristling with guns.''^° 

Aboard this vessel Long and his party found themselves the 
center of interest in every frontier settlement through which 
they passed. At Franklin where a stop of a week was made the 
people of the community entertained the members of the expedi- 
tion in a most elaborate manner. Despite the delay occasioned 
by this, Long's boat, which had left St. Louis in June, some time 
after the other vessels, passed them all and was the only one 
to arrive at Council Bluffs, reaching there in September, 1819. 
Major Long remained a short time and returned to Washington. 

Here opposition to the entire expedition was soon to develop.^^ 
December 21, 1819, on motion of Eepresentative John Cocke of 
Tennessee, the conmiittee on military affairs was ordered to find 

29 For a severe criticism of the whole scheme see Chittenden, The American fur 
trade in the far west, 2 : 562-587. A report of the agreement made with Colonel John- 
son may be found in American state 'payers: military affairs, 2: 68, 69. There is some 
evidence that politics played a part in the investigation. Apparently some of Cal- 
houn's enemies chose this way to make an attack on him; and it is possible, although 
not probable, that Clay was actuated by a desire to make an attack on a political 
rival in Kentucky — Colonel Richard Johnson, brother of James Johnson. See Mem- 
oirs of John Quincy Adams, 4: 472, 473; 5: 237. 

30 Chittenden, The American fur trade in the far west, 2 : 571. 

31 Memoirs of John Qui/ncy Adams, 5 : 237. 

308 Cardinal Goodwin m.v.h.k. 

out what the expedition had already cost the government, what 
sums would be required in order to accomplish the objects in- 
tended, and what those objects were/^ It was in response to 
this demand that several papers were submitted to congress on 
January 3, 1820, by Chairman Smyth of that committee, among 
them Calhoun's report on the Yellowstone expedition. The re- 
port was tabled.^^ On January 24 following, Cocke submitted 
another resolution directing that the secretary of war be ordered 
to report to the house an itemized statement of the money paid 
Colonel Johnson and of the amount claimed by him under the 
contract of December 2, 1818. The attempt to table the resolu- 
tion failed after Cocke had spoken at some length on the subject 
and had declared that the former report by the secretary of war 
had been unsatisfactory.^* Calhoun submitted the data required 
on February 3, and it was referred to the committee on military 

Four days later, February 7, 1820, the secretary of war wrote 
to Colonel Atkinson. Among other things Calhoun commended 
the leader for his management of the expedition and approved 
his plans for connecting posts on the frontier by opening roads 
between them. While the use of steamboats for transporting 
troops and provisions was left to the judgment of Colonel Atkin- 
son, the secretary thought it would add dignity to the expedition 
and that it might serve to impress the British and the Indians 
with the power of the United States if such vessels could be 

While Calhoun encouraged Atkinson to give eclat to the enter- 
prise, members of congress were planning to stop it entirely. 
The quartermaster-general asked congress for $500,000 to meet 
the expenses of his department for the year 1820. When this 
item in the appropriation bill was under discussion on March 10 
of that year, Cocke asked what part of the sum was intended to 

^2 Annals of congress, 16 congress, 1 session, 1: 750. 

^^ Ihid., 1: 848; American state papers: military affairs, 2: 31-34. 

^* Annals of congress, 16 congress, 1 session, 1: 936. 

^^ Ihid., 1: 1047; American state papers: military affairs, 2: 68, 69. 

3« American historical association, Annual report, 1899, 2: 168-171. Calhoun had 
received letters from Atkinson in which the latter referred to a survey which had been 
made recently of a route from Council Bluffs to Chariton on the Missouri, and recom- 
mended the opening of roads between posts on the Arkansas and the Missouri and 
between Council Bluffs and the mouth of the St. Peter's. 

Vol. IV, No. 3 The Yellowstone Expedition, 1819-1820 309 

meet the expenses of the expedition up the Missouri. He wanted 
to reduce the appropriation to that extent. The following day 
his suggestion was adopted by the house and the sum of $50,000 
was stricken from the total of $500,000 requested by the quarter- 
master-general.^^ But when the appropriation bill came before 
the senate on March 20, that body amended it by substituting 
$500,000 for the $450,000 which the house had appropriated. 
This change was made in order to enable the war department to 
send troops up the Missouri to the mouth of the Yellowstone 
river. ^^ The return of the bill to the lower house with the senate 
amendment produced a heated discussion in that body on April 
5, and the majority of the members refused to accept the amend- 
ment.^^ This prevented the appropriation of funds necessary to 
carry out the original plans for establishing posts at the Mandan 
villages.*^ As a ** half-hearted apology to the public for its fail- 
ure, ' ' says Chittenden, * ' a small side show was organized for the 
season of 1820 in the form of an expedition to the Eocky Moun- 
tains. ' ' *^ The equipment of the latter was as insufficient as that 
of the former had been lavish. In this change in the character 
of the expedition at the head of which he had been placed may 
be found psychological reasons for the wholesale condemnation 
of the far western country by Major Long.*^ 

37 Annals of congress, 16 congress, 1 session, 2 : 1629, 1633, 1634. 

38 lUd., 1 : 545-551, 555-557. 

39 Hid., 2 : 1783-1790. 

40 Calhoun 's troubles did not end with the first session of the sixteenth congress in 
May. The $450,000 appropriated failed to meet the expenses of the quartermaster's 
department and the whole subject was brought up again when the second session of 
congress began. The details of that discussion can not be given here. Arbitrators 
had been called in to settle the disagreements which arose between Johnson and the 
government, and they had allowed him over $40,000 for losses which he claimed 
the government had caused him, but which others have thought were due to his 
own negligence. The whole subject was finally placed in the hands of a committee 
of the house for investigation. They reported among other things that the award 
which had been made in favor of Colonel Johnson was unjust and illegal, and 
recommended that the government should attempt to recover the amount which had 
been paid by instituting legal proceedings. This report was submitted in March, 
1821. See ihid., 16 congress, 2 session, 1265-1268. For details preceding this report, 
see ibid., 473-476 and 709-712. 

41 Chittenden, The American fur trade in the far west, 2 : 575. 

42 For Long's estimate of the country east of the Eocky mountains, west of the 
Missouri, and south of the forty-ninth parallel, see Major Stephen H. Long, ''Account 
of an expedition from Pittsburg to the Rocky mountains," in Early western travels, 
1748-1846, 17: 147, 148. For a more favorable account of parts of this country ex- 

310 Cardinal Goodwin m.v.h.r. 

^Vliile Long and his party were exploring the country west of 
the Missouri, another expedition was sent out from Council 
Bluffs in the opposite direction for the purpose of opening a road 
between that place and the military post on the Mississippi at 
the mouth of the St. Peter's river. This was led by Captain 
Magee of the rifle regiment. Accompanying the party were 
Lieutenant-Colonel Morgan and Captain Kearny. It is to the 
latter that we are indebted for our knowledge of the under- 

The party required twenty-three days to make the trip. Leav- 
ing Camp Missouri on July 2, 1820, they followed a route leading 
in a general northeasterly direction, veering occasionally to the 
east or to the north, finally arriving at Camp Cold Water on 
July 25. *^Our circuitous and wavering route (which is to be 
attributed to the guide's advice . . .),'' noted Kearny, **the 
immense prairies we have crossed ; the want of timber which we 
for several days at a time experienced; the little water that in 
some parts was to be found ; the high and precipitous mountains 
and hills which we climbed over, render that road impracticable 
and almost impassable for more than very small bodies.''** 

The last subject may be dismissed briefly. At the time when 
interest in the Mississippi and Missouri expeditions was keen, 
Calhoun received a letter from Lewis Cass, governor of Mich- 
igan territory, dated November 18, 1819, proposing to explore 
the country along the southern shore of lake Superior and the 
water communication between that lake and the Mississippi. 
On January 14 following, Calhoun replied. He approved the 
proposed undertaking provided Cass would not call upon the 
government for more than one thousand dollars above the reg- 
ular amount allotted him for superintending Indian affairs in 

plored by others at about the same time Long made his explorations, see The Journal 
of Jacob Fowler, narrating an adventure from Arlcansas through the Indian Territory, 
OTclahoma, Kansas, Colorado and New Mexico to the sources of the Eio Grande del 
Norte, 1821-22 (Coues ed. — New York, 1898), 165 and n. 62. See also John H. 
Fonda, "Early reminiscences of Wisconsin," in State historical society of Wiscon- 
sin, Collections, 5: 211. Fonda spent the years from 1819 to 1824 in the southwest, 
the last winter at Taos. 

43 "Journal of Stephen Watts Kearny," edited by Valentine M. Porter, in Miss- 
ouri historical society. Collections, 3: 8 ff. A map of the route which Magee followed 
will bo found in this volume. 

44 Ibid., 3 : 106. 


Vol. IV, No. 3 The Yellowstone Expedition, 1819-1820 311 

his territory. The important objects of the expedition were to 
investigate the relations between the Indians and the British in 
that section, to procure sites for forts, to find a practicable com- 
munication between ^'Bad or Burntwood'^ river *^ and the St. 
Croix, and to determine possibilities of communication between 
these and the post at the mouth of the St. Peter's. Calhoun 
thought that a topographical engineer should accompany the 
expedition, and suggested that Major Long, who was at that 
time in Washington, might return to his headquarters at Council 
Bluff by way of Detroit and lake Superior.*^ This position, 
however, was later filled by Henry R. Schoolcraft. 

Leaving Detroit on May 24, 1820, the party went by water to 
Sault Sainte Marie. Here on June 16 Cass made a treaty with 
the Chippewa Indians by which they ceded to the United States 
a tract of land four miles square, reserving for themselves only 
fishing rights at the rapids. The expedition left this place on 
the following day. Proceeding along the southern shore of lake 
Superior, Cass paused in his movement westward long enough 
to explore Ontonagon river, and arrived at the mouth of the St. 
Louis on the fifth day of July. Twenty-four miles up the latter 
stream the party came to the establishment of the American fur 
company. A short distance above this post Cass divided his 
party.*'^ A small detachment under the leadership of School- 
craft went directly westward to Sandy lake, while Cass with the 
main body was to ascend the St. Louis to the ** Savanna port- 
age'' by which he was to join Schoolcraft at the lake. These 
plans were carried out successfully, and the fur trading post at 
Sandy lake became the base for further operations up the Mis- 

45 This is probably the present Brule river which flows into lake Superior about 
half way between Duluth and Bayfield. See State historical society of Wisconsin, 
Collections, 13 : 203, n. 

46 The entire correspondence between Calhoun and Cass on this subject may be 
found in Schoolcraft, Summary narrative of an exploratory expedition to the sources 
of the Mississippi river, 27 ff. This work and James D. Doty, * ' Official journal, 1820: 
expedition with Cass and Schoolcraft to lake Superior and the sources of the Missis- 
sippi," in State historical society of Wisconsin, Collections, 13: 163-220, are my au- 
thorities for this last phase of my subject. Doty was Governor Cass' secretary on the 
expedition. His journal is incomplete, but as far as it goes it serves as a good sup- 
plement to Schoolcraft. 

47 IMd., 13 : 207. According to Doty the division was made upon the advice of 
some Frenchmen, who said it would be difficult if not impossible to ascend the St. 
Louis unless the boats were lightened. 

312 Cardinal Goodwin m.v.h.r. 

sissippi. Cass explored the river for some distance above tlie 
lake, and on July 25 the entire party descended the Mississippi 
to the month of the St. Peter's, arriving there on the thirty-first 
of the same month. Here they found the members of the Magee 
expedition, who, as the reader knows already, had arrived on 
the day Cass and his party left Sandy lake.^^ The latter re- 
turned to Detroit by way of Prairie du Chien, Fort Howard, and 
Chicago, arriving at their destination on September twenty- 
third. From the point of view of the war department, the ex- 
pedition may be considered as a scouting party sent out to find 
new sites for additional military posts among the Indian tribes 
along the northern border whose proximity to the British ren- 
dered them particularly susceptible to influence from that 

An account of the expedition was published in the Detroit 
Gazette on September 15, 1820. According to this paper Gov- 
ernor Cass had found the English active among the Indians in 
the country through which he had passed. In order to counter- 
act British influence and to hold the native tribes in subjection, 
the editor thought it would be necessary for the government to 
establish military posts at Sault Sainte Marie and at the west 
end of lake Superior as soon as possible.*^ 

From the above account it will be seen that the war depart- 
ment under the leadership of Calhoun developed extensive 
plans for counteracting British influence and overawing the 
Indian tribes in the northwest.^^ Not only were self-sustaining 
military establishments to be constructed at strategic points on 
the Missouri and the Mississippi rivers and their tributaries, 
but these were to be connected by building minor posts between, 

48 state historical society of Wisconsin, Collections, 13: 215. 

49 This is quoted in Schoolcraft, Summary narrative of an exploratory expedition 
to the sources of the Mississippi, 217-220. 

50 The subject of British trade in that section was deemed of sufficient importance 
by President Monroe to justify hi,m in taking it up with the British government 
through the American minister at London. American historical association. Annual 
report, 1899, 2: 162. If this illicit trade could not be stopped from London, Calhoun 
proposed to stop it by using force. With this in mind he ordered General Brown to 
submit information on the ' ' number and distribution of the British troops in Canada 
and the adjacent provinces; and the position and extent of the fortifications which 
the government is now erecting in these provinces." This was requested in Septem- 
ber, 1819, and was to be placed in the hands of the secretary of war before congress 
should meet. Jhid., 2: 163. 

Vol. IV, No. 3 The Yellowstone Expedition, 1819-1820 313 

and by the construction of adequate roads. Atkinson proposed 
to connect the southern posts on the Arkansas river with those 
on the Missouri and his plan was approved by the secretary of 
war.^^ On the Missouri forts were to be constructed at Council 
Bluffs, the Mandan villages, and possibly at the great bend and 
at some point above the Mandan villages/^ Fort Snelling was 
to be the principal post on the upper Mississippi, but others 
were to be established at the head of navigation on the St. 
Peter's for the purpose of forming an overland communication 
with the proposed fort at the Mandan villages, and at the head 
of navigation on the St. Croix. The latter would serve to inter- 
rupt the operation of the British from the west end of lake 
Superior. On October 17, 1818, Calhoun wrote to Major-Gen- 
eral Brown : 

*^I transmit to you a sketch of the country according to the 
best information in the Department, by reference to which it 
will be seen, that the positions will completely command the 
country, and prevent the introduction of foreign traders. These 
positions, with those at Green Bay, Chicago and Saut of the St. 
Mary's will render your command, in that quarter, imposing.'' ^^ 

The erection of forts and the construction of roads on the 
extensive plans developed by Calhoun were prevented by the 
hostile attitude which congress assumed toward the Yellowstone 
expedition. Further discouragement resulted from the poor 
health of the soldiers in the outlying cantonments on the Missis- 
sippi and Missouri rivers during the years 1819-1820. Despite 
these obstacles, three important results came from the attempts 
made by the war department. In the first place the plan neces- 
sitated the movement of American troops into the northwest 
where they acquired new methods of warfare;"^ in the second, 
the explorations made in those remote regions added to the geo- 
graphical knowledge of the period ; and lastly, the frontier line 
in the north moved westward as a result of these operations. 

Cardinal Goodwin 

siJMd, 2: 168-171. 

52JM<?., 2: 153. 

53j&tU, 2: 148. 

64 Missouri historical society, Collections, 3: 9. 


In a note to the secretary at war, under date of April 18, 1763, 
the Earl of Egremont gave notice of the dispatch of final orders 
for the occupation of Florida and that portion of Louisiana 
lying east of the Mississippi river to which title had recently 
been acquired by England.^ This significant communication 
marks the opening of a new stage in the historical development 
of the gulf region and in the history of British imperial rela- 
tions ; it is a significant episode, moveover, in the history of the 
colonial empires of Spain and France. It will be recalled that 
Spain's control of Florida dated back to the latter part of the 
sixteenth century, when she effected a permanent lodgment in 
that region. Her claim, except for disputes as to the northern 
limits of the province, remained incontestable until 1763. Her 
entry into the war against England in 1762, however, made in- 
evitable the loss of some of her colonial possessions. It was in 
part to secure the return of Havana and the Philippines, cap- 
tured by British arms near the close of the war, that Spain, in 
the definitive treaty of Paris February 10, 1763, relinquished all 
claim to Florida. By the provisions of the same instrument 
France withdrew her claims to the area on the left of the Missis- 
sippi and Iberville rivers, extending as far east as the Perdido 
river and including the river and town of Mobile. 

In accordance with his commands from Egremont, therefore. 
General Keppel, the conqueror of Moro castle, issued orders to 
Colonel Prevost May 23, 1763, to proceed from Havana to re- 
lieve the Spanish garrisons at St. Augustine and Pensacola.^ 
A similar command was dispatched at the same time to Major 
Robert Farmar to effect the transfer of sovereignty in the area 
held by the French at Mobile and its environs.^ The occupation 

1 Calendar liome office papers in the reign of George the third (Redington ed. — 
London, 1878), 1: 274. 

"^ MiHHViHippi provincial archives, 1763-1766 (Rowland ed. — Nashville, Tenn., 
1911), 1: 127. 

3/&id, 1: 131. 


Vol. IV, No. 3 Beginnings of British West Florida 315 

of the two regions was accomplished with comparative ease, 
neither hostile Indians nor intriguing traders blocking the way.* 
Nothing beyond the ordinary inconveniences incident to poor 
facilities in transporting the Spanish garrisons from the prov- 
ince appears to have disturbed the equanimity of the officers 
in command of the forces of occupation. Colonel Prevost ar- 
rived at Pensacola on August 6 ; he immediately delivered to the 
Spanish governor letters from the court of Spain relative to the 
cession and demanded the surrender of the place.^ His order 
was readily complied with, but owing to the delay in the arrival 
of Spanish transports the English commander was obliged to 
encamp his troops temporarily outside the stockade. This in- 
cident, together with the lethargy exhibited by the Spanish in 
loading their stores, delayed their departure until September 
3, when they sailed for Vera Cruz.® The fort and town of Mo- 
bile were occupied by Major Eobert Farmar, with a force of two 
regiments on October 22, and on November 22 the French gar- 
rison at Fort Tombeckbe was relieved by a small detachment of 
thirty men.^ 

In the meantime the governmental problems connected with 
these and other recent acquisitions confronted the British min- 
istry. The treaty of Paris, with its significant territorial re- 
adjustments, resulting in the creation of a vast British empire, 
necessitated the formulation of a new colonial policy, which in- 
volved alike the redirection of the political life of the old colonies 
and the determination of the constitutional relations of the new. 
The first important stage in the political organization of the 
recent cessions in America, and one applicable to all, was the 
issuance of the royal proclamation of October 7, 1763, which 
defined the respective boundaries of the new provinces and made 
provision for their future government.^ By the terms of the 

4 The occupation of the Illinois country had been retarded by an uprising of the 
Indians. See Clarence E. Carter, Great Britain and the Illinois country, 1763-1774 
(Washington, 1910), 27-45. 

5 Mississippi provincial archives, 1 : 136. 

6 lUd. 

7 IMd., 1 : 36. Fort Toulouse, on the east bank of the Coosa, was not occupied, 
owing to the weak condition of the regiment and the uncertainty as to the attitude of 
the Indians. IMd., 1 : 12. 

^Documents relating to the constitutional history of Canada, 1759-1791 (Shortt 

316 Clarence E. Carter m.v.h.r. 

royal edict Florida and the former French territory between 
the Perdido and the Iberville rivers was erected into two prov- 
inces to be known as East Florida and West Florida. The min- 
istry had deliberated upon this policy for some months prior to 
its announcement. As early as May 5 of that year the Earl of 
Egremont in a letter to the board of trade ^ suggested a number 
of heads of inquiry relative to the recent acquisitions, among 
which were those pertaining to the development of commercial 
advantages and to the diverting of these advantages to British 
subjects, the security of the whole territory against the aggres- 
sions of foreign powers, and the preservation of peace in the 
Indian country. The members of the board were requested 
especially to consider what ^^New Governments should be estab- 
lished & what Form should be adopted for such new Govern- 
ments? and where the Capital, or Kesidence of each Governor 
should be fixed? What Military Establishment will be suffi- 
cient? What new Forts should be erected? and which, if any, 
may it be expedient to demolish ? In what Mode least Burthen- 
some and palatable to the Colonies can they contribute towards 
the Support of the Additional Expence, which must attend their 
Civil and Military Establishment, upon the Arrangement which 
Your Lordships shall propose?'* The secretary then suggested 
a number of questions relative to Florida, asking that especial 
consideration be given such topics as the climate and soil of the 
region, and as to whether harbor facilities were available in the 
southern part of the peninsula, at Mobile or Pensacola, or at 
any other place on the coast, and as to whether such harbors 
would be of real advantage to commerce. The probable benefits 
from the free navigation of the Mississippi river was likewise 
to be studied with a view to its improvement and extension. 

The board of trade was requested to gather and classify in- 
formation on these different heads, and to make recommenda- 
tions as to the attainment of the various objects enumerated.^** 

and Doughty ed. — Ottawa, 1907), 120. For an account of the development of a 
western colonial policy and the history of the proclamation, see Clarence W. Alvord, 
The Mississippi valley in British politics; a sdudy of the trade, land speculation, and 
experiments in vmperialism culminating in the American revolution (Cleveland, O., 
1917), 2: 149-209. 

© Documents relating to the constitutional history of Canada, 1759-1791, 94. 

10 Ihid. 

Vol. IV, No. 3 Beginnings of British West Florida 317 

There were insufficient data, however, as implied in the questions 
propounded by the secretary, upon which to base an intelligent 
proposal. In the discussion of the preliminaries of peace in 1762 
the opposition to the government had viewed the inclusion of 
the region as of no value to Great Britain. The ministers had 
no information respecting ^* those provinces but what they could 
derive . . . from Mitchell's Map of North America.'' Ad- 
vantage was taken, however, of the presence in London of trav- 
elers and officials, who, like Captain Knox, had visited in the 
southern provinces. Such men were called upon to report their 
views as to the character of the region.^^ 

In June following, in compliance with the secretary's request, 
the lords of trade under the direction of Shelburne outlined in 
tentative form the policy to be adopted towards the new pos- 
sessions."^^ After stating at some length the most obvious ad- 
vantages resulting from the late cessions, the board observed 
that these territories could only be secured and improved by the 
immediate establishment of regular governments at all centers 
where planting and settlement as well as trade and commerce 
were the immediate objects. It was argued that in order to in- 
vite new settlers to risk their persons and property in taking up 
new lands, as well as to secure the old inhabitants in the enjoy- 
ment of all the rights and privileges reserved to them by the 
treaty, such regular government was an absolute necessity. It 
was recommended for the same reasons, as well as to insure 

11 ' ' Manuscripts of Captain H. V. Knox, ' ^ in Historical manuscripts commission, 
Beport on manuscripts in various collections (House of commons. Sessional papers, 
Cd. 3218), 6: 281, 282. ''I was lately returned from Georgia. . . Dr. Francis 
having found me out, carried me to his then common friends, Lord Holland and Lord 
Lansdown. I drew up by Lord Lansdown^s desire a defence of the preliminaries and 
presented it for his Lordship's use, and Dr. Francis got a copy of [it] from me for 
Lord Holland, who was so well pleased with it . . . that he desired Dr. Francis 
to ask me if I wished for any ofl&ce in the new acquisitions, as he meant to consider 
me." Hid. On July 22, 1763, Secretary Pownall requested from the newly desig- 
nated governor of West Florida an opinion as to the most reasonable and frugal 
method by which the "New Established Colony in America may be peopled and 
Settled with usefuU and industrious Inhabitants either from such of His Majesty's 
other Colonys that may be overstocked or from any foreign parts." Public record 
of&ce, colonial office papers, 5: 574. See Johnstone's reply, July 27, 1763 (ibid.) in 
which he suggested various ways and means where the settlement of the colony 
might be facilitated and its commercial value enhanced. 

^2 Documents relating to the constitutional history of Canada, 1759-1791, 97-107. 

318 Clarence E. Carter m.v.h.r. 

British sovereignty and the public tranquility, that a large mil- 
itary force should be kept up in each government, until, by the 
increase of inhabitants, each colony should be enabled to main- 
tain government by its own internal force. ^'Canada, Florida 
and the newly acquired Islands in the West Indies appear to us 
to be the Places where Planting, perpetual Settlement and Cul- 
tivation ought to be encouraged and consequently where regular 
Forms of Government must immediately be established.'' 

Relative to the area adjacent to the gulf of Mexico, it was 
pointed out that Florida and the part of Louisiana to the east- 
ward of the Mississippi was comparable to Canada in extent of 
territory and the number of Indian tribes ; but in other respects, 
these regions were entirely different. The number of settled 
inhabitants, whether French or Spaniards, was never large, and 
it appeared to their lordships that there was little probability, 
in view of the ease with which they could remove, that any of 
them would remain after the cessions were completed. It was 
their lordships' opinion, however, that every expedient should 
be used to induce as many to remain as could be prevailed upon 
to do so.^^ 

In this preliminary report, the board made reference for the 
first time to the division of Florida into East and West Florida. 
This plan of division was proposed ^*with a view to make the 
two colonies as distinct as possible by establishing a Line of 
Separation between them and by giving to each a due propor- 

13 A writer in the Annual register for 1763 (p. 19) made the following observa- 
tion relative to the purpose of the proposed governments. "The cession of Louisi- 
ana to the Mississippi, and of the Spanish Florida on both seas, made our American 
empire compleat. No frontiers could be more distinctly defined, nor more perfectly 
secured. The only object of attention, which seemed left to Great Britain, was to 
render these acquisitions as beneficial in traffic, as they were extensive in territory. 
An immense waste of savage country was evidently to a commercial nation no great 
object for the present; but it was a considerable one in hope, because it contained 
an inexhaustible variety of soils, climates and situations, and thereby affording ample 
materials for the exertion of wealth and skill in its improvements to all the purposes 
of trade. These exertions were not likely to be wanting, or to be ineffectual. Inde- 
pendent of national motives, the administration in England had a particular interest 
in imy^roving those acquisitions to the utmost; they were to justify the choice they 
had made in preferring them to the West India islands. They therefore took very 
great pains to come to an exact knowledge of every thing, which could tend to render 
our new conquests on this continent flourishing and commercial. To this end they 
judged it expedient to divide them into three separate and independent governments. ' ' 

Vol. IV, No. 3 Beginnings of British West Florida 319 

tion of the natural advantages and conveniences of Commerce 
and Navigation. ^ ^ Their lordships frankly confessed that the 
lack of authentic knowledge relative to the coasts, harbors, nat- 
ural resources, and the people of the region, made it impossible 
to convey to the king the information essential for the basis of 
an intelligent opinion/* The suggestion for the erection of the 
two provinces and the description of their boundaries was there- 
fore obviously of a tentative character. Indeed it was proposed 
that before governments were established in the provinces, steps 
should be taken for an accurate survey of the sea coast and of 
the interior region lying between the mountains and Mississippi 

With the knowledge available, however, it was deemed indis- 
pensable that this country should be divided into two distinct 
governments, and that for the present the chief residence of the 
governor of the one should be St. Augustine, and that of the 
other, Pensacola.^® It was then recommended to the council that 
the two provinces be distinguished by the names of East and 
West Florida, and that West Florida should ^'comprehend all 
the Sea Coast of the Gulf of Mexico, extending West from the 
Catahowche River or Flint Eiver towards the Mississippi, as far 
as Your Majesty's Territories extend, and stretching up into 
the Land as far as the 31st degree of North Latitude. ' ' ^^ It is 
evident, however, that the fixing of the northern boundary of 
West Florida at the thirty-first degree of latitude was based 
upon no very clearly defined principle. One of the chief mo- 
tives prompting the board to indicate definite boundaries at this 

14 Documents relating to the constitutional history of Canada, 17S9-1791, 105. 

15 Ihid., 105. 

16 Pensacola was apparently of less importance than Mobile, ' ' consisting of about 
one hundred huts surrounded with a stockade ; ' ' Mobile, on the other hand, was ' ' a 
place pretty well cultivated & producing sufficient for export." Mississippi pro- 
vincial archives, 1: 136, 137. Particular instructions were given regarding the Mis- 
sissippi, 'Hhe free Navigation of which ought, we apprehend, be most accurately 
understood, not only in respect of that Eiver being the future Boundary betwixt 
Your Majesty's Dominions, and those of the French, but as this River by its Com- 
munication with the Ohio, the Illinois &c is of the utmost Importance to all connec- 
tion with the Indian Nations and the only Outlet to the great internal Trade, which 
may be carried on amongst them. ' ' Documents relating to the constitutional history 
of Canada, 17S9-1791, 105. 

17 Ihid. 

320 Clarence E. Carter m.v.h.r. 

time, without awaiting adequate information, was to allay the 
suspicions of the western and southern Indians,^^ and the line of 
thirty-one degrees recommended at this time, which was accept- 
ed by the king in council and embodied in the proclamation of 
October 7, was evidently arbitrary and tentative. It is appar- 
ent, moreover, that in the beginning of the discussion over the 
disposition of the western territory, the northern boundary of 
Florida was thought of in connection with the establishment of a 
continuous boundary separating the whites from the Indians, — 
a boundary which was temporarily set up in 1763, and finally 
determined in the course of the succeeding decade. With refer- 
ence to their first suggestion of the thirty-first parallel as the 
northern limit of the province, their lordships observed that 
^ ' this is as far north as the Settlements can be carried, without 
interfering with the lands claimed or occupied by the Indians. ' ' ^^ 

Another significant feature in these preliminary discussions 
was the observation concerning the character of the govern- 
ments of the proposed provinces. In its report of June 8 the 
board recommended a governor and council as the most suitable 
form. This suggestion was based upon the character and extent 
of the population of the respective colonies. With reference to 
Quebec it was expected that generations would pass before there 
would be sufficient English immigration to warrant the estab- 
lishment of a representative assembly. In the Floridas, on the 
other hand, as has already been pointed out, the French and 
Spanish population was meager and it was assumed that these 
elements would soon remove either to Louisiana or to the Span- 
ish Indies. It was apparently considered unnecessary, there- 
fore, to provide for representative institutions until sufficient 
English settlers from the older colonies and Great Britain 
should occupy the region. The details of the government of each 
province were to be announced in the commissions and instruc- 
tions to the governors.^^ 

On July 14 the Earl of Egremont informed Shelburne and his 

18 C. W. Alvord, "Genesis of the proclamation of 1763, *' in Michigan pioneer and 
historical collections, 36 : 20 ff. ; and Mississippi valley in British politics, 1 : 187 ff. 

i» Documents relating to the constitutional history of Canada, 1759-1791, 105. In 
the following year this boundary was moved north to a line running east from the 
mouth of the Yazoo river. See post, p. 000. 

20 Ihid. 

Vol. IV, No. 3 Beginnings of British West Florida 321 

colleagues that the king had approved their recommendations 
and instructed them to prepare the commissions and instruc- 
tions for the governors, whose names were at the same time 
transmitted to the board.^^ At this juncture, however, when 
the new governments were almost ready for inauguration, there 
came news of the outbreak of Indian hostilities in the western 
country. Lord Shelburne had foreseen probable dangers from 
this quarter resulting from the encroachments upon the Indian 
hunting grounds. As a temporary expedient for quieting dis- 
contents which seemed likely to become serious, he had suggest- 
ed, in the report of June 8, the running of the new boundary line 
separating the old and the proposed new colonies from the In- 
dian country and reserving that region for the Indians, where 
no settlements, * immediately at least," were to be attempted. 
In order to relieve the pressure in the old colonies due to over- 
population and to the monopolizing of lands by speculators, 
Shelburne proposed to encourage settlements in Nova Scotia and 
in East and West Florida. Peace with the Indians would in this 
way be guaranteed.^^ 

Upon receipt of the news of the Indian war Shelburne ad- 
dressed a communication to Egremont on August 5 advising the 
immediate issuance of a proclamation embodying his two plans, 
the reservation of the Indian lands and the erection of the new 
provinces, with a declaration of intention to encourage people 
to settle in East and West Florida and Nova Scotia.^^ The 
ministerial reply to this proposal was postponed on account of 
the death of Egremont on August 21, which necessitated a read- 
justment within the ministry. The changes involved the re- 
tirement of Shelburne as president of the board of trade ; Lord 
Hillsborough was called to this position and the Duke of Hali- 
fax succeeded Egremont as secretary of state for the southern 
department. It was not until September 19, therefore, that an 
answer was made to the board of trade's letter of August 5. 
This reply gave authority to the board to draft the suggested 
proclamation.^* But this duty now devolved upon Lord Hills- 

21 lUd., 108. 

22 IMd., 100-102. A full discussion of this policy is in Alvord, Mississippi valley 
in British politics, 1 : 170 ff ., 187 ff. 

23 Documents relating to the constitutional history of Canada, 1759-1791, 110, 111. 
2^ Ihid., 112; Alvord, Mississippi valley in British politics, 1: 189 ff. 

322 Clarence E, Carter m.v.h.e. 

boroiig"li, who was unfamiliar with general American conditions 
and did not understand the ideals and purposes of his predeces- 
sor. The ministry, moreover, was not completely satisfied with 
the scope of Shelburne's plan. The result was that instead of 
completing the proclamation in accordance with the latter 's rec- 
ommendation, the new president of the board followed the de- 
sires of the ministry and incorporated numerous other matters. 
We are immediately concerned, however, with only three of 
these, — the final creation of West Florida, whose bounds have 
already been described, the assignment to the governors of 
power to call representative assemblies, and the extension of 
English law to the new province. Three days before the an- 
nouncement of the proclamation Hillsborough informed Lord 
Halifax that in revising the report of the board of trade of June 
8 it was found '* expedient for His Majesty's Service, and give 
Confidence and Encouragement to such Persons as are inclined 
to become Settlers in the new Colonies, That an immediate and 
public declaration should be made of the intended permanent 
Constitution and that the power of calling Assemblies should be 
inserted in the first Commissions, We have therefore drawn the 
Proclamation agreeable to this Opinion, and have prepared the 
Commissions accordingly . . .''^^ The completed proclama- 
tion was approved by the king in council on October 5, the com- 
missions to the governors of the new colonies were passed on 
October 6, and the edict was proclaimed on October 7.^^ 

What, in the meantime, had been the legal status of the region 
thus incorporated as West Florida, and what was its constitu- 
tional position subsequent to October 71 The ceded territory 
was dependent upon the crown; for by royal prerogative the 
king had such power over a conquered country that he could 
enact all necessary legislation. This was the opinion of jur- 
ists and publicists,^^ and the crown acted upon the assump- 

2^> Documents relating to the constitutional history of Canada, 1769-1791, 114. 

20 Ihid., 115, 116, 120-123. 

27 See the case of Campbell v. Hall, involving the constitutional status of the island 
of Grenada, in which Lord Mansfield voiced the unanimous opinion of the court that 
it was within the power of the king to make a legislative enactment with regard to 
the island. Ihid., 366-:{72. See also the view of Sir William Blackstone, Com- 
mentaries on the laws of England (Cooley, 8d ed. — CTiicago, 1884), introduction, 
sec. 4, 107. For conflicting opinion of Attorney-General Thurlow, see ihid., 181. 

Vol. IV, No. 3 Beginnings of British West Florida 323 

tion that the principle was correct. It was an equally sound 
principle that although the public law of the conqueror was sub- 
stituted for that of the conquered, the private law remained un- 
changed unless otherwise directed by the new sovereign.^^ With 
the announcement of the proclamation of October 7, 1763, how- 
ever, these two conditions were changed. Although the king 
could govern the recent conquests by any method consistent 
with the constitution, he deprived himself of this privilege by the 
proclamation, which directed the governor of the province to call 
a general assembly ^^as soon as the state and circumstances" of 
the colony should admit. The king thereby ^^ precluded him- 
self," observed Lord Mansfield, ^^from an exercise of the legis- 
lative authority which he had before. . . " ^^ The royal proc- 
lamation in connection with the governor's commission and in- 
structions became, in effect, therefore, a constitution for the 
province of West Florida throughout the entire period of Brit- 
ish rule. It served likewise as the fundamental law in Quebec, 
East Florida, and Grenada.^*^ 

This new fundamental constitution proclaimed, moreover, the 
establishment of English law in the province thus created. The 
Spanish code and the coutume de Paris were now completely 
displaced by English statute and common law. The governors 
were instructed to erect courts of judicature ^^for hearing and 
determining all Causes, as well Criminal as Civil, according to 
Law and Equity, and as near as may be agreeable to the Laws 
of England," with liberty of appeal, in civil cases, to the privy 
council.^^ Apparently the chief purpose of this extension of 
English law was to give impetus to the anticipated immigration 
into these new territories.^^ That the small alien population 
would remain in the Floridas was not expected. Assurances of 

For a discussion of the analogous position of Canada, see Victor Coffin, The province 
of Quebec and the early American revolution (University of Wisconsin, Bulletin, 
Economics, political science and history series, 1: no. 3 — Madison, 1896), 326 ff. 

28 Consult case of Campbell v. Hall, in Documents relating to the constitutional 
history of Canada, 1759-1791, 366-372, and Blackstone, Commentaries on the laws of 
England for leading opinions. 

29 Documents relating to the constitutional history of Canada, 1759-1791, 371. 

■30 1})id. ; Coffin, The province of Quebec and the early American revolution, 326 ff. 
31 Documents relating to the constitutional history of Canada, 1759-1791, 121. 
32lhid., 106. 

324 Clarence E, Carter m.v.h.r. 

a popular government and the protection of English laws were 
therefore given to make doubly attractive to prospective col- 
onists a region already deemed especially fit for exploitation 
and settlement. 

More than a year elapsed, however, before the civil establish- 
ment contemplated for West Florida in the proclamation of 
1763 was in motion. Although Governor George Johnstone, the 
cro^vn's first representative in the province, had been nominated 
on July 14, 1763,^^ along with the governors of East Florida and 
Canada, he did not arrive at Pensacola, the seat of his govern- 
ment, until October 21, 1764.^* In the months immediately sub- 
sequent to the issuance of the proclamation considerable work 
had to be accomplished by the board of trade and by the newly 
appointed governors in perfecting the details of the administra- 
tion. As already observed, the commissions containing an out- 
line of the frame of government for the respective provinces 
had passed the seals on October 6. But the detailed instruc- 
tions for the guidance of the royal governors remained to be 
completed. This work was accomplished on November 3, and 
the instructions were returned to the board with the royal sig- 
nature on December 14.^^ 

At the same time the lords of trade addressed the crown ^® on 
the subject of the populating of the provinces of the Floridas 
^' which Country being as yet almost, if not altogether unsettled 
& uncultivated, presents itself as an Object of that Care and 
Attention which its Value and Importance appear so greatly to 
merit. ^' In the instructions to Governor Johnstone directions 
had already been given ^Ho survey and lay out the Lands in 
small Townships.'' In order, therefore, to encourage and ex- 
pedite the settlement of the lands it was recommended that ad- 
vertisements be issued from time to time inviting proposals for 
settling townships in the new government of Florida. Such an 
advertisement was inserted in the London Gazette of November 
22, 1763,^^ setting forth that the board had received informa- 
tion that many persons were desirous of grants of land in East 

33 Documents relating to the constitutional history of Canada, 108. 

34 Mississippi provincial archives, 1 : 152. 

35 Public record office, colonial office papers, 391.70. 
zfilhid., 5.563. 

^T Hid., 391.70; Scot's magazine, 25: 627; Anmial register for 1763, 111. 

Vol. IV, No. 3 Beginnings of British West Florida 325 

and West Florida, and that in order to avoid delay in the mak- 
ing of settlements the king had directed that the lands be sur- 
veyed and laid out in townships not to exceed twenty thousand 
acres each. These townships were to be granted to such per- 
sons as were ^'willing to enter into reasonable engagements to 
settle the lands, within a limited time, and at their own expense, 
with a proper number of useful and industrious inhabitants.'^ 
Proposals to this end were invited to be made in writing to Mr. 
Pownall, the secretary of the board. 

An important administrative and legislative detail also to be 
settled related to the financing of the new provinces. Already 
on October 5, 1763, Lord Halifax had enclosed to the lords of 
the treasury a list of the civil officers which the ministry had 
thought proper to establish in the new governments.^^ Their 
lordships were requested to determine the salaries to be paid in 
order that the board of trade might prepare an estimate for 
parliament.^^ During the course of the succeeding months, un- 
til his departure early in the autumn of 1764, Governor John- 
stone held numerous conferences on this and other subjects with 
the board of trade and members of the ministry. 

The interchange of opinion at these meetings together with 
the increased knowledge concerning the province led to certain 
modifications in the governor's commissions and instructions,^^ 
the most important of which was the change in the northern 
boundary. In a communication to the crown on March 23, 1764, 
the lords of trade proposed that the boundary be moved north 
to a line running eastward from the mouth of the Yazoo river.*^ 

38 Calendar home office papers in the reign of George the third, 1 : 311. 

'39 The sum of five thousand seven hundred pounds sterling was granted by parlia- 
ment for defraying the charges of the civil establishment of West Florida from June 
24, 1763, to June 24, 1764. Annual register for 1763, 161. 

40 See for example board of trade journals, volume 72, under dates of January 12, 
April 17, May 1, 25 and 31, wherein such topics as the detailed application of the 
money granted by parliament are considered. At the board of trade meetings the 
governors were frequently called in consultation. On one occasion the governors of 
East and West Florida were censored by the secretary of the treasury for applying 
money granted for their respective colonies without acquainting the treasury. This 
charge led to an investigation by the board of trade as a result of which definite 
instructions were given to the governors on this point. 

Eequests for land grants likewise led to the determination to make certain changes 
in the quit rent reservations. Board of trade journals, volume 72, under dates of 
May 4, 8, 14, 15, and 16, 1764. 

^'^ American state papers: public lands, 1: 57. 

326 Clarence E. Carter m.v.h.b. 

This recommendation was approved by the privy council on 
March 26 and referred to the law officers, who reported favor- 
ably on May 1, and final approval was given by the council eight 
days later. The order for the change was sent to Governor 
Johnstone in a supplementary commission on June 6.*^ 

Frequent communications likewise passed between the board 
and the society for the propagation of the gospel in foreign 
parts relative to the appointment and support of ministers in 
East and West Florida. This matter appears to have received 
considerable attention and resulted in the nomination by the 
board of ministers recommended by the society.*^ Warrants 
were also sent to the master general of the ordnance, signifying 
*^the King's approbation that two Engineers should be sent to 
each of the provinces viz. East and West Florida and the ceded 
islands.''^* The appointments were accordingly made.*^ 

In the interval between the occupation of the province and the 
establishment of the civil regime the control of affairs was in the 
hands of the military authorities. The commander-in-chief of 
the British army in North America early assumed the direction 
of affairs, and the officers*^ commanding at Mobile and Pensa- 

42 Acts of the privy council of England, colonial series (Munro and Fitzroy ed, — 
London, 1911), 4: 688. A copy of the supplementary commission to Johnstone is 
in the general land office, Washington, Florida papers. For a more detailed discus- 
sion of the boundary change, with an analysis of the motives underlying it, see 
Clarence E. Carter, ' ' Some aspects of British administration in West Florida, ' ' in 
Mississippi Valley Historical Review, 1: 365-369. 

43 Board of trade journals, volume 72, under dates of March 13, April 17, 30, May 
1, 23, June 23, 26, and July 30, 1764. 

44 Calendar home office papers in the reign of George the third, 1: 501. 

45 Canadian archives, B. 17: 27. 

46 ' < I herewith enclose a Letter from the Secretary of State, which will inform you 
of His Majesty's Pleasure, that you should obey all orders as you may receive for 
your Conduct from me, or the Commander-in-chief for the Time being of His 
Majesty's Forces in North America. . . The King has been graciously pleased 
to leave it to me to send any officer I shall think proper to take the Command of 
the Troops to be stationed at the Mobile & the ceded Country to the left of the 
Mississippi & the Country ceded by Spain, on the Continent of North America & 
I am to acquaint you that I think proper to leave the said Command in your Hands, 
until further Orders." Amherst to the officers commanding at Florida and Louisi- 
ana, August 23, 1763, Board of trade, plantations general. No. 19, ff. 59-61. ''The 
Secretary of State having signified to me, that as my commission under the Great 
Sea], of Commander in Chief of all His Majesty's Forces in North America, included 
Florida, and the country ceded by Spain, on the Continent, and likewise the Country 
ceded by France on the left side of the Mississippi; It is the King's pleasure I 

Vol. IV, No. 3 Beginnings of British West Florida 327 

cola, the principal posts, held an absolute sway over the re- 
gion/^ For more than a year this rule continued. Although in 
the beginning the officials were disposed to create numerous 
offices,^^ an order from Gage restricting the staff in each fort of 
the province to a barrack-master and an adjutant appears to 
have simplified the administrative machinery.*^ To assist him 
in disposing of civil matters and in settling affairs with the re- 
tiring French officials Major Farmar, in command of the post at 
Mobile, appointed a secretary and a deputy judge advocate.^'^ 
There were several irritating questions to decide. One of the 
first issues related to the Indians. A large Indian congress 
called by the French officials was assembling at Mobile in Octo- 
ber, 1763, at the time of Farmar 's arrival, and this fact made 
necessary the formation of a temporary Indian policy. The sit- 
uation entailed considerable expense and the consequent embar- 
rassment of the British officials who were unable to meet all the 
demands of the occasion ;^^ thus another problem was intro- 
duced, — that of procuring money for financing the necessary 
activities of the military government. There was little money 
to be obtained at this time. ^'I am in no small Dilema at pres- 
ent,'' wrote Farmar, ^^not knowing where or how, to procure 
Money to pay for the Goods, &c, and the Workmen employed, 
as what little Cash the Merchants here have, they do not choose 
to take Bills for, payable at New York, and our being supply 'd 
from thence is very precarious from the distance, and the diffi- 
culty of the Navigation. ' ' ^^ 

Considerable confusion was likewise created, if we may credit 

should give the necessary orders to the officers commanding the troops destined for 
those Places, for putting everything on a proper Footing, for the several Posts, as 
well as for keeping the entire Possession of the Countries so ceded, agreeable to the 
definitive Treaty of Peace, signed at Paris the 10th Febry 1763." Amherst to 
Robertson, August 24, 1763, Board of trade, plantations general. No. 19, ff. 49-56. 
Lieutenant-Colonel Robertson, quartermaster general for North America, made a tour 
of inspection of the ceded territory in the late summer and autumn of 1763. While 
there he had charge of the disposition of the troops. His report to General Gage 
determined, in large part, the immediate policy pursued. 

47 Mississippi provincial archives, 1 : 61-63, 7-17, 91, 92. 

48 7&tdf., 1: 16. 

49 Calendar home office papers in the reign of George the third, 1 : 418. 

50 Mississippi provincial archives, 1 : 16. 

51 Ibid., 1: 13, 14. 

52 Ibid., 1: 9. 

328 Clarence E. Carter m.v.h.e. 

Farmar's allegation, by the action of tlie French officers and in- 
habitants in claiming as private property works that belonged 
to the French crown. ^^ Unless it could be known,'' he observes, 
^^ whether His Most Christian Majesty has suffered his officers 
to sell the Houses built at his expence for the use of his Civil 
and Military Officers, there is no knowing how to act with them.*' 
He informed the English merchants, therefore, that if they pur- 
chased such houses and it should afterwards appear that they 
were the king's property, the purchasers would be compelled to 
pay rent and would be liable to dispossession.^^ The ultimate 
solution of this question, however, as of tiumerous others, does 
not appear from the material available. 

It fell also to the lot of the military government to adjust the 
relations with the old inhabitants. According to the provisions 
of the treaty of Paris the French and Spanish inhabitants were 
to be allowed to sell their estates, provided the transfer was to 
British subjects, and to retire with their effects without re- 
straint. The time limit for this emigration was fixed at eighteen 
months, to be computed from the day of the exchange of ratifi- 
cations. Guarantees were likewise given that all who remained 
should enjoy the liberty of the Roman Catholic religion. There 
is no record available to indicate that any Spanish inhabitants 
took advantage of these provisions to remain at Pensacola. The 
French in and about Mobile, moreover, were slow in determin- 
ing to take the oaths. In April, 1764, only eight had sub- 
scribed,^* but doubtless owing to the receipts of news of the ces- 
sion of Louisiana to Spain ^^ a large number decided to become 
British subjects, one hundred and twelve taking the oaths 
of allegiance before the end of the military regime.^^ 

The arrival of Governor Johnstone at Pensacola on October 
21, 1764," marks the actual beginning of the civil administration 
of the province, the framework of which had already been erect- 
ed through the medium of the commission and instructions 
which were published soon after his arrival.^^ The terms of the 

53 Mississippi provincial archives, 1 : 15. 

5^Ihid., 1: 116. 

^^■'Ihid., 1: 138. 

5« List of the French taking the oaths of allegiance, ihid., 1: 122. 

57 Ibid,. 1 : 152. 

58 Public record office, colonial office papers, 5. 599. 

Vol. IV, No. 3 Beginnings of British West Florida 329 

commission, marking out in general the course of action of the 
governor in inaugurating the new government, vary so slightly 
from those usually issued in the royal provinces that it is un- 
necessary to restate them in full in this connection. Although 
the instructions conform to the general tenor of the instructions 
to the governors in the old colonies, in many cases the same 
phraseology being used, there are a number of variations and 
some additional provisions made necessary by the new condi- 
tions in West Florida. As in the old provinces, the governor 
shared his power with a council, to be composed in this case of 
twelve men, two of whom were to be the surveyor-general of the 
customs for the southern district and the chief justice of the 
province.^^ With the council thus constituted the governor was 
to make all rules and regulations necessary for the government 
of the province until such time as he deemed it expedient to call 
a general assembly.^^ The council was permitted to vote on all 
affairs of public concern and was to share equally with the as- 
sembly, when called, the power of framing money bills. Armed 
with the usual power of creating a central and local judiciary, 
with its numerous appurtenances, the governor was instructed 
to copy as far as possible similar establishments in the colony of 
Georgia. In the matter of appeals from the colonial to the im- 
perial courts the practice of Georgia was likewise to be fol- 
lowed; this, however, differed in no important particular from 
the system in vogue in other provinces. The hearing of appeals 
was the highest judicial function of the governor and council.^^ 
Provisions determining the course of action of the newly erected 
government toward the Indians and toward the Koman Catholic 

59 It was provided in addition that in case there were less than seven councillors 
residing in the province, the governor should ''choose as many of the Principall in- 
habitants of Our said Province as will make the full number of the Council to be sev- 
en and no more: which persons so chosen and appointed by you shall be to all intents 
and purposes Councillors in our said Province till either they shall be confirmed by us 
or by the nomination of others by us . . . Our said Council shall have seven or 
more persons in it.'' 

60 See below for discussion of provisions relative to the assembly. 

61 The value in question must exceed £300 sterling. A further appeal to the 
privy council was available, but in this case the sum involved must not be below £500 
sterling. For a general consideration of the right of appeal see Evarts B. Greene, 
The 'provincial governor in the English colonies of North America (New York, 1898), 
140, 141. 

330 Clarence E. Carter m.v.h.r. 

subjects of France and Spain who still resided in the province, 
the encouragement of immigration into the colony and the de- 
velopment of its natural resources, are all new features. The 
governor, moreover, is warned not infrequently to discourage 
any manifestations of independent action on the part of the 

At the very outset of Governor Johnstone's administration 
he came into open conflict with the military arm of the govern- 
ment over matters pertaining to the respective jurisdictions of 
the departments. This series of disputes, which appears almost 
interminable and concerning which there are volumes of 
papers,*^^ remained a disturbing element in the colony during 
the administrations of Johnstone and is reflected in some of the 
later administrations. In its development it represents a phase 
of colonial administration of some consequence, in that it tended 
to bring chaos into government, especially in West Florida, one 
of the first colonies in which this conflict appears in an acute 

One of the points in dispute related to the right of the gov- 
ernor to review cases which had been passed upon by the judge 
advocate's court under the military regime. ^^ The military 
authorities held that the governor was prevented by a parlia- 
mentary enactment from reviewing such decisions, and that the 
latter could be reviewed only in English courts. The governor, 
on the other hand, contended that his jurisdiction began with 
the date of his commission ; so that in one of the cases involved — 
that of the settlement of an estate of a man who had died prior 
to the governor's arrival in the colony — the military authori- 
ties according to the latter view were in duty bound to turn over 
to him all the papers pertaining to the case. 

The controversy assumed a more acute form in the dispute 
concerning the question as to who held supreme command over 
the troops,^* the governor or the ranking military officer of the 
province who derived his authority from the commander-in-chief 

02 Johnstone to Farmar, January 7, 1765, in Public record office, colonial office pa- 
pers, 5: 574. 

63 .Job stone to Farmar, January 7, 1765, in Public record office, colonial office pap- 
ers, 5: 574. 

f''* Mississippi provincial archives, 1 : 172 ff., 288 ff . For full account see ibid., 
1 : 338 ff . 

Voi.iv, No. 3 Beginnings of British West Florida 331 

of the British army in America. Governor Johnstone assumed 
the right to issue orders of various kinds to the troops ; among 
other things an officer was placed under arrest by his command 
and was brought to a public trial.^^ He demanded, moreover, 
the keys of the garrison, which were promptly refused, and he 
insisted upon his constitutional right to order the movement of 
the troops from one point to another. 

In order to clear up the situation an attempt was made by the 
ministry to lay down principles for the guidance of the respec- 
tive powers in the province^® according to which the governor 
in council or the governor alone where no council existed might 
issue commands to the troops in his province in the absence of 
specific orders from the commander-in-chief or the brigadier 
general of the district, providing such orders were not contra- 
dictory to any previously received from the commander-in-chief. 
There was to be no interference by the civil governor, however, 
with the details of military regulations and discipline.®^ 

In an attempt to reinforce and interpret the king's orders. 
General Gage, commander-in-chief of the British forces in 
America, observed that ^^His Majesty never did intend the gov- 
ernor should have supreme command,®^ which they never had 
had since the Troops came to America."®^ Furthermore, no 
orders from the king were to be published ^^ until the command- 
er-in-chief should issue the command as he was '* answerable 
for the execution of them. ' ' ^^ Governor Johnstone, on the other 
hand, justified his actions by asserting that the secretary at 

65 lUd., 1 : 176, 177. 

66 lUd., 1 : 172 fe. 
67lMd, 1: 417. 

68 The power to appoint the town mayors was vested in the commander-in-chief ; 
nevertheless Johnstone insisted on his right to nominate these officials. Letter from 
Gage, March 28, 1766, in Lansdowne manuscripts, Lansdowne house, London, vol. 51; 
copy in Illinois historical survey collection, university of Illinois. 

69 Gage to Taylor, June 10, 1766, in Canadian archives, B. 2-2 : 101. He asserted 
that the governor of Nova Scotia, who was a military man and under the commander- 
in-chief, was the only governor who ''ever had any command over the troops during 
the years that I have served here." Mississippi provincial archives, 1: 393. 

70 Governor Johnstone had issued the king's orders of February 9, 1765, to the 
garrison at Pensacola. See ibid., 1 : 396 ff . 

71 IMd., 1 : 394. In this connection, also, Gage ordered that no commands from 
Johnstone should be obeyed by the barrack master. Gage to Taylor, September 29, 
1776, in Canadian archives, B. 2-2 : 131. 

332 Clarence E. Carter m.v.h.e. 

war acknowledged the governors under certain specific limita- 
tion, to be * * Commanders in Chief, as they were responsible for 
their Provinces, as well as the Fortresses where they resided.*^^ 
Indeed it was set forth in Johnstone's commission,^^ as in the 
commission of every other royal governor, that ^*We do hereby 
require and command all Officers and Ministers, Civil and Mil- 
itary and all other Inhabitants of Our said Province to be obedi- 
ent, aiding and assisting unto you the said George Johnstone 
in the execution of Our Commission and of the Powers and Au- 
thorities herein contained. '^ This apparent overlapping of the 
powers in the commissions to the civil and military heads was 
necessarily provocative of disputes/* Apparently the efforts 
of the imperial authorities to define the line of demarcation be- 
tween the respective authorities was futile, as the temperament 
of the heads of the civil and military powers did not admit of 
adjustment. It was particularly contrary to Johnstone's dis- 
position to remain at peace with any officials whose powers ap- 
peared to be equal or superior to his own;^^ moreover, he inci- 

72 Mississippi provincial archives, 1 : 401, 402. 

73 Commission to Governor Johnstone, November 21, 1763, Public record office, 
colonial office papers, 5: 599. 

74 It appears that West Florida was not the only province in which there occurred 
disputes between the civil and military branches of the government after the appoint- 
ment of a commander-in-chief of the army in America. An analogous case occurred 
several years later in the province of New York. Here the question arose as to who 
should take precedence ''upon all occasions," Gage or Governor Moore. It was de- 
cided by the council of New York that the ''all occasions'* of Gage's instructions 
applied only to councils of war and that the civil power should not be subordinate to 
the military. Hillsborough stated in his reply to this discussion that ' ' nothing that 
be more foreign to His Majesty's Intentions than the introducing Military Govern- 
ment into His Provinces in America." Documents relative to colonial history of 
the state of New YorTc (O'Callaghan ed. — Albany, 1853-87), 8: 16, 17, 73, 97-99. 
In East Florida, also, in 1768, Governor Grant sought to maintain a "Personal Com- 
mand" over all departments, — the fort, the artillery, ordnance, etc., — "except the 
private regimental detail." Taylor to Haldimand, February 13, 1768, and Taylor to 
Gage, February 14, 1768, in Canadian archives, B, 11: 365, 368. Disputes over the 
command also occurred in Canada. Mississippi provincial archives, 1 : 444 ff. 

75 Gage asserts, however, that though the barracks are under the commanding 
officers ' ' ' Care Orders, and Inspection, & strictly speaking the Governor has not in 
that case anything to do with them, and his order relative to the removal of officers 
not legal being out of his .Jurisdiction." Nevertheless Gage saw no reason why the 
governor's requests "should not be complied with, in Cases of Necessity and where 
no detriment is to hapj)en to the service." Ibid., 1: 387, 388. He continued, never- 
theless, to assert that ho never would acknowledge Johnstone as commanding officer of 

Vol. IV, No. 3 Beginnings of British West Florida 333' 

dentally took advantage of the frequent shifting of the military 
command/^ From the beginning of his administration, there- 
fore, to the day of his departure for England the province was 
filled with dissensions. 

The first dispute on this head arose out of Johnstone's at- 
tempt to dictate to Major Eobert Farmar, the head of the mil- 
itary forces at Mobile. The strife was long and bitter, charges 
and counter charges being hurled back and forth in rhetoric not 
wholly conducive to mutual good feeling and efficiency of admin- 
istration. Johnstone was charged with ^* Violence and Sever- 
ity '^ in a memorial forwarded to England by the troops at Mo- 
bile." Serious indictments were likewise preferred against 
Major Farmar ; so grave indeed that General Gage was forced 
to consent to a trial in order to clear up the affair. Farmar 
had in the meantime, early in the autumn of 1765, departed for 
the Illinois country to effect the occupation of that region. But 
Gage instructed General Taylor, the new chief of the military 
forces in the southern district, to place Farmar under arrest 
upon his return ^^ from Illinois and to summon a court-martial 
as soon as convenient to review the charges. Eight serious 
offenses were alleged, among which were such charges as selling 
the king's flour at New Orleans, misapplying funds set aside for 
Indian expenses, and selling Fort Tombeckbe.^^ Even these 
accusations were not satisfactory to the governor,^** who asserted 
that Gage had not preferred half the charges which in his mind 
were justifiable. The trial, however, did not begin promptly. 
Farmar, after having received summons to the trial, lingered 

the troops, as the governor tried in every possible way to stretch the laws for the pur- 
pose of making himself supreme. Gage to Taylor, August 14, 1766, Canadian ar- 
chives, B. 2-2: 118; Gage to Taylor, September 29, 1766, Hid., B. 2-2: 131. 

76 In the summer of 1765, General Bouquet arrived in West Florida to take com- 
mand but died almost immediately. During the interim, until the assumption of 
temporary command by Taylor in 1766, Johnstone declared himself head of the mil' 
itary forces. General Haldimand, the successor of Bouquet, arrived in West Florida 
in the spring of 1767. 

77 Mississippi provincial archives, 1 : 176 ff. 

78 Gage to Taylor, September 29, 1766, in Canadian archives, B. 2-2 : 131. 

79 Articles of accusation by Gage, September 29, 1766, ihid., B. 22: 127; Peter J. 
Hamilton, Colonial Motile; an historical study largely from original sources, of the 
Alabama Tombigbee basin and the old south west, from the discovery of the Spiritu 
Santo in 1519 until the demolition of Fort Charlotte in 1821 (Boston, 1910), 256. 

80 Gage to Haldimand, January 14, 1767, in Canadian archives, B. 3:4. 

334 Clarence E. Carter m.v.h.r. 

several weeks at New Orleans,®^ not arriving at Mobile until 
December, 1766.^- Then there occurred many delays incident to 
the assembling a sufficient number of witnesses for the court- 
martial,*^ so that the trial was not begun till June, 1767.^* This 
case, which was a representative one in the long contest between 
the civil and military authorities, was deemed of sufficient im- 
portance to warrant the sending of officials from St. Augustine, 
South Carolina, and New York.^^ Although Farmar was ac- 
quitted, the real issue does not seem to have been determined.^^ 
After Farmar 's departure, Johnstone, who considered himself 
head of the military forces since Bouquet's death, entered into 
a dispute w^ith Lieutenant-Colonel Walsh of Pensacola over the 
'^appointing of a Town Mayor of Pensacola, and the Disposal 
of a Barrack Hut."^^ Walsh, who resented the interference of 
the governor, subsequently seized the fort at Pensacola and re- 
fused to admit a detachment Johnstone had called from Mobile. 
Johnstone therefore had Walsh arrested and examined to ascer- 
tain whether charges of mutiny might not be preferred against 
him. The lieutenant, however, was not held.^^ While Johnstone 
was still attempting to have Walsh removed from command, 
General Taylor ^'^ arrived and despite Johnstone's protests re- 

81 Gage to Haldimand, January 14, 1767, ibid. 

82 Johnstone to Taylor, December 13, 1766, ihid., B. 22: 186. 

83 Haldimand to Gage, March 25, 1767, ihid., B. 3: 16; June 30, 1767, ibid., B. 
3: 90. 

84 ''List of persons supporting Major Farmar, June 18, 1767," ibid. 

85 Gage to Haldimand, May 8, 1767, ibid., B. 3: 5. 

86 All parties concerned felt them.selves aggrieved. ''Major Farmar thought him- 
self sacrificed to Governor Johnstone, and Governor Johnstone charged the general 
(Gage) with partiality to Farmar." Taylor to Haldimand, August 6, 1767, ibid., 
B. 11: 312. 

87 Letter from Gage, March 28, 1766, in Lansdowne manuscripts, vol. 51. 

88 Chief justice Clifton was forced to resign his oflSce because of Johnstone 's 
criticism of his verdict of "not guilty" in the Walsh case. He was reinstated, how- 
ever, early in 1768. This is a further illustration of the governor's quarrelsome 
nature. Not only did he break with the chief justice, but also with the attorney- 
general of the province, E. R. Wegg, whom he suspended on the grounds of negli- 
gence and incapacity, charges which seem never to have been proven. Consult index 
to Mississippi provincial archives; see also Hillsborough to Browne, February 23, 
1768, Public record office, colonial office papers, 5: 584. 

8fl Johnstone states that General Taylor had adopted the idea of the military branch 
being subjected to the civil. Johnstone to Boddington, July 19, 1766, ibid., 5: 583. 
Nevertheless, according to Taylor's later statement, this was not correct. "I know 
of no advantage to the government from this Command from the Civil Governors" 

Vol. IV, No. 3 Beginnings of British West Florida 335 

tained Walsh.'^^ The brigadier had been instructed by Gage to 
examine the conduct of Walsh and to give him a private repri- 
mand or bring him to trial if found guilty. If, however, Walsh 
should not be guilty of a military crime, the dispute was to be 
* dropped, ''^^ and this course appears to have been followed. 

Yet another problem perplexed the officials of the recently 
occupied territory, — that of conciliating the Indians. Since the 
French had been successful in their management and since the 
Indians were still attached to the former's interests, it was im- 
perative that the English effect an adjustment with these nations 
immediately, especially in view of the fact that but two depleted 
regiments and as many ruinous forts were available as barriers 
against possible attacks of Choctaw and Creeks, the former cap- 
able of assembling six thousand fighting men and the latter 
approximately thirty-six hundred.®^ The problem presented an 
acute phase immediately upon the occupation of Mobile. Ac- 
cording to custom the French had summoned the Creek and 
Choctaw nations to an annual congress to be held at that place 
about the first of November, 1763, for the purpose of distributing 
the annual presents. As the Indians had begun to assemble be- 
fore the end of October, the French officials requested Farmar not 
to land his troops until after the meeting had adjourned. Far: 
mar, however, insisted upon disembarking and assuming control 
of the congress, which was his prerogative in consequence of the 
cession. He presided over the congress during the succeeding 
weeks, aided by the former French officers.^^ As the govern- 
ment had not as yet issued any orders in regard to general In- 
dian management, Farmar deemed it wise to adopt a policy 
similar to that of the French.^* There followed an earnest at- 

over the king's troops; ''that the King's troops raised and paid by Great Britain 
should be merely body-guards in the Provinces." Taylor to Haldimand, February 
13, 1768, in Canadian archives, B. 11: 365. 

90 Johnstone to Taylor, July 26, 1766, in Public record office, colonial office papers, 
5: 583. 

91 Gage to Taylor, September 29, 1766, in Canadian archives, B. 2-2: 131. 

92 Mississippi provincial archives, 1 : 7 ff . 

■ 93 iMd., 1 : 14, 1 : 185. In view of Pontiac 's rebellion this was an important con- 
sideration. It was the opinion of authorities that a considerable military force 
should be quartered in the province not only to avert possible counter attacks from 
the Spanish but also to crush any possible Indian uprising. Calendar home office 
papers in the reign of George the third, 1 : 418. 

94 Mississippi provincial archives, 1 : 11. As one result large sums were expended 

336 Clarence E. Carter m.v.h.r. 

tempt on the part of the British, with the cordial cooperation of 
tlie French, to prepare the Indians f^r a peaceful reception of 
British sovereignty.''^ This was partially accomplished by the 
promise to supply the Indians in accordance with the French 
custom, a policy which, as has already been pointed out, entailed 
a heavy expense. 

In the instructions^^ to Governor Johnstone, which were is- 
sued in November, 1763, and which he brought with him to West 
Florida a year later, a general Indian policy was outlined. 
Among other things provisions were to be made for the gaining 
of definite information concerning the neighboring tribes. A 
proper person was to be appointed to hold congresses with the 
nations for the purpose of promising them protection and friend- 
ship. These instructions further reflect the principles as em- 
bodied in the royal proclamation of October 7, 1763,^^ which 
provided that the Indians were not to be disturbed in the pos- 
session of their territory, and that trade was to be free and open 
to all persons obtaining a license from the governor or com- 
mander-in-chief of the colony. All traders, moreover, were 
bound to observe such regulations as should be proclaimed for 
the benefit of the trade. 

Prior to the announcement of the proclamation in America, a 
congress of all the nations of the south had been convened at 
Augusta November 7, 1763.^^ At this meeting the Choctaw and 
the Creeks, especially the latter, had asked for definite boundary 
lines in the south, beyond which the British might not intrude. 
They received the reply that nothing could- be adjusted there 
until the ** appointed governors for those countries'' should 
arrive.^^ Upon the coming of Governor Johnstone of the new 
province of West Florida, therefore, about a year after the 

on Indian presents. Five thousand pounds were necessary for the Choctaw nation 
alone, where the English government had allowed but fifteen hundred. Ihid., 1: 150. 

9 •'5 See Farmar's address to the Creeks, and also talks given to the Choctaw by 
Farmar and Dabaddie at Mobile November 14, 1763. Mississippi provincial archives, 
1: 80-91. 

»« Instructions to Governor Johnstone, December 7, 1763, in Public record ofS.ce, 
colonial office papers, 5: 201. 

*7 Documents relating to the constitutional history of Canada, 122. 

»* For an account of the congress, which convened November 7, 1763, see State 
records of North Carolina (Clark ed. — Winston, 1895), 11: 182 ff. 

^^Ihid., 11: 195. 

Vol. IV, No. 3 Beginnings of British West Florida 337 

general meeting at Augusta, negotiations were immediately be- 
gun by the calling of congresses with the Choctaw and the 
Creeks respectively. Since the meeting at Mobile in 1763 the 
Choctaw had remained quiet.^^^ But the Creeks about Pensacola 
were exceedingly jealous of their lands and still retained their 
suspicion of the English. They claimed all the land about the 
fort with the exception of a small tract immediately adjacent, 
which had been ceded to the Spaniards. Furthermore, they 
threatened to attack the English as soon as the latter should 
begin to settle the region.^^^ The Creeks also prohibited the 
carrying of any goods from Pensacola into their country.^^^ 

The congress for the Choctaw was convened at Mobile March 
26, 1765, and that for the Creeks at Pensacola May 26, 1765. 
The two momentous problems were those of trade and boundary, 
and both, through the cooperation of John Stuart, superintend- 
ent of Indian affairs in the southern district, were amicably 
settled.^^^ The traders to both nations agreed to be bound by 
certain regulations.^^* The Choctaw surrendered a generous 
portion of territory,^^^ in contrast to the narrow, sandy strip 
surrendered by the Creeks.^^^ The latter, however, promised to 
augment their cession at the end of four years if the English 
fulfilled their promises.^^^ 

At the time of the Choctaw encampment at Mobile in 1765, 
the Creeks captured several members of that tribe, murdered 

100 Mississippi provincial archives, 1 : 119. 

101 Ihid., 1: 142, 143. 

102 lUd., 1: 165. 

^03 ij)id.; Stuart to Pownall, August 24, 1765, in Lansdowne manuscripts, vol. 60. 

104 In consequence of the terms of the proclamation the Indian country was over- 
run with traders. Stuart drew up a set of regulations to attempt to lessen the num- 
ber and to regulate the trade. The number of undertraders employed by the licensed 
traders was fixed and persons wandering among the Indians were not to be harbored. 
A uniform tariff was to be observed and the trade was to be transacted within the 
Indian towns. ''Copy of the regulations of trade," enclosed in Stuart's letter to 
the governors, March 31, 1765, Public record office, colonial office papers, 323.23. 

105 This territory comprised approximately the area comprehended by Mobile bay, 
Tombigbee river, west along the Buckatanne river to the Pascagoula river; down that 
river to within twelve leagues of the sea and as far west as the Choctaw had a right 
to grant. Mississippi provincial archives, 1 : 184. 

106 Hamilton, Colonial Mobile, 244 ff . ; Mississippi provincial archives, 1 : 184 ff . 
"^07 iMd., 1: 185; Stuart to Pownall, August 24, 1765, in Lansdowne manuscripts, 

vol. 60. 

338 Clarence E. Carter m.v.h.e. 

ten and refused to return the others. '^^ War ensued between 
these two nations, which affected West Florida to the extent of 
retarding somewhat the Indian trade and of postponing the 
survey of the boundary line.'^^ Johnstone's policy in regard to 
this strife became an important issue during the next few years, 
reflecting in a measure the old strife between the executive in 
West Florida and the military authorities. His theory was that 
the Creeks were to be feared, that they ^^must be chastised, if 
we expect Settlements in these Parts to flourish; if we expect 
to keep any future consequence with the other Indian Na- 
tions. '''^° His plan was secretly to induce, by large presents, 
the Choctaw, Chickasaw, and Cherokee to unite against the 
Creeks and to withdraw English traders from that nation.^^^ 
He was most energetic in attempting to win recruits to his plan 
of crushing the power of the Creeks. Under ordinary circum- 
stances the military arm of the government would doubtless 
have agreed to cooperate, but curiously enough, that branch of 
the service opposed his plan. General Gage, for example, used 
all his powers *Ho prevent the Nation being plunged headlong 
into an unprofitable War with Savages'* and declared that if 
Johnstone was determined to bring on a war ^4et him answer 
the consequences. ' ' "^ This view likewise found strong support 
in the British ministry, which sent warning notes to all Amer- 
ican officials in the southern provinces to preserve peace.^^^ 
This combined opposition of army officials and the government 
prevented the execution of the governor's plan. The war con- 
tinued, however, beyond the administration of Johnstone — who 
was recalled partly on account of his policy — and remained a 
source of embarassment to future provincial and Indian officials. 
Notwithstanding the politico-military strife in the province 
the completion of the machinery of civil government was 

108 Stuart to Pownall, August 24, 1765, in Lansdown© manuscripts, vol. 60; Mis- 
siss'ippi provincial archives, 1: 524. See also Alvord, Mississippi valley in British 
politics, 2: 61 ff. 

109 The line had not been surveyed in 1770 on account of the war. Stuart to 
Dumford, .January 4, 1770, Public record office, colonial office papers, 5.87. 

'^^^ Mississippi provincial archives, 1: 511. 

ii2Gaj,'o to Taylor, December 18, 1766, in Canadian archives, B. 2-2: 137; Shel- 
bume to Stuart, September 1.3, 1766, Lansdowne manuscripts, vol. 53. 

ii"' Shelburne to Grant, December 11, 1766, ibid.; Stuart to Haldimand, June 7, 
1767, Canadian archives, B. 11:281. 

Vol. IV, No. 3 Beginnings of British West Florida 339 

undertaken. Already the necessary courts of justice had been 
set up, including courts of ordinary chancery, admiralty, and 
the supreme court, the last named consisting of the governor 
and council.^^* On August 18, 1766, moreover, the governor in 
accordance with the provisions of the proclamation of 1763 and 
*4n consideration of the Want of Several Laws adapted to the 
Constitution '^ of the province, and in response to a petition 
from the jurors of the assizes of Pensacola and of the inhab- 
itants of Mobile, issued a proclamation '^^ calling for the election 
of the first representative assembly in West Florida. The pop- 
ulation was yet small, Johnstone's estimate, which was probably 
too optimistic, in that year placing it at from eighteen hundred 
to two thousand."^ At the time of the occupation in 1763 the 
English officers in command reported the population as hardly 
worthy of a settled government."^ In view of the small number 
of freeholders, therefore, the governor announced that the head 
of every household should have the privilege of a voice in the 
selection of representatives. The province was divided into 
three electoral districts, that of Pensacola, including all the ter- 
ritory east of the Perdido river except the township known as 
Campbelltown, which formed the second electoral district, and 
that of Mobile, comprising all the territory to the west of the 
Perdido river. Pensacola and Mobile each were entitled, by the 
governor's proclamation, to six representatives, and Campbell- 
town to two."® 

Elections were held in the three districts and on November 3, 
the day appointed in the governor's proclamation, the members 
elect gathered in Pensacola, where the necessary oaths were 
administered by the council, after which this second branch of 
the assembly was formally organized by the selection of Francis 
Pousset as speaker. 

In the course of perfecting its organization, however, it be- 
came necessary for the assembly to pass upon the merits of a 

11* Sidgwick to Gordon, January 7, 1765, Public record office, colonial office papers, 

115 Minutes of the first assembly of the province of West Florida, manuscript in 
general land office, Washington, D. 0. 

116 Mississippi provincial a/rchives, 1 : 444. 
■^-^T lUd., 1: 142. 

118 Minutes of the first assembly of the province of West Florida. 

340 Clarence E. Carter ^- ^- ^- ^• 

contested election in Campbelltown, the smallest of the three 
districts."^ Among the first committees appointed was that on 
privileges and elections ; it was to this committee that there was 
referred the petition of Dr. John Lorimer of Pensacola, who 
appeared to be an unsuccessful candidate for assemblyman from 
Campbelltown, his opponent, David Williams, having been 
granted a certificate of election by the deputy provost marshal. 
In Lorimer 's petition it was alleged that despite the fact that 
the face of the returns gave him a clear majority, the marshal 
had ** taken upon himself by the Sole advice of the said David 
"Williams or his friends, to alter the said poll in such a manner 
that he might return the said David Williams as member for 
said township . . , " On the basis of the committee 's report, 
and after hearing the testimony of the candidates, the house 
expelled Williams and awarded the seat to Lorimer. At the 
same time Williams was called before the bar of the house and 
reprimanded for his insolence, and the marshal who issued the 
false return was discharged from office.^^^ 

No very great significance may be attached to the enactments 
in this first session of the legislature. They reflect something, 
however, of the conditions of the province which were apparent- 
ly similar to the early beginnings of every government. Acts 
were passed by the council and assembly providing for the reg- 
ulating of servants, the clearing of the town of Mobile of of- 
fensive weeds, and for cleaning the streets of Pensacola.^^^ A 
code regulating negroes and slaves was deemed necessary and 
enacted, and acts restraining drunkenness and regulating the 
sale of liquor were passed. A law designed to encourage for- 
eigners to settle in the province was enacted early in the first 
session of the assembly. Grants of duties to be applied towards 
supporting the government of the province were likewise made. 
The assembly was prorogued by the governor on January 3, 
1767, to February 23. On the whole the relations between the 
house and the executive were not unfriendly. No very serious 
controversies developed, if we may judge from the minutes of 
the assembly. This appears in striking contrast to the gov- 

119 Minutes of the first assembly of the province of West Florida. 

Vol. IV, No. 3 Beginnings of British West Florida 


ernor's relations to other branches of the public service in the 

The turmoil in the province was greatly minimized by the re- 
call of Grovernor Johnstone early in 1767. The history of the 
province in the successive periods of military and civil regimes 
is a record of mismanagement, conflicts of jurisdiction, and petty 
quarrels. The British government intended West Florida as a 
home for the surplus population of the older colonies, and as a 
possible source of profit for Great Britain. Nevertheless the 
generally unfavorable conditions, as reflected in the facts above 
narrated, augured poorly for the early prosperity of the prov- 
ince. The population remained scanty, commerce had not yet 
developed satisfactorily, Indian relations had not been fully ad- 
justed and the civil government was still in the experimental 

Claeence E. Cakter 

Miami University 
Oxford, Ohio 

NORTHWEST, 1916-1917 

The region included in the following survey of historical ac- 
tivities for the year ending October 1, 1917, is the same as that 
covered in previous surveys. There has been a noticeable cur- 
tailment in the total product of historical writing and in the 
scope of the activities of historical agencies in this region during 
the last few months. The war is no doubt responsible for this 
falling off. The increased cost of all the materials for printing 
has made necessary some retrenchment on the part of historical 
societies; and the keen interest in current events of world im- 
portance has tended to crowd out the printing of articles on local 
and regional history in general publications. 


The Minnesota historical society hopes soon to be fully in- 
stalled in its handsome new building. The annual support of 
the society was increased from twenty thousand to twenty-five 
thousand dollars by an act of the last legislature. 

Two new members of the executive council of the society were 
chosen at the stated meeting on October 9, 1916, namely, Mr. 
William W. Cutler and Mr. Victor Robertson, who were selected 
to fill the vacancies caused by the deaths of James J. Hill and 
Edward C. Stringer. About the same time Mr. Franklin F. 
Holbrook was appointed field agent for the society, — an ap- 
pointment which marks a new development in the work of the 
institution. It is the plan that Mr. Holbrook will ultimately 
visit each county in the state for the purpose of investigating 
the county and other local archives, and of searching for mate- 
rials of historical value in the possession of the citizens of the 
community. It will also be his purpose to acquaint the people 
with the work of the society and enlist their assistance in pro- 
moting the cause of state and local history. 

The membership roll of the Minnesota historical society on 
December 31, 1916, contained the names of 509 persons, which is 

Vol. IV, No. 3 Historical Activities 343 

a very material gain over the number for the corresponding 
date one year earlier. Moreover, at each meeting of the execu- 
tive council during the past nine months there have been many 
additions to the membership roll. The library on December 31, 
1916, contained 81,239 accessions, in addition to about 43,000 
unaccessioned items, mostly pamphlets. It is a source of grat- 
ification to those in charge of the society that the library is being 
used more and more by investigators engaged in serious re- 
search work. 

At the stated meeting of the executive council on December 
11 memorial addresses in honor of Major Eeturn I. Holcombe 
and Captain Henry A. Castle were delivered by Mr. Warren 
Upham and Mr. Gideon S. Ives, respectively; and a paper on 
^^ Banking in Minnesota in the territorial period'' was read by 
Mr. Sydney A. Patchin. The annual meeting was held on Jan- 
uary 15, at which time Mr. Joseph Gr. Pyle delivered a memorial 
address in honor of the late James J. Hill. A report on his 
work as field agent was presented by Mr. Franklin F. Holbrook 
at the stated meeting on April 9. 

By an act of the last general assembly the permanent annual 
support of the state historical society of Iowa was increased 
four thousand dollars, making a total of twenty-four thousand 
dollars. This increase, like that of the Minnesota society, will 
be fully absorbed in meeting the increased prices of materials, 
and will not, for the present at least, make possible any impor- 
tant enlargements in the activities of the society. 

Mr. John E. Briggs has become a permanent member of the 
staff of the state historical society of Iowa. He is at present 
engaged in the preparation of a biography of the late Congress- 
man William P. Hepburn. During the past summer Mr. Louis 
B. Schmidt of the Iowa state college of agriculture and mechanic 
arts at Ames and Mr. Thomas Teakle of Des Moines spent some 
time at Iowa City pursuing research under the direction of the 
society. The former is preparing a history of agriculture in 
Iowa, while the latter has completed a volume dealing with the 
Spirit Lake massacre. Mr. C. R. Aurner has completed his six 
volume history of education in Iowa and has prepared several 
short articles on subjects in educational history. The researches 
of the society during the past few months, partly by accident 

SU Dan E.Clark m.v.h.e. 

and partly by design, have been largely directed along the line 
of the military history of the state. 

In January, in response to the request made in a joint resolu- 
tion of the general assembly, the superintendent of the society, 
Mr. Benjamin F. Shambaugh, with the assistance of members 
of the research stafP, prepared and directed the publication of 
a manual of legislative procedure for the use of the members 
of the state legislature. The society has furnished data to the 
Iowa branch office of the United press association for use in 
preparing short articles on Iowa history which are supplied to 
certain newspapers of the state. 

No important changes or developments have occurred in the 
work of the historical department of Iowa at Des Moines. Last 
fall Curator Edgar R. Harlan cooperated with the town plan- 
ning committee of Des Moines in choosing suitable names with 
a local historical significance for the new driveways in the pro- 
posed boulevard system for the city. He also gave much atten- 
tion to the plans for the historical film production entitled * ^ The 
wild rose of Iowa." During the past summer he has been very 
active in behalf of the marking of historic sites, including the 
marking of the Mormon trail across the state. 

At the annual meeting of the state historical society of Mis- 
souri in December, 1916, Mr. Walter B. Stevens of St. Louis 
was elected president. The society is planning a meeting on 
January 8, 1918, to commemorate the presentation to congress 
of Missouri's first petition for statehood. 

No changes in the organization or scope of activities of the 
Missouri historical society at St. Louis have occurred during 
the past year. 

At its last session the legislature of Kansas increased the 
appropriation for the contingent expenses of the Kansas state 
historical society five hundred dollars and increased the book 
fund three hundred dollars. The society is preparing the four- 
teenth volume of its Collections for publication at an early date. 

Mr. Addison E. Sheldon was elected secretary and superin- 
tendent of the Nebraska state historical society at the annual 
meeting held on January 11, 1917, and Mr. Samuel C. Bassett 
was chosen president. At this meeting the principal address 
was one by General Nelson A. Miles. The society has taken 

Vol. IV, No. 3 Historical Activities 345 

steps to secure photographs of all the Nebraska soldiers in the 
present war. 

The biennial meeting of the department of history of South 
Dakota was held on January 23, 1917, at which time the prin- 
cipal speaker was Mr. Abraham L. Van Osdel, who spoke on 
the subject of ** Aboriginal highways in South Dakota. '^ The 
department has begun the development of a genealogical library. 

A movement is on foot in Montana to reorganize the state his- 
torical society which has been practically inactive for several 
years. Furthermore, the chancellor of the university has ap- 
pointed a ^^ University commission on Montana history *' con- 
sisting of F. H. Garver, chairman, A. L. Stone, M. L. Wilson, 
H. H. Swain, and P. C. Phillips. The main object of the com- 
mission is to publish a quarterly series of monographs relative 
to the history of the state, the first number of which it is hoped 
will appear in January, 1918. 


The publications of historical societies in this region issued 
during the past year may be listed in a comparatively short 
space. The activities of the Minnesota historical society along 
this line have been confined to the quarterly periodical known 
as the Minnesota history bulletin. In the pages of this publica- 
tion there have appeared the following articles : ^ ^ Eecollections 
of Minnesota experiences,'' by Theodore E. Potter; ^^ Captain 
Henry A. Castle," by Gideon S. Ives; *^ Return Ira Holcombe,'' 
by Warren Upham; ^^The Monroe doctrine and the war,'' by 
Carl Becker; and *^Some possibilities of historical field work," 
by Franklin F. Holbrook. In addition, the February number 
contains the following notes and documents : a brief sketch of the 
life of Michelle Dufault, by Theodore H. Beaulieu; a lawyer's 
view of the Kensington rune stone, presented in a letter from 
Charles C. Willson; a letter discussing relations with western 
Canada ; and some data relative to the genesis of the republican 
party in Minnesota. A supplement to the February number of 
the Bulletin contains the Nineteenth annual report of the society 
for the years 1915 and 1916. 

Further progress is reported by the Minnesota historical so- 
ciety in the compilation of a work on ^^ Minnesota geographic 

346 Dan E.Clark m.v.h.e. 

names," by Warren Upham; while a three volume work on the 
history of Minnesota, by William W. Folwell, is nearing com- 

In December, 1916, the state historical society of Iowa issued 
a volmne on Statute law-making in Iowa (xviii, 718 p.), edited 
by Benjamin F. Shambaugh.^ As was the case with the preced- 
ing volumes in the same series, the book is the joint work of sev- 
eral authors, the various papers being : ^ ^ History and organiza- 
tion of the legislature in Iowa, ' ' by John E. Briggs ; ' ' Law-making 
powers of the legislature in Iowa," by Benjamin F. Shambaugh; 
'^Methods of statute law-making in Iowa," by 0. K. Patton; 
' ' Form and language of statutes in Iowa, ' ' by Jacob Van der Zee ; 
''Codification of statute law in Iowa," by Dan E. Clark; ''Inter- 
pretation and construction of statutes in Iowa," by 0. K. Patton ; 
' ' The drafting of statutes, ' ' by Jacob Van der Zee ; ' ' The com- 
mittee system," by Frank E. Horack; and "Some abuses con- 
nected with statute law-making, ' ' by Ivan L. Pollock. In Octo- 
ber, 1917, the society distributed a biography, written by Dan E. 
Clark, of Samuel Jordan KirJcwood (xiv, 464 p.), governor of 
Iowa during the civil war and later United States senator and 
secretary of the interior. 

The quarterly publication of the society, known as the Iowa 
journal of history and politics, has contained the following ar- 
ticles during the past year: "The opening of the Des Moines 
valley to settlement, ' ' by Jacob Van der Zee ; ' ' Indian agents in 
Iowa: agents at the Winnebago, Council Bluifs, St. Peter's, and 
Tama agencies," by Euth A. Gallaher; "Special legislation in 
Iowa, ' ' by Ivan L. Pollock ; ' ' Recent liquor legislation in Iowa, ' ' 
by Dan E. Clark; "History of the Congregational church of Iowa 
City," by Joseph S. Heffner; "The executive veto in Iowa," by 
Jacob A. Swisher ; ' ' History and constitution of the Icarian com- 
munity, ' ' translated by Thomas Teakle ; ' ' The enlistment of Iowa 
troops during the civil war," by John E. Briggs; "The military- 
Indian frontier, 1830-1835," by Euth A. Gallaher; "Council 
with the Sac and Fox Indians in 1840, " " The Iowa loan of 1861, ' ' 
by Ivan L. Pollock; and "The legislation of the thirty-seventh 
general assembly of Iowa," by Frank E. Horack. 

During the summer the state historical society of Iowa began 

1 Ee viewed ante, 4 : 266. 

Vol. IV, No. 3 Historical Activities 347 

the publication of a series of small pamphlets which will be con- 
tinued indefinitely, under the title of Iowa and war. Since these 
pamphlets are in no sense a monographic series, bibliographical 
data and academical citation of sources are omitted. Their con- 
tents are none the less based upon critical studies and reliable 
sources of information. The first four pamphlets in this series 
are: Old Fort Snelling, by Marcus L. Hansen; Enlistments 
from Iowa during the civil war, by John E. Briggs; The Iowa 
civil war loan, by Ivan L. Pollock; and Equipment of the Iowa 
troops in the civil war, by Cyril B. Upham. 

The society now has in press a volume on Marches of the dra- 
goons in the Mississippi valley, by Louis Pelzer, being an account 
of the marches and activities of the first United States dragoons 
between 1833 and 1850 ; and a volume on Old Fort Snelling, by 
Marcus L. Hansen, including a discussion of the relation of the 
fort to the early development of the northwest. 

The only publication issued by the historical department of 
Iowa at Des Moines during the period under discussion is Down- 
ing 's civil war diary (vi, 325 p.), edited by Olynthus B. Clark. 
This diary was kept by Sergeant Alexander Gr. Downing of 
company E, eleventh Iowa infantry, and presents an excellent 
view of many important campaigns of the war from the stand- 
point of the soldier in the ranks. The quarterly periodical called 
Annals of Iowa has been indefinitely discontinued. 

The following contributions are to be found in the pages of the 
Missouri historical review, published at Columbia by the state 
historical society of Missouri: ^^ Letters of Carl Schurz, B. Gratz 
Brown, James S. Eollins, G. G. Vest et al., Missourians, from the 
private papers and correspondence of Senator James Eood Doo- 
little of Wisconsin, '' contributed by Duane Mowry; ^^ Howard 
county has two centennial celebrations,'' by Walter Kidgway; 
* * Letters of Edward Bates and the Blairs, ' ' contributed by Duane 
Mowry; '* Missouri's centennial celebration," ^^How Missouri 
counties, towns, and streams were named, ' ' by David W. Eaton ; 
^^ Missouri's centennial," by Walter B. Stevens; ^^ Missouri and 
the Santa Fe trade," by F. F. Stephens; ^'Missourians abroad: 
Major General John J. Pershing," by Ivan H. Epperson; '*A 
state flower for Missouri," by Marie L. Goodman; and *' Adair 
county historical society, " by E. M. Violette. 

348 DanE.Clarh m.v.h.k. 

A handsome volume published by the Missouri historical soci- 
ety located in St. Louis is one entitled Three years among the In- 
dians and Mexicans (316 p.), and edited with notes and bio- 
graphical sketches by Walter B. Douglas. It is a reprint of a 
book by General Thomas James of Monroe county, Illinois, orig- 
inally published in 1846. The first two chapters have a bearing 
on the history of this region in that they deal with the author 's 
experiences in the fur trade on the upper Missouri river in 1809 
and 1810. 

The only publication of the Kansas state historical society 
during the period under review is the Twentieth biennial report 
of the board of directors for the two years ending June 30, 1916. 
In addition to the report, the pamphlet contains the proceedings 
at the annual meetings of the society in 1915 and 1916, and a 
comprehensive ^* History of Kansas newspapers,'' compiled by 
William E. Connelley. 

Volume XVIII of the Collections of the Nebraska state his- 
torical society has just been issued, but failed to reach the writer 
in time for further mention in this article. The state depart- 
ment of history of South Dakota has not issued any publications 
during the past year. The state historical society of North Da- 
kota published a Bidletin containing an illustrated description 
of the museum and library of the society at Bismarck. 

The Montana historical and miscellaneous library at Helena 
has recently issued volume eight of the Contributions to the his- 
torical society of Montana (376 p.).^ It contains the following 
papers: ^^ Partial sketch of the civil and military service of 
Major Martin Maginnis,'' ^^ Wilbur Fisk Sanders,'' by A. K. 
McClure ; ^' Diary of Colonel Samuel Word," ^^ Holding up a ter- 
ritorial legislature," by Martin Barrett; ^^ Montana's pioneer 
courts," by W. Y. Pemberton; ^^ Pioneer lumbering in Mon- 
tana," by A. M. Holter; **Capt. Townsend's battle on the Pow- 
der river," by David B. Weaver; ^^ Montana's early history," 
by Mrs. W. J. Beall; ''My trip on the Imperial in 1867," by 
John Napton; ''Boundary survey between Montana and Da- 
kota," by William Crenshaw; "Changing the name of Edgerton 
county," by W. Y. Pemberton; and "Trip through the Eocky 

2 To b« reviewed later. 

Vol. IV, No. 3 Historical Activities 349 

mountains,'^ by A. G. Brackett. Nearly one-half the book 
is occupied with portions of the ^^ Bradley manuscript.'^ 

In listing the publications of historical societies mention 
should be made of a number of articles bearing on the history 
of this region which have appeared in publications of societies 
and associations outside of the trans-Mississippi northwest. In 
the Mississippi Valley Histokical Review there have been the 
following articles on subjects entirely within this field: ** Addi- 
tional notes on the Verendrye enigmas,'' by Doane Robinson, 
Charles E. DeLand, and Orin G. Libby;^ and *^The separation 
of Nebraska and Kansas from the Indian territory,'' by Roy 
Gittinger.* Other articles which touch the field incidentally are : 
*^ Effects of secession upon the commerce of the Mississippi val- 
ley," by E. Merton Coulter;^ ^^ Southern railroads and western 
trade, 1840-1850," by R. S. Cotterill ;« ^ ' Settlement and develop- 
ment of the lead and zinc mining region of the driftless area 
with special reference to Jo Daviess county, Illinois," by B. H. 
Schockel ; ^ and ^* Spanish influence in the west during the Amer- 
ican revolution," by James A. James. ^ Among the notes and 
documents are some ^^ Notes on the discovery of gold in the 
northwest," by P. C. Phillips and H. A. Trexler.^ 

The only paper in the Proceedings of the Mississippi valley 
historical association for 1915-1916 which comes within the scope 
of this review is the address by Dunbar Rowland on **The Mis- 
sissippi valley in American history." Other papers read at the 
meetings which contain data concerning the history of this re- 
gion are printed only by title, having been printed m full in 
various other publications. 

**The cow country," by Frederic L. Paxson; and *^The north- 
ern railroads, April, 1861," by Carl R. Fish, are two articles 
which have appeared during the past year in the American his- 
torical review which have a bearing, direct or incidental, on the 
field covered by this paper. Among the documents will be found 

■ ^Ante, 3: 143-161, 368-400. 

^Ante, 3: 442-462. 

^Ante, 3: 275-301. 

^Ante, 3: 427-442. 

T Ante, 4: 169-193. 

^Ante, 4: 193-209. 

^Ante, 4: 89-98. 

350 DanE.Clarh m.v.h.e. 

tlie proceedings of ''The senate debate on the Breckinridge bill 
for the government of Lonisiana, 1804," edited by Everett S. 
Brown. There is also a communication from James Mooney 
in reply to some criticisms of his review of GrinnelPs The fight- 
ing Cheyennes. 

Among the papers in volnme one of the Annual report of the 
ximerican historical association for 1914, which has been dis- 
tributed within the past year, are the following: ''The genesis 
of the Kansas-Nebraska act,'' by P. Orman Ray; and "Prin- 
ciples of classification for archives," by Ethel Virtue, describ- 
ing the system in use in the archives of Iowa. There is also "A 
preliminary survey of the more important archives of the terri- 
tory and state of Minnesota," by Herbert A. Kellar. 

A volume in the series of Original narratives of early Amer- 
ican history^ published by Charles Scribner's sons, under the 
auspices of the American historical association, is one entitled 
Early narratives of the northwest, 1634-1699, (xiv, 382 p.), ed- 
ited by Louise Phelps Kellogg.^^ The volume contains the orig- 
inal narratives of several early French explorations in the Mis- 
sissippi valley. "The Minnesota history teachers' syllabus," 
by C. B. Kuhlmann, is a contribution in the History teacher's 

A volume on the Economic history of Wisconsin during the 
civil war decade (414 p.), by Frederick Merk,^^ published by the 
state historical society of Wisconsin, contains considerable ma- 
terial concerning the history of Minnesota, Iowa, and Missouri 
during the same period. In the Proceedings of the same society 
at the annual meeting held in October, 1916,^^ there will be found 
among others the following papers : ' ' New light on the career 
of Captain Nathaniel Pryor," by Joseph B. Thoburn; and "The 
dream of a northwestern confederacy," by William C. Cochran. 

Among the articles in the Journal of the Illinois state his- 
torical society is a brief sketch by Orrin S. Holt of the career 
of Russell Farnham, who was also a prominent figure in the fur 
trade on the west side of the Mississippi river during the early 
days. A discussion of the ' ' Origin of the various names of the 
Mississippi river," by P. T. Thompson, appears in the Puhlica- 

^'■^ Beviewed in this number. 

11 Reviewed in this number. 

12 To be reviewed later. 

Vol. IV, No. 3 Historical Activities 351 

tions of the Louisiana historical society. Volume xvi of the 
JaJirhuch of the German- American historical society of Illinois 
contains, among others, an article on ^^The German element in 
the state of Colorado, '' by Mildred S. MacArthur.'^ Special 
mention should be made of the Official letter hooks of W. C. C. 
Claiborne, lSOl-1816,^^ in six volumes, edited by Dunbar Row- 
land and published for the Mississippi history commission. 


A considerable number of publications, other than those of 
historical societies, contain data of more or less importance 
bearing on the history of this region. The following books may 
be mentioned : Ahoy on the plains and in the Rockies and other 
stories, by William A. Greer (Boston) ; Journal of the suffer- 
ings and hardships of Capt. Parker H. French's overland ex- 
pedition to California, 1850, by W. Miles (New York, 26 p.) ; 
The Ashley-Smith explorations and discovery of a central route 
to the Pacific, 1822-1829, by Harrison C. Dale (Cleveland) ; Buf- 
falo BilVs own story of his life and deeds, by William E. Cody 
(Chicago) ; A soldier-doctor of our army, James P. Kimhall, late 
colonel and assistant surgeon- general, U. S. army, by Maria B. 
Kimball (Boston, 192 p.) ;^^ Land tenure in the United States, 
by C. L. Stewart (Urbana, 111., 135 p.) ;^® A history of the Aus- 
tralian hallot system in the United States, by Eldon C. Evans 
(Chicago, 102 p.);" The commerce of Louisiana during the 
French regime, 1699-1763, by N. M. Miller Surrey (New York, 
476 p.) ;^^ Household manufactures in the United States, 1640- 
1860; a study in industrial history, by Rolla M. Tryon (Chicago, 
xii, 413 p.) ;^^ History of transportation in the United States he- 
fore 1860, by B. H. Meyer, Caroline E. MacGill, and others 
(Washington, D. C. ) f^ Mine taxation in the United States, by 
Lewis E. Young (Urbana, 111., 275 p.) ; ^^ Galusha A, Grow, father 

13 Reviewed ante, 4 : 265. 

14 To be reviewed later. 

15 Reviewed ante, 4 : 255. 

16 Reviewed in this number. 

17 To be reviewed later. 

18 To be reviewed later. 

19 Reviewed in this number. 

20 To be reviewed later. 

21 To be reviewed later. 

352 Dan E, Clark m.v.h.b. 

of the homestead laiVyhj Gertrude S. Mathews (Boston, 305 p.) ;^^ 
Birth of Mormonism, by John Q. Adams (Boston, 106 p.) ; ^^ and 
David Thompso7i's narrative of his explorations in North Amer- 
ica, 1784-1812, edited by J. B. Tyrell (Toronto, xcviii, 582 p.). 

From their titles it would appear that the following doctoral 
dissertations (in addition to many of those noted in the writer's 
survey last year), reported in progress in December, 1916, at 
various American universities, touch this field directly or in- 
directly : * ' The history of the admission of new states into the 
union,'' by Lucia von L. Becker (Chicago) ; ^*The confirmation 
of foreign land titles in the acquired territories of the United 
States," by T. P. Martin (Harvard); ^^ Social aspects of the 
temperance movement in the United States," by Jane I. Newell 
(Wisconsin) ; ^^The Norse immigration," by J. 0. Hall; **Legis.- 
lative procedure in the several states," by H. W. Dodds (Penn- 
sylvania) ; *'The development of suffrage in state governments," 
by K. H. Porter (Chicago) ; ^*The state governor," by W. W. 
Hollingsworth (California); ** State administrative control of 
municipal administration in the United States, " by J. R. Doug- 
las (California) ; *^The woollen industry in the Mississippi val- 
ley prior to the introduction of the factory system," by H. H. 
Bass (Harvard) ; ^ ^History of manufacturing," by F. G. Craw- 
ford (Wisconsin); ''The development of prairie agriculture," 
by F. L. Cummings (Chicago); ''History of the meat-packing 
industry in the United States," by E. H. Hahne (Harvard); 
"Federal and state regulation of the issue of railroad securi- 
ties," by Mary L. Barron (Pennsylvania); "Outline develop- 
ment of state constitutions from 1776 to 1851," by G, V. Bur- 
roughs (Chicago) ; "The constitutional history of the Louisiana 
purchase, 1803-1812," by E. S. Brown (California); "Social 
movements, 1825-1860," by Florence Robinson (Wisconsin); 
"The public lands in the thirties," by Marie P. Dickore (Wis- 
consin) ; "Economic aspects of the campaign of 1860," by G. R. 
Bedenkapp (Columbia) ; "Recruiting during the civil war," by 
Osborne E. Hooley (Wisconsin) ; "The period of suspension of 
specie payments in the United States, 1862-1879," by F. D. Gra- 
ham (Harvard) ; "The liberal republican movement," by E. D. 

22 Reviewed ante, 4 : 252. 

23 Beviewed ante, 4 : 107. 


Vol. IV, No. 3 Historical Activities 353 

Eoss (Cornell) ; ^'The mugwumps in the campaign of 1884/' by 
H. K. Murphy (Wisconsin); ''The history of the independent 
movements in the principal cities of the United States,'' by C. C. 
Kochenderfer (Cornell) ; ''New England's influence on educa- 
tion and religion in the west, 1815-1860," by C. B. Goodykoontz 
(Harvard); "Organized railroad-booming in the Mississippi 
valley, 1837-1857," by E. S. Cotterill (Wisconsin) ; "The Men- 
nonites of Kansas," by H. E. Jensen (Chicago) ; and "The his- 
tory of Protestant missions to the Sioux and Chippewa In- 
dians," by L. F. Jackson (Harvard). 

The following articles which have appeared in periodicals may 
be listed : ' ' The veto power of the state governor, ' ' by John A. 
Fairlie, in the American political science review, August, 1917 ; 
"The use of private tokens for money in the United States," by 
B. W. Barnard, in the Quarterly journal of economics, August, 
1917; "The private coinage of gold tokens in the south and 
west," by B. W. Barnard, in the South atlantic quarterly, April, 
1917; "Manuel Lisa," by Cardinal Goodwin, in Overland, Feb- 
ruary, 1917; "Famous pony express riders," by E. N. Eeeves, 
in Overland, December, 1916; "Tragedy of the Donner party," 
by Alice Stevens, in Overland, January, 1917 ; ' ' Pathfinders of 
'49," by Mrs. A. Irby, in Overland, February, 1917; "Path of 
Hennepin," by Eandolph Edgar, in the Bellman, January, 1917; 
"Our preparations for the war with Mexico, 1846-1848," by Jus- 
tin H. Smith, in the Military historian and economist, January, 
1917; "A chapter from the Doniphan expedition of 1847," by 
I John T. Hughes, in the Journal of the United States cavalry 
association, January, 1917; and "History of the church of Jesus 
Christ of latter day saints, ' ' by Heman C. Smith, in the Journal 
of American history, July, 1916. 

Some data concerning the Indian tribes which lived in this 
.region may be found in the following books which have come to 
the writer's notice: Taming the Sioux, by F. Fiske (Bismarck, 
North Dakota, 186 p.);^* Poems from Sioux and Chippewa 
songs, by Frances Densmore (Washington, D. C, 23 p.) ; Myths 
and legends of the Sioux, by Mrs. M. L. McLaughlin (Bismarck, 
North Dakota, 200 p.) ; An old Kansas Indian town on the Mis- 
souri, by G. A. Chandler (Plymouth, Iowa) ; and Stone imple- 

24 To be reviewed later. 

35-i Dan E.Clark m.v.h.k. 

ments used by Indians in the United States and Canada, by War- 
ren K. Moorehead (Andover, Mass., 448 p.).^^ 

In the October-December, 1916, number of the American an- 
thropologist there is an article on ^^ Indian trap pits along the 
Missouri,'' by A. Hrdlicka. The July-September, 1916, number 
of the Journal of American folk-lore contains, among others, 
two articles by Alanson Skinner, on ^^ European tales from the 
plains Ojibwa,'' and ^^ Plains Cree tales/' Several articles of 
interest, written from the Indians' viewpoint, may be found in 
the American Indian magazine. 

About the usual amount of material on the history of the vari- 
ous states of this section has been published during the year 
under review, with the exception that the last few months have 
witnessed an appreciable but natural lessening of interest in 
purely local history as reflected in the number of reminiscences 
and recollections published in newspapers, at a time when the 
war is the all-absorbing topic of discussion. The county history 
field seems to have been pretty well worked ; at least a smaller 
number of county histories have been noted than during preced- 
ing years. No attempt has been made to list newspaper mate- 
rial or county histories, but the reader is referred to notes which 
may be found in the quarterly publications of the historical soci- 
eties of Minnesota, Iowa, and Missouri. 

The following books and pamphlets relating to the history of 
Minnesota may be mentioned: A description of the massacre 
by Sioux Indians in Renville county, Minnesota, August 18-19, 
1862, by Marion P. Satterlee (Minneapolis, 18 p.) ; Visitin' 
round in Minnesota, by Caryl B. Storrs (Minneapolis, 175 p.) ; 
Historical sketch of the Grand Army of the Republic in Minne- 
sota from its organization August 1, 1866, to August 1, 1916, by 
Watson W. Hall (16 p.) ; Woman suffrage in Minnesota, by Ethel 
E. Hurd (Minneapolis, 52 p.) ; The story of Minnesota, by E. 
Dudley Parsons (New York, 336 p.) ;^^ Our Minnesota; a story 
for children, by Hester M. Pollock (New York, xiii, 373 p.) ; 
Statue of Henry Mower Rice (Washington, 90 p.) ; Janney, 
Semple, Hill S Co., Minneapolis, 1866-1916 (Minneapolis, 62 p.) ; 
A half century of progress; Walnut Grove, Minnesota, and vicin- 

ZB Reviewed ante, 4 : 242. 
20 Reviewed in this number. 

Vol. IV, No. 3 Historical Activities 355 

ity, 1866-1916, by Charles W. Howe (Redwood Falls, Minnesota, 
56 p.) ; Forty wonderful years; Morgan, Minnesota, and vicinity, 
1876-1916, by Charles W. Howe (Redwood Falls, 64 p.) ; and 
Howe's souvenir history of Lamherton, Minnesota, by Charles 
W. Howe (Redwood Falls, 98 p.). 

Periodical literature relative to Minnesota history includes 
the following: ^* Glimpses into early northwestern history — 
early French forts and footprints on the Mississippi,'' in the 
Western magazine, November, 1916 ; ^* Wabasha, Minnesota," by 
C. L. Llewellyn, in the Western magazine, November, 1916; 
**The Minnesota historical society, an exposition of the impor- 
tance of its public work, ' ' by Franklin F. Holbrook, in the West- 
ern magazine, March, 1917 ; a biographical sketch of Alexander 
Ramsey, by Return I. Holcombe, in the Western magazine, 
April, 1917; and *^St. Paul, Red river, and York factory," by 
Aubrey Fullerton, in the Bellman, June, 1917. 

Contributions to the literature of Iowa history are to be noted 
in the following publications : Early days at Council Bluffs, by 
Charles H. Babbitt (Washington, I). C, 96 p.) ; On the campus, 
by Thomas H. Macbride (Cedar Rapids, 262 p.) ; Iowa stories: 
hook one, by Clarence R. Aurner (Iowa City, 138 p.) ; Recollec- 
tions and sketches of notable lawyers and public men of early 
Iowa, by Edward H. Stiles (Des Moines, 988 p.) ; Iowa manual 
of legislative procedure, edited by Benjamin F. Shambaugh 
(Des Moines, 223 p.) ; Six prophets out of the middle tvest, by 
Frank L. Mott (Grand Junction, Iowa) ; Lest we forget — Annie 
Wittenmyer, by Lucy S. Stewart (Evanston, Illinois, 8 p.) ; The 
W J McGee memorial meeting (Baltimore, 121 p.) ; Iowa troops 
in Mexican border service 1916-1917, by Dick Dreyer (Iowa 
City) ; and Potowonok: an historical sketch of Fort Madison, in 
verse, by Earle S. Smith (Fort Madison). 

In the pages of the Journal of history, published at Lamoni, 
Iowa, by the Reorganized church of Jesus Christ of latter day 
saints, there have appeared the following articles, among others : 
**The great handcart train from Iowa City to Salt Lake City," 
by Frederick Hansen; **The Mormons," by Alexander Majors; 
** Pioneer trails across Iowa," and a brief history of Lamoni, by 
Heman C. Smith. **A cycle of stories on Iowa history," by 
Grace Shellenberger, may be found in the July- September, 1916, 

356 Dan E.Clark m.v.h.k. 

number of the Iowa library quarterly, where there is also a 
paper on *^ Literary Iowa/' by Johnson Brigham; while in the 
January-March number John T. Frederick discusses ^* Iowa's 
contribution to middle western literature/' Articles of some 
historical value which appear in volume xxv of the Iowa geolog- 
ical survey are : ^ ^ The pleistocene history of Iowa river valley 
north and west of Iowa City," by M. M. Leighton; and *^ Phys- 
ical features and geologic history of Des Moines valley," by 
James H. Lees. The Proceedings of the Iowa state bar associa- 
tion for 1916 contains biographical sketches of a number of Iowa 
lawyers who died during the preceding year. 

Beginning in the January number of The midland: a magazine 
of the middle west, published at Iowa City, there is a series of 
poems by Edwin Ford Piper entitled *^ Barbed wire and other 
poems," depicting incidents in the lives of the early settlers in 
this western country. In the February number Nelson A. Craw- 
ford relates some Indian legends under the heading of **The 
golden dawn time." The January and February numbers of 
The educational digest, published at Anamosa, contain the fol- 
lowing historical articles : **A sketch of an old log school house 
boy," by Tacitus Hussey; ** Lenox college, the old and the new," 
by Arthur H. McKechnie; *^01d Denmark academy," by John 
Barnes ; and an account of the history of the Iowa state teach- 
ers ' association, by Homer H. Seerley. *^The uniform sales act 
and its effect upon the Iowa decisions and statutes," by H. C. 
Horack; and ^^The Webb-Kenyon law and beyond," by D. 0. 
McGovney, are two papers printed in the Iowa law bulletin. 
The Proceedings of the Iowa society of Daughters of the Amer- 
ican Revolution at the conferences in 1916 and 1917, contain in- 
formation concerning the society's activities along the line of 
the marking of historic sites. 

Books or pamphlets relating to Missouri history include the 
following: The bench and bar of Boone county, Missouri, by 
North Todd Gentry (Columbia) ; and The story of Missouri 
from the earliest times to the present, revised edition, by Perry 
S. Rader (Jefferson City, 219 p.). Doubtless much other mate- 
rial on the history of Missouri has been published during the 
past year, but unfortunately the writer was unable to secure in- 
formation concerning it through the usual channels. The 

Vol. IV, No. 3 Historical Activities 357 

same is true concerning publications bearing on Kansas history. 

Four books containing Nebraska history have been noted: 
Collection of Nebraska pioneer reminiscences, published by the 
Nebraska society of the Daughters of the American Eevolution ; 
Story of Nebraska, by Louise U. Mears (Chicago, 35 p.) ; The 
backbone of Nebraska; wherein is contained many interesting 
matters pertaining to pioneer and more modern days, by Eu- 
gene 0. Mayfield (Omaha, 31 p.) ; and The pageant of Lincoln , 
1917 J Nebraska; a semicentennial masque, by Hartley B. Alex- 
ander (Lincoln, 71 p.). 

North Dakota, history and people, is a three volume work by 
Clement A. Lounsberry (Chicago). The Quarterly journal of 
the university of North Dakota contains the following articles 
bearing on the history of that state : ' ' President Sprague ^s ad- 
ministration of the university of North Dakota,'' by Homer B. 
Sprague; ^^Law reform in North Dakota,'' by Joseph L. Lewin- 
sohn ; and ' ' The geological history of North Dakota, ' ' by Arthur 
Gr. Leonard. 

Two other publications touching the history of particular 
states in this field are : The story of Montana, by Kate H. Fo- 
garty (New York, x, 302 p.) ; and Pathbreakers and pioneers of 
the Pueblo region, by Milo L. Whittaker (Pueblo, Colorado, 
160 p.). 


The acquisitions of the Minnesota historical society include 
several thousand papers of the late William H. Houlton, a prom- 
inent business man of Elk River for about fifty years; a num- 
ber of books and papers donated by John B. Sanborn, including 
a manuscript report presented by Father DeSmet to the United 
States commissioners for the negotiation of peace with the Sioux 
Indians in 1868 ; the minute-book of the Minnesota soldiers ' aid 
society from June 6, 1862, to October 6, 1863; a collection of 
papers of Willis A. Gorman, governor of Minnesota territory 
from 1853 to 1857; a number of letters relative to politics re- 
ceived by Mark H. Dunnell in the late seventies and early 
eighties; a record book and other papers of the Clearwater 
guards, a military company of the civil war period ; several hun- 
dred letters and papers of the late Wilford C. Wilson relating 
chiefly to the eleventh Minnesota volunteer infantry; two vol- 

358 Dan E.Clark m.v.h.e. 

umes of business accounts formerly the property of John Me- 
Knsick of Stillwater ; and three volumes of records of the office 
of surveyor general of logs and lumber for the first district. 

The state historical society of Iowa at Iowa City has come into 
possession of some valuable papers of Leonard F. Parker, 
who played a prominent part in the educational history of 
Iowa; and some miscellaneous papers relative to the Mechanics' 
academy, an early Iowa City institution. The society has re- 
cently installed additional steel vaults for the storage and pres- 
ervation of manuscripts. 

The most notable acquisition of the historical department of 
Iowa at Des Moines is a large collection of the papers of the late 
William B. Allison. The work of arranging and classifying the 
papers of John F. Lacey has been completed. The work on the 
state archives is progressing satisfactorily, and each year more 
and more of this material is made accessible to the investigator. 

The state historical society of Missouri at Columbia has ac- 
quired four hundred volumes of central Missouri newspapers, 
covering the years from 1850 to 1899, from the Edmund Burke 
estate; and eighty volumes of Cass and Bates county news- 

The acquisitions of the Missouri historical society of St. Louis 
include a log book of the American fur company, containing 
records of the annual voyages made from St. Louis to the head- 
waters of the Missouri river during the years 1841-1847 ; manu- 
scripts relating to Kaskaskia and Cahokia, 1778-1798; manu- 
scripts relating to the civil war and the Spanish- American war ; 
the records of Company A, an early military organization in St. 
Louis ; photographic copies of manuscripts in the archives of the 
Indies, Seville, 1768-1791, and a number of early Kentucky and 
Pennsylvania newspapers. 

The personal letters and papers of the late Samuel Maxwell, 
Samuel Chapman, and Eobert W. Furnas, which have been in 
the possession of the Nebraska state historical society for some 
time, are being classified and arranged in such a manner that 
they will be accessible to the historian. 

The department of history of South Dakota has acquired 
copies of a Fort Pierre journal and some Fort Pierre letter- 
books ; and the diary of George W. Dowd, a private in the tenth 

Vol. IV, No. 3 Historical Activities 359 

Minnesota cavalry, during the Indian war in Dakota in 1863- 

Each of the societies has of course made many important addi- 
tions to its collection of printed source materials in the form of 
public documents, diaries, records, descriptions of travel, and 
the like. 

As was noted last year the historical societies of Minnesota 
and Iowa are cooperating with several other societies in the 
work of calendaring the materials in the archives at Washing- 
ton, D. C, relating to the history of the upper Mississippi valley. 
Each society has received a card calendar, and arrangements 
have been made whereby photostatic copies of the papers and 
documents may be secured by each institution. The work will 
be continued indefinitely, so that in time it will be possible to 
know what materials may be found in the archives at Washing- 
ton relative to the history of each particular state participating 
in the enterprise. 


Historical pageants, celebrations of important anniversaries 
in state and local history, the marking of historic sites, and the 
erection of monuments in memory of prominent citizens are year 
by year becoming more popular in the region under review. An 
historical pageant was staged in Laird athletic park at North- 
field, Minnesota, by Carleton college on October 14, 1916 ; while 
a pageant depicting the development of agriculture was por- 
formed in the stadium at Anoka, Minnesota, on August 18 and 
19, 1916. On August 22, 1916, at the Fort Eidgely state park, 
occurred a celebration of the fifty-fourth anniversary of the 
battle of Fort Ridgely. The organization known as the Native 
Sons of Minnesota observed the sixty-eighth anniversary of the 
establishment of Minnesota territory on March 3, 1917. 

The Minnesota legislature at this year's session authorized 
the appointment of a committee to investigate the feasibility of 
constructing a highway from West St. Paul along the Missis- 
sippi river to Mendota, to be known as the General Sibley me- 
morial highway, in honor of Henry H. Sibley. Late in Septem- 
ber, 1916, occurred the dedicatory exercises of the monuments 
erected by the state in memory of Minnesota soldiers who lost 

360 Dan E.Clark m.v.h.e. 

their lives in the civil war and who are buried in the national 
cemeteries at Little Kock, Memphis, and Andersonville. On 
September 20, 1916, there was unveiled a boulder which marks 
the site of a stockade built by the early settlers of Sauk Centre, 
Minnesota, during the Indian uprising of 1862-1863. 

Iowa Day was observed in the public schools and the state 
educational institutions with appropriate exercises on October 
20, 1916. The seventieth anniversary of the admission of the 
state into the union was widely noted in the newspapers. An 
historical pageant entitled ^' Louisiana'^ was performed at 
Knoxville, Iowa, on May 3 and 4, 1917. 

An effort is being made to secure funds with which to erect a 
monument near Story City, Iowa, on the spot where it is said 
once stood the first Norwegian church built west of the Missis- 
sippi river. The marking of the old Mormon trail across Iowa 
has been practically completed under the auspices of the Iowa 
society of the Daughters of the American Eevolution, while local 
chapters have taken an interest in the marking of historic sites 
in their respective communities. The general assembly of Iowa 
at its session early this year passed several laws of interest in 
this connection. The sum of fifty thousand dollars was appro- 
priated for the purpose of fireproofing the old capitol building 
at Iowa City. The Dodge memorial association was authorized 
to solicit funds for the erection of a monument to the late Gren- 
^ille M. Dodge at Council Bluffs. According to another law, 
the soldiers^ monument on the capitol grounds at Des Moines 
will remain in its present location, while a new site will be 
chosen for the Allison monument. 

Plans for the celebration of the centennial of Missouri's ad- 
mission into the union are progressing satisfactorily and the co- 
operation of people in all parts of the state is being enlisted. 
The seventy-fifth anniversary of the formation of Adair county, 
Missouri, was observed at Kirksville early in November. A 
number of centennial celebrations have been held by the various 
conferences of the Methodist Episcopal church in Missouri. 
The Baptists and Presbyterians have also celebrated centennials 
in a number of communities. Moberly celebrated its semicen- 
tennial on September 27, 1916. The golden jubilee of the Mis- 
souri press association was held at Kansas City about the middle 

Vol. IV, No. 3 Historical Activities 361 

of September, 1916. The Francois Duquette monument has 
been restored during the past year. 

The semicentennial of admission into the union was properly- 
celebrated by Nebraska. The exact date of the anniversary, 
March 1, was observed by the legislature and the public schools. 
At the Aksarben festival in Omaha in October there was pre- 
sented a pageant of Nebraska history, under the direction of 
Mr. John L. Webster, at that time president of the Nebraska 
state historical society. President and Mrs. Wilson were guests 
of Omaha on this occasion. The main feature of the celebration 
occurred at Lincoln on June 12-14 under the direction of the 
state historical society, the state university, and the Lincoln 
commercial club. The historical society arranged an historical 
exhibit in the city auditorium which was visited by thousands of 
people. Moving pictures and lantern slides depicting episodes 
in Nebraska history were shown. Lectures were given after- 
noon and evening by the superintendent of the society, Mr. A. E. 
Sheldon. The most interesting phase of the three days' cele- 
bration was a pageant entitled *^ Nebraska: a semicentennial 

The marking of the Oregon trail in Nebraska will be con- 
tinued as rapidly as appropriations for that purpose will allow. 
In this work the Nebraska state historical society cooperates 
with the various patriotic societies of the state. 

Due largely to the activities of Mr. F. H. Garver of the state 
normal school at Dillon, much interest in the marking of historic 
sites has been aroused in Montana. The Mullen trail, a famous 
government wagon road running from old Fort Benton, Mon- 
tana, to Walla Walla, Washington, has recently been marked at 
eight different places by monuments about twelve feet in height 
and costing from $1500 to $2000 each. A monument has been 
erected at Goodcreek to mark the spot where gold was first dis- 
covered in Montana. Nine markers, some temporary and some 
permanent, have been placed along the route of the Custer ex- 
pedition and the Bozeman expedition of 1874. About twenty 
camps and several battlefields along these routes have been 

Dan Elbebt Clark 
State Historical Society of Iowa 
Iowa City 


Life and Jouknal of John Sutheeland 

John Sutherland, the writer of the journal from which the 
subjoined pages are extracted, was born August 17, 1819, in 
Wayne county near Richmond, Indiana. When he was fifteen 
years of age his family moved to the northern part of the state, 
settling on land near Rolling Prairie, La Porte county, Indiana. 
That he could take advantage of such education as was afforded 
him is shown by his diary, for the entries through the final months 
of 1840 betray, as well in the improved spelling and grammar and 
the broadening vocabulary as in the recorded impressions, the 
influence which his attendance at the Michigan City institute was 
exercising upon him. He married Eliza Piper, a friend of his 
boyhood, to whom many allusions are made in the journal. He 
became one of the well-known men of the county, especially in 
agricultural circles. For many years he was prominently con- 
nected with the state board of agriculture, serving for a period 
as president; he acted for several years as one of the trustees 
of Purdue university and promoted actively nearly all local af- 
fairs of public interest. His death occurred on June 15, 1886, 
at La Porte, Indiana, where he had resided for a number of 

His journal, after having been preserved for seventy-five 
years in the family of the writer, was rescued from the flames 
of the rubbish-heap by Miss Jennie Jessup, librarian of the 
La Porte library. The first third of the copy book in which the 
journal is entered served young Sutherland as an exercise book 
for arithmetic. His struggles with the rule of extraction of 
roots, the single and double rule of three, and vulgar fractions, 
together with the miseries of composition day, afford an inter- 
esting insight into the type of instruction furnished by the rural 
schools of his day. On New Yearns day of 1840, with a grand 
flourish of capital letters, he began his journal. The allusions 
to his daily pursuits present a vivid picture of rural life in the 

Vol. IV, No. 3 Journal of John Sutherland 363 

central Mississippi valley during the middle of the last century : 
attendance at a quilting-bee ; the closing exercises of school on 
March 6; the protracted meetings of Newlites, where about 
**forty went on the anxious seats ;'^ getting out ^'floorens"^ of 
wheat and oats, for sale at fifty and eighteen cents a bushel re- 
spectively, ^^dull at that;'' the constant neighborhood borrowing 
of all sorts of articles, from ink and wheat bags to windmills ; 
the writer's exchange of a deerskin and fifty cents for a hand- 
kerchief; the mother's midwinter horseback and stagecoach trip 
to Cincinnati; and the daily procession of ^^moovers," who 
lodged with his parents over night. A system of shorthand 
seems to have gained the young man's interest, for whenever 
he ventured to confide to his journal allusions to his ladylove or 
other secret matters, such as the determination of the young men 
of his locality to raid the office of a locofoco paper in La Porte 
for the ^^Baudest filthiest scandloust pieces" he ever ^^red," 
he had recourse to phonography. But by 1841, evidently, he 
had lost his interest in recording the events of each day and 
seems to have made his diary merely an excuse for practice in 
the hieroglyphics, for the entire remainder of the journal, ex- 
tending only to August of that year, is in shorthand and covers 
only two pages. Strangely enough a key, tucked between the 
leaves of the journal, has come down so that with considerable 
difficulty it is possible to decipher the entries. The pages which 
record the impression made upon this young farmer when he 
attended the great whig gathering at the battlefield of Tippe- 
canoe in late May, 1840, may justly claim more than local in- 

Ella Lonn 

JouENAL OF John Sutherland 

(First mention). May 19. James Andrews was here to day 
to see about going to Tipacanoe but no positive arraingements 
wer maid as yet. 

May 20 I made the arraingements to day about going to Tipa- 
canoe Frederick Ives is to find a horse and me the other Mr. 
James Andrews the wagon 

1 Numerous allusions throughout the journal make it clear that grain was spread 
out thinly over the barn floor and threshed out with a flail by hand or trampled out 
by horses. 

364 Notes and Documents m.v.h.e. 

21 I went up to Mr Kellogs and got a silk velvet Vest cutt out 
lie charged 37 cts Mrs. Andrews and Mrs Piper was here and 
made the tent to, go to Tipacanoe the cloth is Mr Blackburn 

22 I went out to Porters and got me a palmleaf hat I went 
from there to Mr Ivess to see Frederick abot going to Tipacanoe 
he is not very well to day Mr Ives is going to Tipacanoe . . . 
frederick came over to Mr Andrews and we fixed it all out how 
we should go and fixed the wagon some Mother made my silk 
vest to day and lined my palmleaf hat with black silk so it looks 
quite sumptous I went up to Mr Drummonds to see his wagon 
over but it is no account 

23 I went over to Mr Belshaws to get some oats but he had 
none out so I went to Gallions but he had none so I came home 
and went down to Mr Eeynolds and got 2^ bushels of corn to 
take to Tipacanoe I made a feed trough to take along to feed our 
horses out of Mother and the girles have doneall of the dump- 
ling ^ cooking to day Nothin is wanting 

24 F Ives spoke to me about starting in the morning we ar- 
rainged it 

25 warm but rained considerable we are to start this morning 
after Breakfast it slacked some so I took Bay and went down 
to Mr Andrews to bring the wagon up Mr Ives came over with 
the beast shortly after I got their we harnessed up and I took 
the team up to our house to get our Dumplings and clothes which 
I did as quick as convenient and we started in the rane Father 
is not in much of a notion to going we stoped at Mr Blackburnes ^ 
they put in there clothes in our trunk then we went dov/n to Mr 
Andrews to get thers we had considerable laugh there we loaded 
up and started in the rane for Mr Ives Mr Blackburn caught up 
with us by Mr Browns we went up to Mr Ives put in his dump- 
lings and started Mr Ives took his wagon and went as far as Mr 
Mulkes there they turned back on the account of the city folks 
and laporte folk* was gon we turned of at Mulkes lane we got 
to the Bridge of Lemons 12 Oclock here we took our dinners fed 
the horses but they would not eat soon as we eat our dinner 

2 A very old settler has told me that this was a general term for victuals. 

8 The context of the entire journal shows Mr. Blackburn to have been the farmer- 
preacher of the neighborhood. 

* This refers to Michigan City, Laporte, and South Bend, places near Rolling 
Prairie, in the immediate vicinity of which village the writer lived. 

Vol. IV, No. 3 Journal of John Sutherland 365 

we Buckled up payed our toll and started on we caught up with 
the City and Laporte folks 6 miles on the other side of the 
Bridge we went in company with them to yellow river here we 
camped on the other side of the river about 15 minutes after we 
got ther the south bend folks came up 12 wagons they camped 
wher we have they had some bad luck about 4 miles from camp 
a tree fell on one of the wagons and come very near killing one 
of the men they think he will die yet his skull is considerable 
injured we all fixed our tents fed our horses and went t bed 
(one the musitioner got on the brig^ and played everal tunes it 
sounded very hansom about 12 Oclock some of youngster crowed 
others barked I did not sleep one bit all night 
26 we arose at 4 they beat they drum to order all to rise 17 
Lodged with us to night or last night we got our Breakfast at 
5 Oclock started 6 we left the other company and went as far as 
Judge polks we got ther at 11 Oclock we wated until the Judge 
fixed he is a going a long while we wer her the other came up 
they gave the Judge 3 cheers then went on to rochester for din- 
ner they are to wate until we come up then we are to all go to 
gather which was done we started from rochester abot 12 Oclock 
all to gather all hands wanted to go next to the Brig one of 
gentleMen from South Bend did not act the gentle Man he 
rushed up and would not let the Laporte folks nor city folks go 
nex to the Brig some of the chaps from Laporte Co rushed up 
to try if they could not get in next to the Brig but the south Bend 
gentle Man Bauled out that they were not agoing to Be run ove 
our company gave Back and let them go on we got along quite 
well this afternoon evry house we cane to the company would 
find out which side of Jug(!) they was on if whigs they gave 
them 3 cheers but if Democrats they hallowed like crowes and 
Brayed like mules or some other scornful nois we got to 9 miles 
hous this side of Logansporte here we camped it rained consid- 
erabl we all camped in the rode the roads are quite Bad this 
afternoon rough it is the meenest we will have after supper 
Mr Judge Sample made a speech for the purpose of reg*ulating 
the way we should go in to Logansport which was done by the 

5 Michigan City had prepared a * ' brig, ' ' a vessel on wheels, as its contribution 
for the gathering at Tippecanoe. This float was important enough to receive men- 
tion in several accounts of the gathering. 

366 Notes and Documents m.v.h.k. 

consent of the people we then went to bed some sang comic songs 
while others crowed and Barked we all rested quite well I slep 
toleralbe sound some 2 or 3 complaned of sleeping to sound the 
camp is full to night 18 I think Mr Blackburn and Mr Andrews 
got supper and No one washed up the dishes 
27 cloudy looked like rane but did not much we arose at 4 
Oclock Mr Balckburn and Father got Breakfast by 5 no one 
washed the dishes Orland Frederick and myself rolled up the 
beds and geared up the horses ready for a start all bans was 
ready for a start at 7 the marshal called us according to our 
Lots we wer No 7 the other teem was N 22 the Brig in front all 
the musitioner on it in this way we all went to Logansport the 
roads ar quit bad we had to turn out a number of times the mar- 
shal was on a horse and they way he ordered us was a caution 
I never saw a man act so foolish as he did he run his horse from 
one end of the procession to the other as hard as he posably 
could go there was no more need of it than nothing considerable 
many walk this forenoon for the roads was so bad 23 teems in 
the company the way we cutt up the roads was right rong all 
was swel to day we got with in 2 miles of Logansport when we 
wer met by a full band of Musick from town and 20 or more a 
horse to escort us in to town the musitioners got on the brig 10 
or more musitioner there was 19 on the brig most to heayy a 
load for 4 horses they played Musick all the way in town some 
of the Ladies waved there hankerchief out of the window we all 
waved our hats in silence one lady held the likeness of Martain 
Van Buren out of a window but No one countenanced it she was 
put to her best to hold it until all got by some of the gentle Men 
tryed to get her to take it in but No we marched in front of the 
printing office and the Mane tavern there holted and according 
to the marshals orders we gave them 3 cheers then marched 
around one squar and came up a little a past where we stoped 
be fore and stoped and done as we did be fore then marched 
acrost Eal Eiver on the bridge and stoped for dinner rather 
early only half after ten we took dinner only 10 eat dinner I 
went over to town I saw a flag in town quite comical on one side 
was Martain riding in a fine carriag down to the deposit there 
he had two men hailing out the money and putting it in a cart 
General Harison was standing of lookin on on the other side 

Vol. IV, No. 3 Journal of John Sutherland 367 

was harrison ploughing some of his hands making cider while 
others was picking up the apples we all started down the river 
every wagon went as he wanted to we went 16 miles to a place 
called rattle snakes run this afternoon fall the Man that drove the 
Brig got mat at Stewart and wanted to fight because some of the 
youngsters on the Brig Brayed at Irish demicrats but it was all 
settled in the evening one of the teems upset this afternoon in 
a mud hole and throwed the Marshal clear under and also Juni- 
gan Junigan he took his clothes of and Borrowed a suit of some 
old Man he looked some green Boy F Eeynolds and H Justice 
caught up with us 10 Miles on the other side of Logansport they 
stayed sith us Blackburn and Father got supper us boys tended 
to the horses 13 lodged with us took supper and Breakfast. 
28 warm we arose at 4 Breakfast at half after 4 James An- 
drews and I got it Mr Blackburn and Father Eolled up the Beds 
and the rest tended to feeding and harnessing the horses we 
washed the dishes and started at 5 for the Battle ground 14 
Miles every one went as he wished until we come within 2 
Miles of the place here we was to all stop and march in togather 
we stoped at the place fed took a bite we wated until all come 
up while we wer feeding the Lafiett Deligates came out to escort 
us in with there Log Cabben Drawen By 8 white horses with 
on line Drove we met them with our flags in ^ve wagons each 
wagon a flag gave them 3 cheers then they all came up wher we 
wer feeding Judge Sample ordered all but the drivers to form 
in a line which was done, and when the cabben came in front of 
us we gave her 3 cheers which made all ring the cabben then 
turned around came in the crowd and stoped 3 speeches was 
given on the top of the cabben to entertain the people until the 
Brig came up (but we did not get rigid so soon as they expected) 
|we all drawed for our places in the procession our county 
drawed No 1 we formed and marched with in i Mile of the place 
and stoped until the Brig came up and when she was in the cen- 
ter we all gave 3 cheers to the Brig then she came in front of 
our company the cabben was in front of all 60 wagons 40 a horse 
Back in this way we marched into place we made one balk by 
not going down in to, the crowd with our company it was a mis- 
take in the marshal it raned quite smart just as we wer going in 
we all camped in a row on the east side of the battle ground abot 

368 Notes and Documents m.v.h.e. 

3 or 4 Imndred yards from the fense people coming in from 
every part the roads are full as far as you can see 60 Wagons 
and 90 horse man came from Warren I never saw the Like of 
people such shouting as there was Beat me there was people on 
foot on boath sides of Road ^ Mile in Length thick as they could 
stand so as to let the people pass they cheered every 6 or 8 
wagons people came in all night speeches wer made in 3 or 4 
different places sky rockets wer sent up which was a great curi- 
osity to me They roasted an ox hole for the people but it was 
to long in cooking it spoilt we all cleaned up put on our Best 
clothes Father Brought James Sutherland up to our tent this 
evening I hadent seen him for 4 years a gra deal of nois to 
night all night Mr Blackburn and John Andrews got supper 20 
ate and Lodged with us Frederick and Orlando washed up the 
Dishes Remarkable pleasant all day we wer awakened in the 
29 morning by a tremendous firing which commensed about 3 
Oclock which continued about 2 hours such another stir I never 
saw the people kep coming in from every parts in droves some 
in cabbens others in canoes skiffs one from Illinois came in as 
a representg hard times in a gig. Withed all over with kickry 
the spring wer Buckeye very ornery horse poor old harness rope 
Lines on the horses hed was a Bucks horn the Men wer as Raged 
as could Be it was quite comical one company from union came 
in with 40 white horses all dressed in uniform good saddles 
Bridles and Martingals Wayn Co came in with a splendid Ban- 
ner not very many from this count, the Ladies from Indianap- 
olis presented the handsomest Banner that I saw I supposed 
there was 300 Banners all to gather there was company march- 
ing all day there was 2 companies Dressed in uniform of the 
neatest kind which kep quards around there tents all night and 
day just to show how the soldiers do when going to war there 
was one canoe 64 feet Long another 40 feet long this was Buck- 
eye it had a log cabben in front on the canoe filled with folks 
around the wal was shirts womeneses pantaloons coonskins deer- 
skins and some other clothin and furrs And a barrel of hard 
cider there is a cabben Built on the ground 60 f square with 4 
Rooms and two passways crossing each other in one of the 
Rooms was Bread Baked for the people free there was a much 
as two cord of it their was considerable Hard cider free some 

Vol. IV, No. 3 Journal of John Sutherland 369 

strong drink on the ground But not a grate deal I never saw 
the Like of people as there was today but not one cross word did 
I hear spoke nor but one man drunk he was not so but what he 
could walk strate I saw Jack Downing to day Jonathan McCarty 
made a cpeech and Doz of others sone sung harrison songs about 
10 or 11 all the people was formed in one line and marched 
them that came in wagons went a foot them that came on Horse 
Back and in canoes log cabben and other curiosities rode in the 
procession Flemen Eeynolds and I stood to one side to see we 
stood as much as | of an hour and they wer going By all the 
time 4 10 ina brest they did not all get by in that time when we 
went away they wer still passing coming as far as we could see 
we boath said it exceeded anything we could think of Flemen 
and Myself took a hors a piece and went down the wabash Eiver 
3 or 4 Miles while we wer on the rode that Led to the ferry we 
could hardly get along for people Leaving I was diverted to see 
the canes every man and Boy had a cane and ask him wher he 
got it say rite wher Davis or Spencer was killed I suppose ther 
was 2 cord of canes cout from of the ground wher Spencer or 
Davis was killed their was not 50 canes to found on the ground 
or not very near wher either of them fell but every Mans cane 
came rite from the place I got some canes from the rite place I 
suppose a great many are leaving this evening No principle cook 
this evening after supper we all cleared out down to the crowd 
I never saw the Like of the fire works as thier was here on the 
29 of May Night it was frightful eligant and wonderful to see 
James Sutherland and Myself went down to see it it was at the 
Lower end of grounds they sent up some 5 or 6 sky Rockets they 
went up 3 or 4 hundred feet there Bursted and went out they had 
som Bome shell or some thing else so fixed as to wherl around 
by the forse of powder which made an awful looking sight 
though splendid they had another fixed like a star when they 
touched it withe fire it run all over and Baced very nice at last 
begun to pop until all was out this was the greatest curiosity I 
seen I suppose ther was 50 Bands of music from Different parts 
I stayed out until 11 Oclock when I come to camp it was full not 
Room enough to walk. Father tryed to make Room for me but 
I could not only get My foot down so I got my coat and crauled 
in at the head of all and stayed all night on 7 canes a pare of 

370 Notes and Documents m.v.h.r. 

harness with my hed on a saddle with my coat over me I awoke 
2 or 3 times for day But no Daj^ though I went to Bed late it was 
a long Night 20 took supper 21 Lodged over night 
30th very pleasant all day very warm Mr Blackburn and Mr An- 
drews got Breakfast some of Mr Blackburns friends John An- 
drews and Frederick washed up the dishes we all went to see 
what was going on a good many are leaving James Sutherland 
started for Indianapolis the roads was quite bad when he came 
out not many from that county I saw James Morrison James 
Eeaves D P Holloway and some others from Eichmond we had 
a meeting in our part of the camps 

most of the people have left and the ballence are groing to day 
the city folk have gone down the river to give there Brig to the 
Knox county Deligates for guarding them in when they first 
came their was one solemn transaction took place this fore noon 
all the companies that had guns was formed around the grave 
wher most of the persons was buried Judge Polk sayes 49 was 
killed 40 Buried in this place the cannon was in the center the 
musitioners was on the South part of company they played one 
very solemn tune then the General Ordered the Rifle Men to fire 
which was done this they done 3 times with musick between 
every fire then the cannon fired 3 times with musick between 
every fire every thing else was silent several shed tears all 
seames to know the intention of there meetin then we packed up 
our things and Rolled up our tent and loaded up ready for a 
start we are wating for Mr Blackburn he went with the city folk 
down to the river he got back so we started at 2 Oclock went to 
Rattle Snakes run 15 miles from the Battleground we crosed 
tipacanoe at the lower ford it came with in 3 inches of running 
over the front part of our Wagons we had to putt all of the 
thing upon the seats it is very warm this afternoon 
31 very pleasant all day But extreamly warm all the company 
was for going on but Mr Blackburn he said that he would rather 
not travail and on his account we stayed F Reynolds and H Jus- 
tice went on they are a Horseback we longed around until 10 
Oclock there was a meeting about IJ miles we all went exceptin 
Piper he stayed to mend the tent Not many at meeting 30 or 
40 I suppose) they are Newlites 3 persons spoke 
June 2 (Reached home.) 

Vol. IV, No. 3 j^ Incident in American History 371 

The Attempted Seizure of the Zaffarine Islands 

In an address before the Koyal Military academy John Ruskin 
once said that the strength of a nation was in its men, ^ ' in their 
unity and virtue, not in their standing room; a little group of 
wise hearts is better than a wilderness of fools; and only that 
nation gains true territory, which gains itself. ' ' No nation has 
as yet adopted this principle as a whole, and our own country, 
although it confined its territorial expansion for a hundred 
years to the western hemisphere, contemplated a military base 
in the Mediterranean sea during the American revolution. 
While it would be perfectly futile to imagine what such an estab- 
lishment would have led to, yet it is an extremely interesting 
subject for speculation in view of the present war. We might 
have played a quite different role had our young republic suc- 
ceeded, in 1777, in seizing the Zaffarine islands and in erecting 
a naval base on their shores. 

The attempt was made on the initiative of Baron de Rulle- 
court, a Frenchman, who proposed the plan to the American 
commissioners then in Paris, especially to Mr. Deane. Previous 
to the submission of this scheme the baron had shown a disposi- 
tion to contribute to the success of the American cause. He had 
raised a regiment of 600 men and 17 officers, including M. de 
Condre, and planned to embark with these troops for service in 
the American revolution.^ Strange to say this military force 
never left the shores of France. Although Baron de RuUecourt 
was unsuccessful in this project his good will for America or his 
ill will against England — who knows his motive — led him to 
propose in the following spring a plan to seize and occupy the 
Zaffarine islands. 

According to this plan Rullecourt was to raise 1,000 men and 
to provide equipment for the fortification of the islands.^ 
Arthur Lee, one of the American commissioners then in Paris, 
gave the following warrant for taking possession of the Zaf- 
farine s : 

**We the underwritten Commissioners Plenipotentiary of the 
United States of North America do in their name and by their 

1 Benjamin F. Stevens, Facsimiles of manuscripts in European archives relating 
to America, 1773-1783 (London, 1889-1898), 13: 1364; Id: 1375. 
2lUd., 2: 144. 

372 Notes and Documents m.v.h.e. 

aiitliority take you into the service of the said States as Chief 
of a Corps which you are to raise and command, agreeable to 
the Plan by you delivered, respecting the Islands of the Zaf- 
farines understood to be disowned and deserted. 

''And we authorize you to fortify and defend the said Islands 
as Commander in chief of the same, and having agreed to your 
request to naturalize you and the officers of your Corps, as sub- 
jects of the said United States, you are hereby permitted to 
carry the Colours of the thirteen United States of America and 
under the same Combat and Vanquish their enemies. Wishing 
you health and success we are etc. * ^ ^ Money was offered to aid 
this scheme by M. de Aranda of Madrid and M. de Chaumont of 

At this time the war was scarcely two years old and neither 
France nor Spain had as yet openly espoused the cause of the 
colonies. The Americans could barely sustain an army at home, 
why then should the commissioners seek to obtain control of 
three uninhabited and disowned islands in the Mediterranean 
seal A contemporary writer speaks of EuUecourtfs scheme as 
an attempt to give the continental congress an establishment for 
admirality jurisdiction in European waters.^ American priva- 
teers were very active at this time in the neighborhood of both 
France and Spain, and many cargoes were coming from the seat 
of hostilities in return for war supplies and provisions from 
friendly foreign sources. When disputes arose over captures in 
European waters it often required an immeasurably long time 
to obtain instruction from America. A seat of admiralty juris- 
diction in the Mediterranean would furnish a convenient and 
speedy means for the adjudication of such cases and would 
greatly facilitate the work of the American privateers. If these 
ends could have been realized who knows but that another St. 
Eustatia would have appeared on the other side of the Atlantic ? 

But what was planned under such promising auspices proved 
in the end abortive. A survey of the islands brought an un- 
favorable report and this is a probable explanation of the failure 
of the proposal to mature. But it is difficult to reconcile this 

sibid., 1: 4. 
^Ihid., 2: 144. 
a Ibid., 14; 1450. 

Vol. JV, No. 3 ^^ Incident hi Aniericnn History 37'] 

explanation with the action of France and Spain in 1848. These 
nations recognized the vakie of the Zaffarines as a refuge for 
ships and both attempted to take possession of them. A Span- 
ish expedition reached the islands a few days before the French, 
seized the three islands and subsequently fortified the central 
one. Another probable explanation as to why Eullecourt's 
scheme was dropped by the American commissioners may be 
found in Arthur Lee's characterization of Rullecourt, made 
about a month after he had signed the latter 's warrant. Lee 
said the baron had done ^^all kinds of things" in Poland, and 
added, ^4t is not impossible that he may sell this commission to 
the English ambassador, who will incense the pirate states 
against us by giving them notice of our design to possess our- 
selves of an island which by its position appears to belong to 
one of them.''^ Indeed this was the recommendation of the 
English agent at Paris, Paul Wentworth, who, when informed 
of Rullecourt's plan, advised the British government to per- 
suade the emperor of Morocco to seize the islands.^ Whatever 
is the true explanation the fact remains that the scheme was 
given up, and with its failure the imaginative baron passes out 
of history. 

H. N. Sherwood 

QlMd., 6: 641. 
7 IMd., 3 : 250. 


The war of democracy. The allies' statement. (New York: Doiibleday, 
Page and company, 1917. 441 p. $2.00) 
This volume is made up of a series of papers, letters, speeches, and 
interviews, twenty-two in all including the introduction, prepared or 
contributed by English, French, and Belgian statesmen, professors, and 
publicists. The purpose of the work is to provide a statement of the 
position taken by the allies with respect to certain phases of the present 
world conflict, such as the rights of neutrals, the value of small nations, 
ethical problems of the war, the freedom of the seas, the problems of 
Belgium, Serbia, and Alsace-Lorraine, and the like. It cannot be denied 
that contributions from such men as Mr. Asquith, Mr. Lloyd George, 
Lord Bryce, Lord Grey, Mr. Balfour, M. Paul Hymans, at one time 
minister of state in Belgium, Mr. H. A. L. Fisher and Mr. Gilbert Mur- 
ray, come with a certain authority that commands immediate attention ; 
at the same time, it is also true that statements coming from such men 
are likely to be of an ex parte character. It may be doubted whether 
the interviews included in the volume are of sufficient dignity to have a 
place in a work of this sort; an interview always looks best in a news- 
paper, and its form is usually determined by the interest of the moment. 
It is also a question whether the paper on the death of Edith Cavell and 
the statement regarding the Lusitania medal should have been admitted ; 
they relate to incidents that have scarcely more than illustrative value. 
In a measure the same criticism applies to M. Barres' discussion of the 
'SSoul of France." Aher all the questionable materials have been 
eliminated, however, there still remain a number of interesting papers, 
the importance of which will be realized at once and will not be limited 
to the present. 

L. M. L. 

Descriptive catalogue of the documents relating tf) the history of the 
Umted States in the papeles procedcntes de Ciiha^ deposited in the 
archivo general de Indias at Seville. By Roscoe R. Hill, professor 
of history, university of New Mexico. [Carnegie institution of 
Washington, publication, no. 234; papers of the department of his- 
torical re«ear'ch edited by J. Franklin Jameson] (Washington: 
Carnegie institution of Washington, 1917. 594 p. $4.00) 
Early in its career the department of historical researh of the Car- 
negie institution of Washington announced that in order to carry out 

Vol. IV, No. 3 Jim. Descriptive Catalogue 375 

its life purpose of furthering historical research it had mapped out for 
itself a program which in the present state of historical scholarship may- 
be characterized as being equally wise and unselfish. This program in- 
volves three lines of activity : first, the survey of the principal archives of 
the world with a view to ascertaining what material of importance for 
American history they contain; second, the compilation of calendars of 
selected groups of the material pointed out in these surveys; third, the 
systematic publication of documents selected from the material thus 
pointed out and analyzed. 

Now that the first of these three tasks is practically finished, surveys of 
the great American and European archives containing material important 
for investigation in American history having been made by scholars thor- 
oughly competent for their tasks, and the results made available by the 
publication of guides to this material, the department has begun on the 
second task. Of this relatively intensive work Mr. Hill's Descriptive 
catalogue of the documents relating to the history of the United States 
iM the papeles procedentes de la Isla de Cuba is the first offering. 

The introduction treats briefly the history of the archivo general de 
las Indias and of the present status of work there, from the point of view 
of the archivist and the historian, and more at length of the papeles 
procedentes de Cuba-, in general, of their organization, arrangement, 
history, present condition, completeness, content, value; in particular 
of the Florida occidental series, the Luisiana series, the Florida oriental 
papers; it includes a list of the principal titles relating to the archivo 
and a list of the indexes and inventories which are contained in the col- 

The facts, brought out in the introduction, that 945 legajos were found 
to contain material which could be described as bearing upon the history 
of the United StMes, and that these legajos contain some 472,743 doc- 
uments and 461 account and letter books, make it easy to see how im- 
practicable it was to carry out the original plan of compiling a complete 
calendar of all these documents. Instead the legajo has been chosen as 
the unit of the description. 

This description is more or less minute and detailed according to the 
editor's estimate of the relative importance of the legajos treated: one 
class being described only very generally, as to title, period covered, ar- 
rangement, list of correspondents, a general indication of the subjects 
treated and the important documents; the second class being more 
minutely described, the description consisting of heading, statement of 
scope and arrangement, and *'an indication, in the form of calendar or 
otherwise, of the contents." 

The importance of Mr. HilFs excellent work is great in proportion to 

376 Reviews of Boohs ^- ^- H- R- 

the importance of the material treated, which, though obviously of value 
primarily for the history of that part of the United States formerly com- 
prised in Spanish Louisiana and the Floridas, reaches out far beyond 
these narrow provincial limits; it is invaluable for instance to the stu- 
dent of Spanish- American colonial administration, commerce, Indian pol- 
icy, and foreign relations, as well as the territorial development of the 
United States. The period covered is approximately from 1775 through 
1821, though a few documents fall on either side of these dates. 

The reputation for uniform excellence of the editorial work of the 
department of historical research is so widespread that comment upon 
the good qualities of Mr. Hill's work in this respect seems superfluous. 
The index is conveniently full and well arranged ; it has surprisingly few 
typographical errors, inconsistencies, or deficiencies in the matter of cross 

In the very nature of things, an absolutely satisfactory calendar or 
catalog or index is an impossibility; it is easy to pick flaws in the best. 
Yet whoever has tried to carry such a task to completion realizes too 
feelingly the difficulties involved, especially in dealing with a large mass 
of Spanish papers, to let minor shortcomings interfere with his appre- 
ciation of whatever it possesses of usefulness, or with his gratitude to the 
compiler for the spirit of unselfish service which impelled him to submit 
to the drudgery inseparable from its successful achievement. He who 
has passed beyond the youthful stage wherein he feels sorrow that not 
he, but another, has been the successful doer of a large task will feel 
personal comfort in the realization that he will not have Mr. Hill 's work 
to do over ; he who is impersonally interested in the progress of historical 
scholarship will feel an impersonal gratitude to the compiler and the 
institution whose joint efforts have made possible this step forward in 
historical study. 

Elizabeth Howard West 

The former Philippines thru foreign eyes. Edited by Austin Craig. 
(New York: D. Appleton and company, 1917. 552 p. $3.00) 
This book, dated "University of the Philippines, Manila, March 11th, 
1916," was first published in Manila in 1916, especially if not exclusively 
for the use of the public schools. The American edition is evidently 
printed from the same plates as the Manila edition, or duplicates, but 
with its better paper and binding and its more artistic title-page, it 
presents a much more pleasing appearance than the latter. An innova- 
tion, not often seen in modern books, is the location of the index (not so 
full as is desirable) immediately after the table of contents, which in a 
sense destroys the logical make-up of a book, although it is as correct 

Vol. IV, No. 3 Craig: The Former Philippines 377 

as the common practice in American and English books of placing the 
table of contents before the text. The first of the eight items of this 
interesting compilation (three of which are translations) is the most 
important. This is a new translation of Feodor Jagor's Reisen in den 
Philippinen (Berlin, 1873), made especially for Mr. Craig by a young 
German who was sent to Manila by the Japanese after the taking of 
Tsing Tau ; it was made by correcting from the original text the faulty 
English translation published in London in 1875. The rough woodcut 
sketches of the German edition, two short discussions on religion and the 
social evil, and all the appendices have been omitted. Jagor's book is 
one of the most valuable contributions on the Philippines during the 
nineteenth century, and Mr. Craig is to be congratulated on at last giving 
it an adequate English dress. It is especially valuable for its lucid ex- 
position of the social and economic factors that ruled Philippine life 
during the second half of the nineteenth century. Here occurs the re- 
markable prophecy so filled with meaning to Americans: "In propor- 
tion as the navigation of the west coast of America extends the influence 
of the American element over the South Sea, the captivating, magic 
power which the great republic exercises over the Spanish colonies will 
not fail to make itself felt also in the Philippines. The Americans are 
evidently destined to bring to a full development the germs originated 
by the Spaniards. . . A considerable portion of Spanish-America 
already belongs to the United States, and has since attained an impor- 
tance which could not possibly have been anticipated either under the 
Spanish government or during the anarchy which followed. With re- 
gard to permanence, the Spanish system cannot for a moment be com- 
pared with that of America. ' ' 

The other items in the book are as follows: a modernized version of 
Walton's State of the Philippine islands (London, 1821), itself a trans- 
lation of the work of the Spanish liberal, Tomas Comyn, Estado de las 
Islas Filipinas (Madrid, 1820), a most valuable account of economic and 
social conditions in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth century, the 
quality of which is attested by the fact that it met with the disfavor of 
Spanish officialdom; an excerpt from Commodore Wilkes, Narrative of 
the United States exploring expedition (Philadelphia, 1844), giving a 
description of ''Manila and Sulu in 1842;" an excerpt from the History 
of a voyage to the South Sea (Boston, 1823), by an American naval 
officer, John White, comprising a description of ''Manila in 1819;" 0. T. 
Mason's translation of Rudolf Virchow's Die Bevolkerung der Philip- 
pinen (Berlin, 1899), which appeared in the Smithsonian report for 
1899, and which replaces Virchow's "Ueber alte und neue Schadel von 
den Philippinen," published as an appendix in Jagor; and three short 


S Reviews of Books m.v.h.e. 

excerpts from accounts by English merchants of 1778 and about 1890, 
respectively, and the English consul in the Philippines in 1878. More 
complete bibliographical details would have enhanced the value of the 
book for historical students, and Mr. Craig might profitably have an- 
notated a trifle more widely. The items were all chosen because they 
show the more pleasing elements of Philippine life and character, and 
the book as a whole is an attempt to do justice to the Filipino by setting 
the comments of foreigners against those of many Spaniards, who have 
furnished in general the criterion by which the Philippines and their 
peoples have been judged. 

James A. Robertson 

Middle group of American historians. By John Spencer Bassett, Ph.D., 
LL.D. (New York : Macmillan company, 1917. 324 p. $2.00 net) 

In his admirable sketch of early history writing and history writers in 
this country, Mr. Bassett has been fortunate in striking upon a style of 
presentation at once lucid and attractive. This is especially noticeable 
in the first and last chapters where the subject matter has no intrinsic 
interest to the average reader. In this part of the work the author has 
been successful in bringing into juxtaposition a considerable number of 
scattered fragments and using them effectively in his discussion. In this 
he recalls that extremely interesting work on American literature by 
Moses Coit Tyler. Mr. Bassett shows the same ability to run through 
a rather dry category of names and, by felicitous reference and discrim- 
inating phrase, to keep up the interest of the reader. 

In his handling of the work of Sparks, Bancroft, Prescott, Motley, 
and Force, the author has been able to give us some new impressions of 
the period in which these historians worked and he has also left us with 
a distinct impression of each writer. There is none of that laudatory 
sameness so often encountered in ordinary biographies which blurs down 
the distinctive character of a man. We are left in no doubt as to the 
quality of scholarship and the sharp individualism that separates Sparks 
from Bancroft and both of them from Force. The author has sketched 
with considerable skill, also, the literary careers of these men, not omit- 
ting the various publishing ventures, both profitable and otherwise, on 
which they embarked. Altogether the volume has a personal touch and 
glimpses into the intimate life of these historians hardly to be anticipated 
from its title. It is to be hoped that this work will not be the last of 
the series and that the author will pursue his studies into the later field 
of history writing in this country. 

Vol. IV, No. 3 Dexter: Itineraries of Ezra Stiles 379 

Extracts from the itineraries and other miscellanies of Ezra Stiles, D.D., 
LL.D., 1755-1794, with a selection from his correspondence. Edited 
by Frank Bowditch Dexter, Litt.D., by authority of the corporation 
of Yale university. (New Haven: Yale university press, 1916. 
620 p. $4.00 net) 
The literary diary of Ezra Stiles, 1769-1795, was printed in three vol- 
umes in 1901 as one of the bicentennial publications of Yale university. 
Before he^ beg-an his Diary Dr. Stiles had been accustomed to preserve 
miscellaneous memoranda which seemed to him worthy of record. These 
notes he later designated Itineraries as being mainly gathered during his 
occasional journeys. Mr. Franklin B. Dexter, in editing the Diary 
incorporated in footnotes much of the Itineraries for the years after 
1769. In the present volume he has made selections from the earlier 
years, added some further memoranda of the later period, and as a sort 
of appendix has printed about one hundred and fifty letters to Stiles 
from some fifty different persons, all of more or less importance. The 
above description places the volume at once. It should be regarded as 
a supplement to the Diary, edited by the same well-known scholar, and 
published under the same authority, namely, Yale university. This fact 
is further emphasized by the editor's statement in the preface that one 
of the chief aims ' ' has been to include extracts illustrative of the history 
of New England, especially of Connecticut, and also of the personal his- 
tory of Yale graduates." 

President Stiles was an antiquarian and a scholar. Moses Coit Tyler, 
in his Literary history of the American revolution, said of him that "to 
be what he called 'a universal scholar' was his ruling passion," and con- 
cluded : 

' ' Thus it was, that as his life lengthened, and as his zeal for learning 
strengthened, he came to have some valid claim, according to the stand- 
ards of his time, to be called mathematician, astronomer, chemist, elec- 
trician, meteorologist, linguist, orientalist, antiquarian, jurist, theologian. 
Biblical translator and exegete." 

These extracts from the Itineraries are an indication, if not a proof, of 
Tyler 's characterization. They begin with a brief note of an earthquake 
in 1755, followed soon by a statement of a number of houses and of in- 
habitants in New Haven, with a calculation of the number of houses 
inhabited by one person, how many by two persons, and so on. Before 
long is given the price of silver in Boston in each year from 1700 to 
1750, and then the price of dollars at New Haven. In bewildering con- 
fusion will be found the valuation of estates and taxes for each of the 
towns of Rhode Island; the families and their religious persuasions in 
various towns of New England; the genealogy of certain Indian sachems; 

380 Reviews of Books ^- ^- h. R. 

the ownei-s of vessels in Newport in 1762 ; a statement of the exports of 
Philadelphia; the genealogy of the Gardiner family; the number and 
sizes of houses in different towns; the numbers of Indians, the size and 
plans of different Indian wigwams; vital statistics; lists of ministers in 
New Jei'sey, and lists of physicians in Connecticut ; prices of various food 
stuffs and of clothing ; numbers and lists of baptisms, burials, and mar- 
riages; many items on church questions and doctrines, and many notes 
on education, which naturally refer mainly to Yale, but among which are 
some memoranda that are worth while about Princeton and the univer- 
sity of Pennsylvania. 

That anyone should be willing to take all the trouble necessary to 
ascertain such things and keep a record of them is surprising, but fortu- 
nately there are such persons and the results of their curiosity and in- 
dustry benefit students of later generations. Most of these items, as in- 
dicated by the extract from the preface, are of local interest, but many 
have a general historical value. There is little of peculiar interest to the 
west. Some interesting figures on land investments and values, though 
not in the west, are given; there is *'A list of the forts upon the River 
Alleginie now belonging to the French;" and a letter from Samuel H. 
Parsons, of April, 1786, describes the ''big bone lick" in Kentucky which 
he had visited during the previous winter. 

An excellent index, complete as to names, should prove of great service. 

Maz Fabrand 

The female review (Life of Deborah Sampson, the female soldier.) By 
H. Mann (1797). With an introduction and notes by John Adams 
Vinton. [Reprinted as the Magazine of history with notes and 
queries, extra number, no. 47] (Tarrytown, N. Y. : William Abbatt, 
1916. 191 p. $5.00) 
At this time when the Russian women's ''legion of death" stirs the 
imagination, the Life of Deborah Sampson, "the only woman serving as 
a soldier, known to our army until 1861-1865," is read with greater in- 
terest. She enlisted in Washington's army, served one year and five 
months, faithfully performed her duties as a soldier, took part in sev- 
eral engagements, and was wounded, all without betraying her sex. 

The biography contains many interesting side lights on the Life of the 
times, in the home, in the town, and in camp, and these are supplemented 
by the present editor in lengthy footnotes. The verbose and grandilo- 
quent style of the editor of the original edition of 1797 detracts much 
from the real merit of the story, and no amount of editing can overcome 
it. The present edition follows the rare original of 1797 and its reprint 
of 1866, with copious notes and comparisons from the enlarged manu- 

Vol. IV, No. 3 Myers: Mexican War Diary 381 

script copy completed in 1850 by Herman Mann, and from contemporary 
newspapers and state documents. There are many discrepancies between 
the two editions and even between the heroine's signed statements, but 
every statement of fact down to the smallest detail has been carefully 
checked. The editor conclusively proves that the main incidents of the 
biography are authentic history, and as some of them in the past have 
been open to serious doubt he has by his demonstration performed a real 
service to students of the revolutionary period. 

The book makes a good appearance. It is printed on paper of excel- 
lent quality, with wide margins ; and it has a heavy paper cover. There 
are 191 pages, including the editor's preface and introduction in which 
he states the problems that have confronted him, a preface and an ap- 
pendix by the original editor, and a small index. Neither as a biog- 
raphy nor as a history can the book rank very high, but the editor has 
done his work so well that it will never have to be done again. 

Ruth E. Hodsdon 

Mexican war diary of George B. McClellan. Edited by William Starr 
Myers, Ph.D., assistant professor of history and politics, Princeton 
university. (Princeton: Princeton university press, London: 
Humphrey Milford, Oxford university press, 1917. 93 p. $1.00 
As a bit of first-hand evidence in favor of military preparedness this 
war diary is timely. It will likewise have a certain value for its self- 
revelation of the writer, later the general who was so captious toward 
associates and superiors, so beloved by his soldiers. One welcomes the 
brief, hasty, boyish, and at times uncharitable characterizations of our 
Mexican war generals, for they will serve as a necessary corrective to 
previous misconceptions. McClellan was a severe critic of the American 
volunteer in the forties, and justly so. Our civilian recruits did not gain 
the favor of either friend or foe, and their officers were even less success- 
ful. McClellan 's testimony concerning both volunteer soldier and officer 
is abundantly supported by the testimony of Grant and Meade, upon 
whom the editor has frequently drawn for information supplied in hisi 
footnotes. The description of campaigning on the border reads well in 
contrast with present conditions. Noting the frequency of hard drink- 
ing among the officers, one wonders if the demoralization of the volun- 
teer was not largely due to this cause. The diary gives an interesting 
picture of individual happenings in camp, on the march, and occasionally 
on the battle line, but there is no attempt to give the wider setting of 
campaigns. Obviously a boy of twenty could not give that, nor did he 
have good facilities for intimate sketches of the army leaders. But the 

3S2 Reviews of Books ^- ^- H- R- 

young lieutenant affords ns interesting side lights on an important cam- 
paign, his editor supplements the text with valuable personal notes, and 
the publishers present the brochure in attractive form. 

I. J. C. 

Reminiscences. By William Fletcher King. (New York and Cincinnati : 
Abingdon press, 1916. 716 p. $2.50 net) 

Few men have been privileged to give greater service to the cause of 
higher education in Iowa than has the author of these reminiscences, who 
for forty-three years served as the president of Cornell college. Born in 
Ohio in 1830, he received his education in his native state, graduating 
from college just sixty years ago. He came to Iowa in 1862 as a teacher 
in Cornell college, founded nine years previously, and since that time he 
has devoted his entire life to the welfare of this institution ; to him more 
than to any other Cornell college stands as a monument. His career as 
a college president is not only distinguished by its great length, but also 
by the unusual fact that he has been the largest single contributor to the 
funds of the institution, having given $200,000 toward its endowment. 
And the interesting thing about this large contribution is the fact that 
it wa^ all acquired by the author while president of the college, through 
fortimate real estate investments. To any one interested in the history 
of education in the Mississippi valley this book will prove both valuable 
and interesting. 

There are several chapters also which will prove of interest to the gen- 
eral student of American history. The author describes in some detail 
the frontier community in which he spent his boyhood and youth, the 
country school of the later thirties and early forties, the text books used, 
the country church and its influence in the community as a social and 
religious center. He tells how he was prepared for college, reciting 
Latin to his tutor, sitting on a log. His college course was interrupted 
by sickness, and he spent a year in the south in the fifties, where he 
taught in an academy in Tennessee. Here he had the opportunity of 
observing the operations of slavery, and of attending a slave auction. 
His civil war experiences also are well worth relating. The officers of 
Cornell college conceived the idea of raising a fund to assist returned 
union soldiers and their children to attain an education. In order to 
carry out this plan the author was sent to the Iowa regiments in Sher- 
man's army to present the matter to them and to obtain subscriptions. 
He reached the army at Savannah, and accompanied the troops in their 
march northward through the Carolinas. The scheme had the approval 
of the state officials, and met a hearty response from both the officers and 
men in the Iowa regiments; and Mr. King succeeded in obtaining nearly 
$30,000 in subscriptions to the fund. This experience gave the author 

Vol. IV, No. 3 Mereness: Travels in American Colonies 383 

an opportunity to make observations of Sherman 's methods of procedure, 
and his comments on the burning of Columbia, of which he was an eye 
witness, gives new confirmation to General Sherman's contention of 
innocence in regard to this event. 

W. W. Sweet 

Trav^els in the American colonies (1690-1783) Edited under the aust- 
pices of the National society of the colonial dames of America. By 
Newton D. Mereness. (New York: The Macmillan company, 1916. 
693 p. $3.00 net) 
In the selection of archival materials for publication in this interest- 
ing volume Mr. Mereness has performed a useful service for students of 
early western history. Of the eighteen records of travel which he has 
assembled fourteen are concerned in whole or in part with frontier ex- 
periences. On further analysis it appears that over half the collection 
is devoted to the neglected field of the southern frontier. This portion 
includes such materials as the journals of the South Carolina Indian 
agents among the Cherokee and Creek Indians on the eve of the estab- 
lishment of the march colony of Georgia; the report of a ranger under 
Oglethorpe during the Florida war, 1739-1742; the journal of the in- 
spector-general of Louisiana in 1722-1728; the narrative of a French 
voyageur made captive by the Cherokee Indians in 1741 ; the record of a 
French officer who undertook to check English intrigue among the Choc- 
taw in 1746, the period of the Choctaw ' ' civil war ; ' ' the journal of 
David Taitt, Superintendent John Stuart's deputy among the Creek 
Indians in 1772; and some part from each of the notable diaries of 
Lord Adam Gordon and Captain Harry Gordon, which cover the years 
of reconstruction in the west, 1764-1766. In these documents, and in 
Hamburgh's description of the Michigan-Illinois country in 1763; in 
Colonel William Fleming's two diaries of journeys to Kentucky in 1779- 
1780 and in 1783 ; and in the three Moravian journals of travel between 
Pennsylvania and North Carolina, the general reader will find much of 
geographical, ethnological, and social interest. For the special student 
of western history they will throw light on various aspects of the inter- 
colonial struggle, on the Indian trade, on the processes of settlement, 
and on the religious history of the frontier. The editor has iacreased 
the usefulness of the collection by introductions setting forth the pro- 
venience of each document and its historical bearing, by explanatory 
footnotes, and by a sufficiently full index. One can only regret that it 
was not found possible to add to this apparatus a few simple maps with 
iudications of routes and places mentioned. 

In the main the work of translation (entrusted to several competent 
hands) a^ well as that of editing has been well done. Most of the inac- 

384 Reviews of Boohs ^- ^- h. e. 

curacies noted have been found in the pages allotted to the southern 
frontier, and are to be explained in large part by the inadequacy of 
earlier research in this field and in the kindred one of the ethnology of 
the southern Indians. The date of the establishment of Fort Toulouse — 
a pivotal event in the intercolonial struggle in the south — is repeatedly 
given as 1714 (pp. 175, 200 note, 536 note), a year before the Indian 
rising against the English which made it possible, and two years before 
the Conseil de Marine actually authorized the planting of the post. 
Colonel Theophilus Hastings became, in 1716, the principal factor of 
the South Carolina Indian trade, not of the relatively insignificant North 
Carolina trade (p. 181, note). The extraordinary backwoods Utopian 
encountered by the voyageur Bonnefoy is rightly identified with Priber 
(p. 239) ; but it is an open question whether he was in fact engaged by 
the French to alienate the Cherokee from the English (certainly not in 
1736, for in 1735 he was already a resident of Charles Town) ; and in 
any case it is highly improbable that he was a Jesuit. ''Pierre Albert'^ 
is a copyist's error for "Prive Albert," i.e., Priber. Not "Kashita" 
(properly Kasihta) but Cusawatee was designed as the seat of the 
Saxon's communistic republic. The Choctaw revolution did not occur 
in 1735 (p. 259) but ten years later. Again, the reference to the 
Georgia-South Carolina Indian trade dispute (p. 215) is hardly a fair 
statement of the merits of a complicated intercolonial controversy. In 
the identification of Indian place names Mr. Mereness seems to have 
followed, wisely, the Handbook of American Indians-, but even this in- 
dispensable guide sometimes leads astray, especially when early eight- 
eenth century documents are in question. A collation of Colonel 
Chicken's journal (pp. 97-172) with the nearly contemporaneous man- 
uscript map of Hunter (1730) in the library of